There are a wide variety of difficulties that employees face in their work. For the majority of workers, anxiety is a common source of discomfort. Wolor et al. (2020) has connected this to a slew of professional settings and domestic duties. Job and homework aren’t linked, leading to stress and even depression if they aren’t handled appropriately. There is a correlation between a person’s career and their home life. As a result, tensions, inactivity, and an inability to concentrate may arise at work, contributing to a bad working environment. As a result, employees’ social, economic, emotional, and mental well-being are adversely affected.
As one of the most common sources of workplace anxiety, unmanaged work often hurts employees’ productivity. First and foremost, many employees have grave concerns about their working conditions, such as working weekends, job transfers, working hours, low pay, safety concerns, and being subjected to discrimination Obiageli et al., (2015). Responsibility and ambiguity in power are the third. Professional relationships are also a source of stress. Finally, the corporate structure and environment, such as crucial workplace transitions, communication standards, and participation in decision-making, are stress variables that affect the performance of employees. Employees may explain why they perform below the national average in many organizations.
International pressure on the workplace is on the rise. According to the Wiradendi (2020) survey, global employees struggle to balance their work and home life and other aspects of their private lives. Employee health was damaged by the stress of working long hours, family pressure, and a struggle to maintain a work-life balance. This means that employers are spending a lot of money on healthcare costs. A competitive market makes it challenging to retain top-notch employees, notwithstanding the substantial sales numbers reported by the companies. This study explores the effect of a well-balanced work environment on productivity in Hong Kong telecommunications companies.
- What influences the productivity of Hong Kong telecommunications firms of employees’ balanced working conditions?
- To study the effect of the Telecommunications Performance Work Leave Policy.
- To study the role of flexible telecommunications workers’ work arrangements.
- Investigating the role of telecommunications employee welfare programs.
The concept of work-life balance refers to individuals’ ability to balance their personal and professional responsibilities. Poor work-life balance can harm an employee’s health, productivity, and company performance. Most employees find it difficult to balance their personal and working lives. Most policies formerly referred to as “family-friendly” are now called “work-life balance” policies, even if their original focus was on families (Mendis et al., 2017). The word “work-life balance” has a variety of meanings for different researchers. In order to inspire their employees, HR managers must set standards for resolving conflicts in the workplace. HR managers should establish work-life balance policies, including leave policies, flexible work choices, social security standards, and family commitments.
Achieving a better work-life balance is critical for public and private sector organizations to retain their best employees. Competition, globalization, and technological progress have prompted companies to focus on programs that promote employee productivity, such as work-life programs. Employees are a company’s most valuable asset, hence “human resource.” Managers need to be more involved in their company’s goals and priorities to reduce employee conflict.
As a result, commercial and governmental organizations alike must respect their employees and promote a healthy work-life balance by ensuring they have the resources they need to succeed. In order to improve the performance of its employees, the UK Government took a leadership position in advocating for a better work-life balance (Adnan 2019). A study by the UK government found that rigidity and long work hours contribute to poor health, low family income, and decreased productivity. Most developing countries have yet to completely embrace work-to-life balance efforts, despite statistics showing that it is beneficial to both the individual and the company (Wolor et al., 2020). Several significant private enterprises in Hong Kong have taken advantage of Hong Kong’s work-life balance facility to avoid disputes between the working family and their results. This is critical in today’s fast-paced commercial world.
It has been claimed that a multi-day or hour leave does not affect an organization’s personnel. Research, family pay, medical vacation, parental leave, and yearly vacation are just a few policies that allow workers to take time off for various reasons. There was a correlation between vacation regulations and employee quality of services in the Wiradendi 2020) study. Over 31% of those polled felt that the leave grant was better after most surveyed said it was. It is widely accepted that a company’s exit strategy can significantly impact the performance of its personnel. In an emergency at home, such as a severe illness or accident affecting a member of the employee’s immediate family, or a close friend of the employee’s family, compassionate leave is available. The treatment supply for those unable to work helps people get out of business quickly. Still, the availability reduces long-term leave for families or ill members, so keep that in mind while making decisions.
