Need a perfect paper? Place your first order and save 5% with this code:   SAVE5NOW

Examining Factors That May Influence the Productivity of Business Managers in the It Industry Working From Home During the COVID-19 Pandemic


The research aims to assess factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working at home while the COVID-19 outbreak is ongoing. The Epidemic of COVID 19 has imposed several changes in the business industries, and changing the employees’ work patterns can be considered one of the significant changes. Due to the lockdown and social distancing protocol, many employees of every business sector were stipulated to work from home. For this research, qualitative primary research and interview have been conducted. It has been found that the productivity of managers in the I.T. sectors has been adversely affected due to Working from Home. A range of critical factors is affecting managers’ productivity in the I.T. sector. Many managers oppose the concept of working from home.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1:1 Chapter overview

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2020) refers to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a contagious illness (WHO, 2020). The WHO declared the COVID-19 virus to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020. WHO, 2020). As of May 5, 2021, thirteen million nine hundred fifty-four thousand four hundred ninety-one confirmed cases of COVID-19 had been reported globally. World Health Organization (WHO), 2021). Others assert that the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered society and will continue to do so. The business and industrial closures required to stop the global spread of the Corona virus have presented several challenges for employers and employees. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 Pandemic, businesses and organisations have established numerous working practices worldwide. According to Blumberg & Pringle (1982), some businesses and organizations have mandated that their employees work from home due to corporate policy requirements or the declaration of a national emergency. Other employees have also been allowed to work remotely (WFH), in an office, or through hybrid working (H.W.). Depending on various factors, each of these three occupations has advantages and disadvantages for employees.

Passage et al. study . ‘s list a couple of benefits of telecommuting, including the capacity to pick your timetable, the ability to wear more agreeable work clothing, and the shortfall of a drive to the workplace. Additionally mentioned as disadvantages of working in an office are these elements. Further impediments of telecommuting incorporate missed social associations, an absence of balance between serious and fun activities, and a more terrible work space at home, as per Portage et al. The advantages of working in an office include these aspects. Since there is no standard hybrid arrangement and each has its unique dynamics, it is impossible to list the advantages and disadvantages of hybrid working arrangements (Blumberg & Pringle, 1982).

Information technology (IT) departments and business teams rely on project managers to ensure that IT projects are completed on time and within budget. Establishing communication with the team, organization, and stakeholders, keeping the project on track, spotting dangers, assigning tasks to project participants and monitoring their performance, managing money and other resources, and delivering deliverables on time are among their responsibilities.

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered how we live and work, forcing many businesses to adapt to remote work arrangements in order to maintain company continuity. While some businesses have succeeded, others have struggled to maintain output throughout this time. Managers in the information technology industry are among those confronting the particular challenges of managing remote teams. (Kaur et al., 2021) The purpose of this study is to investigate the variables that have the potential to influence the effectiveness of IT business managers. During the COVID-19 pandemic, sector employees worked remotely. The objectives of this study are to gain a deeper comprehension of the challenges that these managers face, the factors that have the potential to improve or hinder their productivity, and the strategies that they employ when managing their teams remotely. The study aims to shed light on how businesses can assist managers more effectively during these trying times and maintain productivity while adjusting to new working practices by addressing this research issue.

1:2 Research background

When COVID-19 first emerged, a number of businesses and organizations were already using WFH, allowing its employees independence. WFH is not unusual in any way. O’Hara (2014) says that technology that reduces travel time and increases output makes working remotely possible. Flexibility, independence, and the ease of working from home are among the WFHoffer benefits offered to its employees. According to Blomberg & Pringle (1982), the COVID-19 Epidemic has altered organizations’ prior perceptions of the WFH and its efficacy. If COVID-19 continues to rise nationwide, particularly in Google’s home state of California, the company will probably continue to allow employees to work remotely and alter some of its reopening plans. Twitter, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft have all stated that they intend to allow employees to work from home.

A worker who works from home, according to Shamir and Salomon (1985), may have more freedom to choose their working hours and schedule: The Indian I.T. follows the directive of the government (Bentler, 1990). During the lockdown, sector required employees to “Work from Home” (WFH). As a result, 90% of workers worked from home, with 65% doing so from homes in big cities and 35% from places in smaller ones. According to Golden (2008), over 8% of workers who regularly work from home claim to be able to provide better care for their children. Any work-related activity performed at home is referred to as “work at home,” regardless of whether the worker is an employer-employee or self-employed. Duxbury et al. () found that computer-supported extra Work at home increased autonomy and control. 1996) found that SWAH was related with diminished work struggle. According to Desanctis (1984), the employee may feel more autonomous as a result of less direct homework supervision and more flexibility in working hours. According to Bendor-Samuel (2020), working from home enables businesses to access talent sources outside of their central office locations, reduce real-time costs, increase the talent they can recruit and retain, and reduce real-time costs. Although working from home will not become increasingly common, Olson and Prumps (1984) discovered that 35% of workers work from homes in smaller cities. According to Golden (2008), over 8% of workers who regularly work from home claim to be able to provide better care for their children.

