The Green Revolution and Bio-revolution changed world food production. The 1940s–1960s Green Revolution increased crop yields to relieve global food shortages (Hamdan et al., 2022). The late 20th-century bio-revolution, the Gene Revolution or Biotechnology Revolution, used genetic engineering and biotechnology to increase agriculture and food supply. Globalization revolutionized agricultural and food production through the Green Revolution and Bio-revolution. The Green Revolution paragraph discusses the Green Revolution, its methods, and its effects on agricultural productivity, food security, and poverty in India and Mexico. It will also address this revolution’s environmental impact and social inequality. The Bio-revolution paragraph uses genetic engineering and biotechnology to improve agricultural traits and manage pests, illnesses, and climate change. The Bio revolution will cover GMOs, precision breeding technologies like CRISPR-Cas9, and safety, environmental, and ethical issues concerning genetically modified crops (Hamdan et al., 2022). Globalization’s paragraph elaborates on how globalization influenced both revolutions. Globalization improved agricultural output, food security, and economic development through sharing agricultural technology, skills, and resources. It will also discuss global trade and agricultural breakthroughs. The content contains a paragraph that discusses agricultural revolutions’ possible futures. Organic farming, agroecology, and precision agriculture may mitigate the Green Revolution’s environmental and social impacts. It will also examine biotechnological advances’ potential to boost agricultural production, nutrition, and pest and disease resistance, highlighting the relevance of safety, ethics, and public acceptance in biotechnology’s future. Globalization’s Green Revolution and Bio-revolution have enhanced productivity in agriculture, food security, and economic prosperity. However, they have also raised environmental, social, and ethical issues.
The Green Revolution and the Bio-revolution have greatly influenced world food production in different ways. Knox and Marston (2016) call the 1940s–1960s the Green Revolution, when modern agricultural methods and technology were deployed to enhance crop yields and alleviate global food shortages. The Green Revolution comprised high-yield agricultural types, synthetic fertilizers and insecticides, and automation. The strategy targeted basic crops like wheat and rice to increase agricultural production. Semi-dwarf cultivars boosted agricultural production significantly. The Green Revolution improved agricultural output, food security, and poverty in India and Mexico. Bio-revolution, also known as the Gene Revolution or Biotechnology Revolution, is a more modern agricultural invention using genetic engineering and biotechnology. Chui et al. and Kaur and Pandove (2023) illuminate this revolution. Bio-revolution manipulates genes in plants, animals, and microbes to increase pest and disease resistance, drought tolerance, and nutritional content. GMOs and precision breeding methods like CRISPR-Cas9 have emerged. Both revolutions sought to improve agriculture and food production but had different effects. Modern procedures increased agricultural yields during the Green Revolution, improving food security and economic prosperity. However, it caused environmental damage and socioeconomic inequality. However, Bio-revolution uses biotechnology and genetic engineering to modify crops. It may solve pests, illnesses, and climate change resistance. GMOs and genetically modified crops have raised safety, environmental, and ethical issues. Knox and Marston (2016) note that globalization affected both revolutions. International collaboration and global trade resulted in the transfer of agricultural technologies, helping spread better crop types, farming methods, and biotechnology discoveries. Therefore, both revolutions have changed global agriculture and food production, creating environmental, socioeconomic, and ethical issues.