Work remotely, flexibly, part-time, with a coworker, or by rotating shifts. Flexibility in the workplace has become essential in light of the rapid advancement of technology, the uncertainty of the market, the rise of single parents, and the rise in the number of women taking care of their aging parents. At the same time, many organizations have failed to implement flexible work schedules (Adnan Bataineh 2019). They say that increasing the number of staff allows them to manage and oversee their operations more flexibly. To attract the best and the brightest, a company needs to offer a wide range of flexible working options. Even when flexible working arrangements are available, employees should not use them unless they have a high level of career ambition, are of a certain age, and have the authority to do so. According to the empirical study findings, flexible working conditions are directly associated with employee success. After a thorough analysis, Mendis et al. (2017) concluded that while flexible work agreements have no bearing on organizational performance, they impact an individual’s potential. Flexibility in the workplace did not affect output, as measured by 31% of the workforce. Working from home has increased worker productivity by reducing overhead expenditures.
Quantitative research method
A researcher’s research technique is defined as the procedures taken by a researcher to complete a research project. As a result, quantitative research aims to gather data by quantifying and analyzing various variables. Statistical approaches are used to answer issues such as who, how much, where, when, how many, and how. Östlund et al. (2011) define quantitative research as the collection and analysis of numerical data to explain an issue or phenomenon, particularly statistical tools. According to the above definition, the first step in conducting a study is to identify and describe a problem.
In addition to using statistical tools to collect and analyze numerical data, quantitative research is sometimes described as involving quantitative methods. Quantitative research necessitates collecting quantified and statistically analyzed data to support or reject alternative knowledge statements. After a problem has been identified, researchers formulate hypotheses or questions for investigation, evaluate relevant literature, and conduct quantitative analysis (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). According to Addis, the use of experiments and surveys and data collection using pre-programmed tools are all examples of quantitative research. After gaining a fundamental understanding of quantitative research, it is essential to comprehend the difference between quantitative and qualitative research.
Types Of Quantitative Research
A population’s characteristics are measured using statistical methods, a scientific sampling procedure, and a specially prepared survey in survey research. It addresses questions like these:
- What influences the productivity of Hong Kong telecommunications firms of employees’ balanced working conditions?
The survey is a quantitative research approach that involves collecting data through questionnaires, the creation of such questionnaires, and the distribution of the results. Surveys focus on people and their thoughts, opinions, and attitudes, making them an ideal tool for social scientists like Park & Park (2016). Survey research relies on information that participants willingly contribute to generalize the findings to the entire population. Only then can a representative population sample be used to proxy the whole populace. In addition, three basic tenets of survey research are outlined. This phrase comes from the French word “survey,” meaning “to check over,” Merriam-Webster Dictionary says. For more information on the word “survey” means, consult the dictionary. Surveying is defined as the process of taking measurements and applying geometric and trigonometric principles to map out the shape, size, and location of a particular group or area. It can also mean looking at something from all angles.
Correlation coefficients are used to gauge the strength of a connection. To put it another way, the coefficients range from one to one hundred. ‘ Having a correlation coefficient of +1.00 or -1.00 indicates a strong link. There is a positive correlation between two variables if one increases in value. Higher values of one variable imply lower values; therefore, more excellent grades should be associated with worse outcomes (Duffy & Chenail, 2009). As a result, the correlation technique investigates how two or more variables in the same population are linked together. Using a correlational approach, this design explores the link between two or more variables by examining how one variable affects the other. To anticipate specific outcomes from a predictor variable, researchers use a second type of correlational design known as prediction design.
As part of experimental research, the study group receives therapy from an intervention, which the researcher follows up with an evaluation. Pre-experimental, real experimental, and quasi-experimental procedures are the three main categories of exploratory methodologies. In the pre-experimental design, an independent variable or a control group that is not randomly selected is used to control the experiment. Because of the superior control and validity provided by a proper experimental design, the Fisher & Stenner (2011) group approved it. A systemic approach to quantitative data collecting based on mathematical models is the outcome of well-designed experiments. Non-random selection of study participants is a feature of the quasi-experimental design. As a result, actual experimentation is impossible because of the lack of control. The study’s validity may be compromised since the variable cannot be controlled. Two or more independent variables are compared to one dependent variable in a factorial design. According to Queirós et al. (2017), experimental research is a type of study in which a researcher assumes control and maintains the essential elements that could influence the results of an experiment and predicts the conclusion of an investigation. A researcher’s hypothesis is tested using an experimental design, a synopsis that helps lead the researcher through the process of testing his theory.