Many businesses have been forced to implement remote work policies as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a significant impact on management and output. In the I.T. industry, which primarily relies on technology and remote communication, business managers have had to quickly adjust to managing employees who work from home while maintaining high levels of productivity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). While some businesses have successfully adapted to this new setting, others have required assistance to deal with the challenges of remote employment. The Epidemic has prompted the need for research into the factors that influence the productivity of IT managers. Productivity can be affected in this situation by a variety of factors, including the ability of managers to direct and assist their teams, the participation and communication of team members, access to resources and technology, and so on. By gaining a better understanding of these aspects and the ways in which they affect productivity, businesses can come up with plans to help their managers perform better in a remote work environment and to support them.

Understanding the troubles and benefits of overseeing remote groups is significant given the Pandemic’s proceeding with nature and the likelihood that remote work plans will stay a crucial part of the I.T (Babar and Pramanik, 2020). sector. This study aims to expand this knowledge by examining the variables that affect productivity among I.T. industry business managers working from home during the COVID-19 Epidemic. The research attempts to uncover these aspects and provide insights that may assist organizations in improving their remote work arrangements in order to assist managers in this challenging situation.

1:3 Research rationale

Even though much research has been done to look into how working from home affects employee productivity, substantial data shows that this new way of working still needs to be fully understood. Working from home has a mixed record regarding productivity, according to the conclusions of the many studies that have been done and are still being done on the topic. As a result, although multiple studies have examined the effect of working from their own space on workers’ productivity, there have yet to be published results. This necessitates more research to supplement the existing studies.

The study evaluates these I.T. managers’ productivity explicitly when working from home to see whether there are any notable differences (Anitha, 2014). The report aims to bring vital new data to what is already known about the subject by considering corporate managers’ studies. Since most studies in the past have not included people in managerial roles, this study will likely offer substantial supporting data. Furthermore, research on the impact of working remotely and its impact on company managers’ productivity in the I.T. sector is still in its infancy. Although there have been many articles on the effects of working from home, most of them have been broad essays in magazines and newspapers. There have been few papers on the subject in peer-reviewed journals. Hence there is a pressing need for scientific research on the subject. As a result, the present study will not only add to the image of acknowledgment about the effects of working from home on workers, but it will also provide a more thorough analysis of how working from home affects business managers’ productivity in the I.T. sector.

1:4 Aims and objectives

This study aims to assess factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

The objectives of this research are as follows:

  • To investigate the impact of work engagement on the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home.
  • To explore the productivity model for business managers working from home in the I.T. industry.
  • To assess the challenges faced by business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home and how these challenges affect their productivity.
  • To identify strategies organizations use to increase the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry during Work from home.

1:5 Scope of the research

The Scope of the research is limited to the reflective opinion of the managers of U.K. I.T. firms. This paper lacks an analysis of managerial data from the direct database of any organization. The Scope of this study is also limited to the analysis of the existing situation along with interpreting the possible factors and actors imposing an impact on the performance of I.T. management in work-from-home settings. Therefore in this study, business framework has yet to be developed.

1:6 Structure of the research

This research paper is segregated into five chapters. The first chapter serves as the introduction, where the research topic, its key objectives, and the Scope of the study are all discussed. Chapter two delves into a literature review, examining relevant literature on the subject matter. The third chapter is a methodology where the methods used for this study have been discussed. The fourth chapter presents the findings and addresses gaps identified in the literature review. The fifth and final chapter is the Conclusion. In this section, the researcher has assessed whether all the objectives are being addressed or not, along with highlighting the limitations and future Scope of the research.