Globalization has revolutionized the Green Revolution and Bio-revolution. Globalization enabled the Green Revolution by sharing agricultural technology, expertise, and resources, according to Knox and Marston (2016). It enhanced agricultural production, food security, and economic growth worldwide. Global trading in agricultural commodities helped integrate food systems. Globalization has greatly revolutionized genetic engineering and biotechnology’s bio-revolution, which has aided poor countries in providing adequate food to their population (Graham & Sabbata, 2014). Synthetic biology is useful in bioproduction, cleanup, and pollution management, according to Lorenzo et al. (2018). Biotechnological advancements in agriculture, healthcare, and the environment have been hastened by global cooperation and the exchange of scientific information and resources. Based on future expectations, agricultural revolutions will continue to progress and integrate. The Green Revolution enhanced agricultural output, but future initiatives will likely address its negative environmental and socioeconomic repercussions. To maintain food security and ecological balance, organic farming, agroecology, and precision agriculture may become more popular. Bio-revolution is poised to shape the globe. Genetic engineering, synthetic biology, and precision breeding may improve agricultural productivity, nutrition, and pest and disease resistance. According to Long et al. (2015), biotechnology applications’ future will depend on safety, ethics, and public acceptability. Globalization will also spread agricultural technologies. Global commerce, cooperation, and knowledge-sharing platforms to help implement sustainable agriculture solutions worldwide by transferring technology and practices. Globalization brought high-yielding crops, synthetic fertilizers, and sophisticated irrigation to agriculture during the Green Revolution. The introduction of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties in India, dubbed “Miracle Seeds,” in the 1960s and 1970s helped the nation attain food self-sufficiency and end famine (Hamdan et al., 2022). GMOs and other biotechnology advancements may improve crop attributes, production, and agricultural issues. Insect-resistant Bt cotton has cut pesticide use and enhanced yields for farmers worldwide. Therefore, sustainable practices and biotechnological advances will be prioritized as globalization promotes knowledge and resource sharing for food security and environmental sustainability.
The body paragraphs describe the Green Revolution and Bio-revolution and their effects on global food production and environmental, social, and ethical issues. The Green Revolution, characterized by high-yield crop types, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization, reduced worldwide food shortages. It concentrated on staple crops like wheat and rice, improving food security and economic development in India and Mexico. The topic is important because it explains the Gene Revolution that uses genetic engineering and biotechnology to boost agricultural output. It increases pest and disease resistance, drought tolerance, and nutritional content in plants, animals, and microorganisms through modifying genes. However, bio-revolution may solve agricultural problems, but GMO safety, environmental implications, and ethics are issues. The content is crucial because it explains how globalization can lead to exchanging ideas, technology, and resources, thus affecting the agricultural systems. It emphasizes countries’ food production systems’ interdependence. Therefore, globalization may improve food security and sustainable agriculture by spreading agricultural advances. World systems theory also applies to Green and Bio-revolutions. The paradigm emphasizes global economic and political hierarchies and power dynamics. The Green Revolution and Bio-revolution illustrate the world-systems theory by transferring technology and knowledge from powerful global powers to other countries. Globalization-driven agricultural revolutions affect the core-periphery relationship. The periphery of developing countries typically receives and adopts agricultural and technical innovations from advanced countries. Eventually, it perpetuates global agricultural power inequalities. The body paragraphs conclude that the Green Revolution and Bio-revolution transformed global food production. Understanding these revolutions and their relationship to globalization sheds light on the complicated global food system and the need for sustainable and equitable farming methods.
Chui, M., Evers, M., Manyika, J., Zheng, A., & Nisbet, T. (2023). The bio revolution: Innovations transforming economies, societies, and our lives. In Augmented Education in the Global Age (pp. 48-74). Routledge.
Graham, M., & Sabbata, S. D. (2014). Economic Globalization. Internet Geographies at Oxford University Internet Institute. Geography.oil.ac.ke
Hamdan, M. F., Mohd Noor, S. N., Abd-Aziz, N., Pua, T.-L., & Tan, B. C. (2022). Green Revolution to Gene Revolution: Technological Advances in Agriculture to Feed the World. Plants, 11(10), 1297. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101297
Kaur, J., & Pandove, G. (2023). Understanding the beneficial interaction of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria for sustainable agriculture: a bio-revolution approach. Journal of Plant Nutrition, pp. 1–29.
Knox, P. L. (2016). Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context, Fifth Canadian Edition. In Amazon. https://www.amazon.com/Human-Geography-Regions-Context-Canadian/dp/0321920163
Long, Stephen P., Marshall-Colon, A., & Zhu, X.-G. (2015). Meeting the Global Food Demand of the Future by Engineering Crop Photosynthesis and Yield Potential. Cell, 161(1), 56–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.019
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