The Clean Air Act, authored by Senator Edmund Muskie and Congresswoman Edith Green, was signed into law in 1970 by President Richard Nixon. The Act was sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Kuklinska et al., 2015). It was created to protect public health and welfare from the effects of air pollution by regulating the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from industrial and mobile sources. The Clean Air Act sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants, also known as criteria pollutants. These pollutants are ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The Clean Air Act also sets standards for hazardous air pollutants and limits vehicle emissions (Koman et al., 2018). Additionally, the Act requires states to develop plans to control air pollution, providing the EPA with authority to enforce the regulations. The Clean Air Act has been amended numerous times since its passage, most recently in 1990, to reduce air pollution further and protect public health and the environment.
The study by Koman et al. (2018) explores the potential risks posed to pregnant women from exposure to air pollution and the potential for the Clean Air Act to help reduce these risks. By analyzing exposure to air pollution and assessing the potential health risks posed to at-risk populations, the authors find a correlation between exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Furthermore, this risk is further elevated in the presence of social determinants of health, such as poverty, education level, race/ethnicity, and health insurance coverage (Koman et al., 2018). The authors suggest that the Clean Air Act could be used to help address this risk by targeting the most vulnerable populations through pollution control strategies. This could include improving air quality by reducing emissions from industrial sources and encouraging cleaner transportation. The Clean Air Act could also reduce air pollution exposure through improved public health campaigns and education. The authors’ findings indicate that exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women (Koman et al., 2018). This risk is further elevated in the presence of social determinants of health, such as poverty, education level, race/ethnicity, and health insurance coverage. The Clean Air Act could target the most vulnerable populations and reduce their exposure to air pollution.
The study by Kuklinska et al. (2015) reviews the air quality policies in the US and the EU, including the Clean Air Act (CAA) in the US and the Air Quality Directive in the EU. The authors discuss the key elements of the CAA and the directive of the European Parliament, including the goals and regulations, and analyze how effective the two regulations have been in improving air quality. The CAA, passed in 1970, is the primary piece of air quality legislation in the US, and its goal is to reduce air pollution and protect public health (Kuklinska et al., 2015). The CAA sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants and requires states to meet these standards. The CAA also sets emission standards for various sources of air pollution and requires states to develop plans to reduce emissions. The directive, passed in 2008, is the primary piece of air quality legislation in the EU, and its goal is to protect human health and the environment from air pollution. The directive sets the limit and target values for air pollutants, including particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. It requires Member States to monitor and report air quality (Kuklinska et al., 2015). The AQD also requires Member States to take action to reduce air pollution when the prescribed limit values are exceeded.
The article by Boubel et al. (2013) provides a comprehensive overview of the Clean Air Act and its role in regulating air pollution. The authors explain that the Clean Air Act was enacted in the United States in 1970 to reduce the emissions of pollutants that contribute to air pollution and harm human health. They discuss the types of pollutants that the Clean Air Act regulates, including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and lead. The authors also discuss the sources of air pollution, such as cars, factories, and power plants, and how they are regulated by the Clean Air Act (Boubel et al., 2013). Finally, they discuss strategies for reducing air pollution, such as reducing vehicle emissions and improving energy efficiency. The article provides a detailed overview of the Clean Air Act and its role in protecting human health from air pollution. The authors found that the Clean Air Act successfully reduced air pollution and improved air quality nationwide. They also found that although the Act has significantly reduced air pollution, more must be done to protect human health from the effects of air pollution (Boubel et al., 2013). The authors recommend strategies such as reducing vehicle emissions and improving energy efficiency to improve air quality.
The article by Kelly and Fussell (2015) discusses the increasing risks posed by air pollution to human health. The authors argue that air pollution is becoming a major global health issue and that it is important to understand the emerging risks of air pollution. They also suggest that the Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 in the United States, is an important part of managing air pollution. The authors point out that air pollution comprises various pollutants, such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. These pollutants can have both short-term and long-term impacts on human health. In particular, the authors note that long-term exposure to these pollutants can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses and cancer (Kelly & Fussell, 2015). The authors also argue that the Clean Air Act is important for managing air pollution and reducing its health impacts. The Clean Air Act mandates limits on certain pollutants and requires certain industries to install pollution control measures.
The Clean Air Act has enormously impacted air pollution and its threat to health. This legislation has been responsible for implementing safeguards that protect the public from the dangers of air pollution. The Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set and enforce national standards for six types of air pollutants, including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, lead, and sulfur dioxide. By setting and enforcing limits on the amount of air pollutants released into the environment, the Clean Air Act has helped reduce air pollution and its associated health risks. Additionally, the Clean Air Act has encouraged the development of new technologies that can reduce emissions and improve air quality. These advancements have allowed for more efficient energy production, transportation, and industrial processes that help to reduce air pollution further. By reducing air pollution, the Clean Air Act has helped to reduce the threat of health problems caused by air pollution, such as asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, and other respiratory illnesses.
There are several pros that arise from the Clean Air Act. First, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has successfully reduced air pollution in the United States. The CAA has helped to reduce the levels of hazardous air pollutants by more than 70% since its passage in 1970 (Kelly & Fussell, 2015). This has reduced the number of premature deaths and other health problems related to air pollution. Second, the CAA has helped to create jobs in the renewable energy sector and other areas of the economy dedicated to improving air quality. This has benefited the economy, creating new sources of employment and revenue. Lastly, the CAA has incentivized businesses to invest in cleaner technologies and energy efficiency, which helps reduce air pollution and energy consumption. This can lead to cost savings for businesses, as well as help to reduce environmental impacts.
However, the Act also presents several cons. First, the CAA can be costly for businesses to comply with, as they may need to invest in new technologies and infrastructure to reduce their emissions. This can be a burden for businesses, especially small businesses that may not have the resources to make such investments. Second, the CAA has been criticized for giving too much power to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which some argue may be overreaching in its enforcement efforts (Boubel et al., 2013). Overregulation could lead to a decrease in economic competitiveness and innovation. Lastly, the CAA can be difficult to enforce, as some businesses may not be willing to comply with the regulations. This can lead to a lack of enforcement and inadequate air quality standards.
In a nutshell, the Clean Air Act has successfully reduced air pollution in the United States and helped to protect the public from the health risks associated with air pollution. The Act has also benefited the economy, creating new sources of jobs and revenue and encouraging businesses to invest in cleaner technologies. The Act is an important tool for managing air pollution and reducing its health impacts, and its implementation has been a major step towards improving air quality and public health.
Boubel, R. W., Vallero, D., Fox, D. L., Turner, B., & Stern, A. C. (2013). Fundamentals of air pollution. Elsevier.
Kelly, F. J., & Fussell, J. C. (2015). Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environmental geochemistry and health, pp. 37, 631–649.
Koman, P. D., Hogan, K. A., Sampson, N., Mandell, R., Coombe, C. M., Tetteh, M. M., … & Woodruff, T. J. (2018). Examining joint effects of air pollution exposure and social determinants of health in defining “at‐risk” populations under the Clean Air Act: susceptibility of pregnant women to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. World Medical & health policy, 10(1), 7–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/wmh3.257
Kuklinska, K., Wolska, L., & Namiesnik, J. (2015). Air quality policy in the US and the EU–a review. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 6(1), 129-137.https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2015.015