Chapter 2: Literature review

Theories applicable

2:1 The Happy Productive Worker Thesis (HPWT) Model

The HPWT model, which Kahn first proposed in 1990, states that contented workers are more likely to be interested in their jobs, thereby increasing productivity. Meaningfulness, 2:1:2 safety, and availability are the three psychological conditions that are necessary for fostering work engagement, according to the paradigm. By allowing employees to work from home, businesses can reduce immediate costs, hire and retain more talent, and tap talent sources outside of central office locations (Bendor-Samuel, 2020). Telecommuting won’t fan out like quickly, yet Olson and Prumps (1984) found that it very well may be utilized as an adaptable work choice in certain conditions that call for more examination. Productivity is the amount of output produced by performance behaviors as well as external contextual and opportunity factors. According to Sole and Schiuma (2010), the selective development of the measures and the difficulty in applying performance measurements may be attributed to a lack of effective measures (Damanpour & Evan, 1984). According to Wanyama and Mutsotso, delegate effectiveness is affected by how long an individual spends truly present at Work and how well that individual can perform all the while. Employee productivity—2021, along with the performance of new product development—has been referred to in a variety of ways, including organizational performance, employee performance, business performance, and employee productivity. According to Bloom et al. (2015), employee performance is the measurement of an employee’s financial and non-financial results that have a direct impact on an organization’s performance. Despite the fact that there are a variety of approaches to characterizing performance measurements, objective and subjective evaluations have historically been the most widely used. Measurements that are both subjective and objective have been used in a number of studies. To compare industries, subjective productivity measurements can be used. However, they may experience difficulties as a result of supervisor bias, societal desirability bias, and common method bias.

Managers can use relative performance metrics, so objective productivity measures are preferred to subjective ones. Hanaysha (2016) asserts that one of a company’s primary goals is to boost employee productivity because higher levels of productivity may benefit both the company and its workforce. Many people worked from home before the pandemic, but “the method we estimate employee productivity has been changing for years,” according to Desyatnikov (2020). A company should learn how to regularly evaluate productivity, according to Bendor-Samuel (2020), before attempting to increase productivity (even if the WFH model is utilized). Menon (2020) asserts that, while extended working hours will undoubtedly boost employee productivity in some circumstances, this will not always be the case. Productivity may be affected by employee hours worked during the COVID-19 outbreak. Ghosh (2020) says that worker observing may be one of the most amazing ways of checking representatives’ result and execution (Carbonara and Schiuma 2004). However, it appears difficult to identify who is working and who is not if employees are working from home. Businesses can determine the total number of hours spent working and not working by monitoring their employees. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered businesses’ perceptions of remote work. When working remotely, productivity, connectivity, and engagement are all compromised in additional ways. Employee productivity may be increased by encouraging employees to develop a strategy for knowledge sharing, select the most efficient medium for communicating their message, maintain social contact, and evaluate productivity instead of hours worked, according to Ludema and Johnson (2020). Productivity is influenced and driven by a variety of factors, including communication with the technology stack, according to Bendor-Samuel (2020).

2:2 Work engagement and productivity of the I.T. managers during Work from home

The COVID-19 Epidemic has resulted in new working arrangements, including remote employment, for many employees. According to DeSanctis (1984), working from home has advantages, such as increased adaptability and a better work-life balance. However, it also faces challenges such as feeling alone, lacking ambition, and having trouble drawing lines between one’s personal and professional lives. Employees’ levels of motivation, pleasure, and productivity have all been affected by this new way of working, which has prompted a variety of studies examining the connections between these factors.

According to Alipour, Falck, and Schüller (2020), I.T. managers’ responsibilities and work patterns have undergone significant change, just like employees’ (Ibarra et al., 2020). Despite their level of autonomy and organizational support, the study has shown that managers’ productivity has been significantly impacted. A lack of social and technical skill development training and a lack of understanding of the demands of employees may be one of the main causes. For instance, a study by Gamage et al. (2021) found that even during the Covid-19 Epidemic, employees’ levels of satisfaction had a significant impact on their IT productivity (De Sivatte et al., 2015). business. The survey found that motivated people were more committed to their organizations, had higher levels of job satisfaction, and were also more motivated at work.

As per Chime and Blanchflower (2020), Coronavirus has expanded the administrative obligations of I.T. undertakings. Prior to the pandemic, managers had to lead meetings, make agreements, and lead the team to ensure a successful project conclusion. However, it has become more difficult to connect with employees and monitor their performance in a work-from-home setting, which has increased the amount of time managers must spend working (Damanpour & Evan, 1984). Additionally, managers’ productivity has been negatively impacted by an increase in meetings with customers and supervisors as a result of the epidemic. Banks (2020) claims that managers’ levels of stress have significantly decreased as a result of their organizations’ increased flexibility. While numerous I.T. organizations have made helpful ventures to check worker execution, there were not many apparatuses or drives for observing Efficiency or execution for the executives faculty (Sprout, 2014).