Through experiments, one can learn more about the relationship between various variables and the outcomes they produce. For example, a person may do a simple experiment to discover the presence of gravity, whereas a scientist may experiment for years. The limitations of the study and the expected results and the analysis of those results This includes, for example, deciding how to operationalize the variables to be measured and which statistical method to use to answer the hypothesis or research questions.
Advantages of quantitative research
The primary benefit of using statistical data to research is saving both time and resources. According to Apuke (2017), quantitative research emphasizes the collecting and analysis of data through the use of numbers and figures. The scientific aspect of quantitative research might be considered a prerequisite. Researchers save time and effort by not describing their findings in detail; statistical data can do this for them. It is also possible to generalize because of scientific data collection and analysis procedures. It is possible to generalize one’s interactions with a single group. It is unnecessary to dismiss similarity in study findings as a mere coincidence. Secondary school scientific education problem-solving instruction can be seen as a sample of the larger society in terms of content, patterns, and illustrations.
On the other hand, Replicability is another advantage of this research strategy. It is not necessary for the researcher to make clever guesses but rather to follow a set of explicit principles and objectives (Lynham, 2002). Since it has a precise aim and rules, this form of research may be replicated at any time or place to acquire the same results, making it ideal for general or public usage. Furthermore, the employment of control and study groups is permissible under this research strategy. The researcher may use control groups to divide the participants into groups and give them the same instruction but various teaching approaches, considering the aspects he is examining. By testing students’ problem-solving skills after each lesson, the researcher can determine which teaching strategies have the most positive effects on their capacity to solve problems.
Challenges of Quantitative method
The primary benefit of using statistical data to research is saving both time and resources. According to Holton & Burnett (2005), quantitative research emphasizes the collecting and analysis of data through the use of numbers and figures. The scientific aspect of quantitative research might be considered a prerequisite. Researchers save time and effort by not describing their findings in detail; statistical data can do this for them. It is also possible to generalize because of scientific data collection and analysis (Lazaraton, 2005). It is possible to generalize one’s interactions with a single group. It is unnecessary to dismiss similarity in study findings as a mere coincidence. Secondary school scientific education problem-solving instruction can be seen as a sample of the larger society in terms of content, patterns, and illustrations.
On the other hand, Replicability is another advantage of this research strategy. It is unnecessary for the researcher to make clever guesses but rather to follow explicit principles and objectives. Since it has a clear aim and rules, this form of research may be replicated at any time or place to acquire the same results, making it ideal for general or public usage (Dimitrov, 2008). Furthermore, the employment of control and study groups is permissible under this research strategy. The researcher may use control groups to divide the participants into groups and give them the same instruction but various teaching approaches, considering the aspects he is examining. By testing students’ problem-solving skills after each lesson, the researcher can determine which teaching strategies have the most positive effects on their capacity to solve problems.
Qualitative research methods
An open-ended and conversational approach to gathering data is what is meant by the term “qualitative” research in the context of market research. People’s thoughts aren’t just about “what” they believe, but also “why.” Convenience shop patronage could be an example of this. There has been a noticeable increase in the number of guys shopping at this establishment (Hennink et al., 2020). An in-depth interview of potential customers in the category is an excellent way to discover why ladies weren’t shopping there. For example, after interviewing female customers, visiting nearby stores and malls, and selecting them through random sampling, it was discovered that the store does not have enough items for women (Sofaer, 2002). Thus fewer women were visiting the store, which was only understood by personally interacting with them and understanding why they didn’t see the store because there were more male products than female ones. Psychology, sociology, and anthropology are among the social science fields on which qualitative research is founded. On the other hand, qualitative research approaches allow interviewers and researchers to dig deeper and ask more probing questions of participants depending on their responses. Market research can be improved by learning more about your target audience’s decision-making process.