The daily rate of meetings and conferences with managers in the IT industry increased by 30% to 55% over the Covid 19 period, according to Georgiadou, Mouzakitis, and Askounis (2022). Despite the fact that conceptualizing and creating successful strategies for handling the pandemic emergency is the essential objective of regular gatherings, the administrators’ exhibition and Efficiency were seriously hurt by the length of the meetings. According to the study (Chung et al., 2018), more than 46% of managers cited numerous meetings as the primary reason for the project’s late submission. Hassan and Misrina (2021) noted that the absence of project managers during the work-from scenario was quite noticeable, making it challenging to work from home during the early stages of the pandemic, according to a large number of employees working in SMEs and MNCs in the UK. Despite the fact that management has cited the increased number of meetings as a reason for the absence, many employees have cited their unwillingness to work as a major factor.

During the COVID-19 Epidemic, a number of important factors, including job engagement, can affect the productivity of I.T. company managers who work from home. A person’s level of interest, zeal, and dedication to their work is referred to as “work engagement.” When managers are deeply interested in their work, they are more likely to be productive, motivated, and focused on their goals.

As per research, work commitment is particularly urgent in remote work settings where self-inspiration and self-restraint are more significant (Carbonara and Schiuma 2004). Managers who work from home may be more likely to be distracted or to feel lonely, which can make them less committed to their jobs and reduce productivity. However, research has also shown that businesses can take steps to boost employee engagement among managers who work remotely. For instance, giving employees the opportunity to socialize and connect with their coworkers can reduce feelings of isolation and increase engagement at work. In addition, increasing productivity and employee engagement at work can be helped by allowing for scheduling flexibility and rewarding effort.

2:3 The productivity model

The Cambridge Dictionary, n.d., states, “the rate at which a person, organization, or country produces valuable labor” is the definition of productivity. According to Wagner and Deissenboeck (Dash, 2020), despite disagreements regarding the definition of efficiency, it is generally agreed that it refers to the ratio of contribution to yield. However, productivity can be defined in terms of more than just output and input, according to Ramirez and Nembhard. It can likewise be characterized regarding practicality (complying with time constraints), consumer loyalty, quality, productivity, and viability, as well as in general task achievement.

Because they are frequently confused with productivity, Wagner and Deissenboeck shed light on a number of these concepts. Since profitability only takes into account revenue and expenses, they emphasize that productivity and profitability are distinct concepts (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). They also talk about the differences between productivity and performance because productivity is a broader term. Finally, they state that Efficiency is frequently mistaken for the thoughts of adequacy and effectiveness, which they characterize as doing things accurately and suitably, separately. Even though Gordon (1997, as stated in Ramirez and Nembhard, 2004, p. 608) acknowledges the connection between productivity and effectiveness, he prefers to use the term “effectiveness” because he believes it is more inclusive. They say that the concept includes “quantity (how much is done), quality (how well it is done), timeframe (when it is done), and various priorities (how many things can be done at once).” There is debate about how to measure productivity. It’s hard to tell how productive an employee is because there are no set production schedules and different workers might do different things. Their commitment, then again, isn’t generally apparent or quantifiable (Davenport and Prusak, 2000; refered to in Ramrez and Nembhard, 2004,. Measuring productivity is essential for managing, evaluating, and improving processes to achieve company goals, despite its difficulty. It’s possible that representative efficiency estimation has some flaws. Jaspan and Sadowski (2019) say that measuring it may lower employee morale, which may lower productivity as a whole. It is essential to investigate productivity, particularly during pandemics, in order to determine how to make the most of the few resources available, such as time, money, labor, and tools, despite the fact that there is a lack of consensus regarding what productivity is and how to measure it.

2:4 productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry and working from home

DEMR and co. 2021) assert that I.T. managers’ productivity is heavily dependent on that of their staff because they are compensated based on the success of the team. The staff disagrees with the supervisors’ assertion that working from home increased productivity. Employees in the information technology field find it challenging to work from home because it is difficult to obtain assistance or have questions clarified due to the lack of direct connection with supervisors and clients. Also, managers can only be reached during their shifts in a work-from-home environment, which can have a negative impact on the final product and reduce IT managers’ productivity.

Despite the fact that remote employment has always existed, the Covid 19 pandemic has increased its prevalence. A Buffer survey found that 98% of remote workers plan to continue working from home for at least part of their careers (Dash, S., 2020). However, according to Owl Labs’ 2019 study, the most significant obstacles for remote workers are loneliness (22%), followed by distractions at home (31%). However, productivity can be negatively impacted by a number of factors, including loneliness, a lack of communication, and distractions. The availability of an appropriate workplace may affect productivity. According to a study conducted by the American Psychological Association, having a dedicated workstation can improve productivity and concentration. Practically 40% of far off workers said in an examination by NTT Ltd that their home setting didn’t advance Efficiency.