It is evident from this definition that qualitative research includes all of the instruments necessary to elicit recollection, which is essential to solving problems. Data is gathered from participants in their natural habitats using qualitative data tools like observation, open-ended questions, in-depth audio or video interviews, and field notes (Neale et al., (2005). In order to have a complete picture of the research, data collection methods must be used. Qualitative research, emphasizing participant observation and small group interaction, provides a more in-depth look at human behavior. Because of this, qualitative research provides a wealth of information about actual people and events.
Second, qualitative research employs a data retrieval system that is thought to be one of a kind. Quality research is particularly well-suited for delivering factual and descriptive data. It relies on the researcher acting as an instrument to collect non-numerical primary data such as words and pictures. The third advantage of this research strategy is that theory is born out of the analysis of evidence (Liamputtong & Ezzy, 2005). Researchers have used terminology like “investigative, DIY, and bottom-up” to describe the uniqueness and independence of qualitative research. It is possible for a researcher to develop and restructure ideas, depending on his evidence, rather than testing data that has been provided elsewhere. Even if there is little or no information about the participants, their expressions and experiences can still be deciphered.
Qualitative research also considers the social context in which people think and act and a wide range of phenomena to comprehend and appreciate them fully. An in-depth assessment of phenomena allows for a complete study of human behavior, including interactions, thought, reasoning, composition, and conventions. In this strategy, the researcher and participants form a close relationship, making it easy to influence the study process. This, on the other hand, accounts for a great deal of the understanding of experiences as its participants regard themselves and experience as unified.
Types of qualitative methods
Interviews are one of the most often used methods for conducting in-depth qualitative research studies. One respondent is interviewed at a time in a one-on-one setting. This is a conversational strategy that encourages the respondent to provide more information. A major advantage of this strategy is getting exact data on what people believe and their reasons (Moen, 2015). Asking the proper questions can aid the researcher in collecting valuable data if they are experienced. Researchers should ask such follow-up questions to help them obtain extra information if they require it. They can be conducted in person or over the phone and can run anything from 30 minutes to two hours or even more. Face-to-face in-depth interviews provide a better opportunity to read the respondents’ body language and match their responses.
- Focus groups
In addition to qualitative research methodologies, focus groups are also often utilized to collect data. Six to ten people from your target demographic typically make up a focus group. Many questions need to be addressed, and this focus group is a great place to start. One of the advantages of focus groups is that you don’t necessarily need to meet face-to-face with the participants (Given, 2008). In today’s world, focus groups can be polled electronically using various technologies. The results can be collected in a flash. Focus groups are more expensive than other online qualitative research approaches because they include more participants. Typically, they’re utilized to break down more complicated procedures. Market research on new products and concepts can benefit significantly from this strategy.
In addition to qualitative research methodologies, focus groups are also often utilized to collect data. Six to ten people from your target demographic typically make up a focus group. Many questions need to be addressed, and this focus group is a great place to start. One of the advantages of focus groups is that you don’t necessarily need to meet face-to-face with the participants (Liamputtong 2020). In today’s world, focus groups can be polled electronically using various technologies. The results can be collected in a flash. Focus groups are more expensive than other online qualitative research approaches because they include more participants. Typically, they’re utilized to break down more complicated procedures. Market research on new products and concepts can benefit significantly from this strategy.
Challenges of qualitative methods
There are still some doubts about the effectiveness of using a qualitative research approach to study problem-solving instruction in secondary school science curricula. According to Cypress (2018), Qualitative researchers see the social world as dynamic rather than static. Accordingly, rather than generalizing, they focus their findings on a specific set of people. Problem-solving instruction in secondary school science education is likely covered by the research method used in this investigation. If the study’s findings are representative of a larger population, a qualitative approach may have been the best option. Another issue with qualitative research is that it is difficult to reproduce (Hennink et al., 2020). Constructivist critics claim that this technique of inquiry and study has abandoned scientific methods and procedures. The approach’s users are accused of writing fiction because they cannot check their claims. Compared to quantifiable figures, the process is unreliable because it relies on subjective reports and sentiments.
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