A study by Golden and colleagues 2020), on the other hand, demonstrated that workers were more productive than those without a cozy and well-equipped workstation. In remote work, communication is crucial to productivity. If a manager communicates regularly with their team and coworkers, they are more likely to be successful. This is because communication increases motivation and productivity by fostering trust and a sense of belonging among team members.

Additionally, the disruptions in team communication brought on by remote work may have a negative impact on productivity. An Owl Labs survey found that I.T. managers’ greatest communication concern is a lack of communication. Effective communication is essential to maintaining team members’ collaboration and coordination (Dash, S., 2020). According to Kaushik and Guleria (2020), some of the most important factors that had an effect on managers’ productivity in the IT sector were frequent disagreements and a higher level of employee satisfaction when working from home. Researchers have discovered that many managers lack the soft skills they need to motivate their teams even in difficult situations. In the work-from-home environment, soft skills like emotional intelligence, effective communication, and the capacity to make decisions under pressure are necessary for keeping qualified employees. It is understandable that employees are dissatisfied with the changes that the Covid 19 epidemic has made to their personal and professional lives. As a result, it is anticipated that management will provide them with the necessary emotional and practical support to deal with the challenging circumstance. Sadly, it has been found in various occurrences when managers have shown an absence of sympathy, which has prompted a high staff turnover in the I.T. association (Al-Omoush et al. 2020). Vyas and Butakhieo (2021) say that many managers think that employees are less likely to tell the truth at their jobs. This point of view asserts that strict regulations are implemented. As a result, skilled workers begin to look for alternatives and become less satisfied with their current employers. As a result, the managers’ productivity suffers significantly.

It is essential to acknowledge that remote work arrangements can pose significant challenges to IT company managers and have the potential to reduce productivity. Communication and cooperation can be more difficult in a remote work environment, and managers may find it difficult to mentor and assist their employees (Brynjolfsson et al.). 2020). Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a number of stresses that may have an effect on productivity. These stresses include an increase in caring responsibilities, loneliness, and uncertainty. These pressures can be particularly challenging for company managers who must oversee both the well-being of their employees and the upkeep of high levels of production.

Additionally, it is possible that the particulars of the Epidemic will make it more challenging to draw broad conclusions regarding productivity in a remote work environment. Businesses have been forced to quickly adjust to remote work arrangements as a result of the pandemic, without sufficient time to plan (Farooq, 2016). As a result, the factors that affect productivity during the COVID-19 pandemic may be different from those that affect productivity in more stable remote work arrangements. Despite the numerous advantages that remote work arrangements provide to businesses, it is essential to recognize the potential negative effects on productivity for business managers in the information technology industry. Businesses can support their managers and teams in a challenging environment and mitigate the negative effects of remote work by comprehending these obstacles.

2:5 Employee satisfaction and work-life balance

According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of human needs, employee satisfaction largely depends on their expectations from the organisation and the industry. Chen suggests that when employees’ basic physiological and safety needs are unmet, they prioritise compensation, stability, and safety concerns over other factors. This implies that their employers must meet their basic needs for employees to be satisfied.

On the other hand, achieving work-life balance is a crucial factor that can influence employee satisfaction. According to Nuseir, individuals who prioritise their personal and professional obligations equally have achieved a work-life balance. This balance gives employees less stress and more time for personal activities, leading to higher job satisfaction.

Further, Rodrigues suggest that an effective work-life balance leads to higher employee productivity and job satisfaction. When employees have more control over their work schedule and can balance their Work and personal life, they tend to be more productive and engaged.

In Conclusion, meeting employees’ basic needs and providing work-life balance are crucial factors for employee satisfaction and productivity. Organisations that prioritise their employees’ well-being and work-life balance tend to have a more satisfied and productive workforce.

2:6 Challenges faced by business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home

Aum, Lee and Shin (2021) have highlighted communication in virtual teams as a major change faced by the managers while working from home during the Pandemic. The researcher has highlighted that lack of communication or misunderstanding while communicating managerial messages were some of the major changes faced by the managers while Working from home. Because the working-from-home schedule is highly flexible compared to the conventional working-from-office setting, managers often face difficulties ensuring that all the needed employees are in a crucial meeting (Bendor-Samuel, 2020). The lack of presence of all the employees thus makes it difficult for I.T. managers to communicate a crucial message clearly and transparently to all the employees. This, in turn, hampers the work procedure to a great extent. Saltiel (2020) has added that not all managers possess the skill of communicating managerial information in a way that can be easily understandable from the end of the employees. Often a simple message communicated becomes complex to the employees due to misinterpretation, which, in turn, results in dissatisfaction from the end of employees. Major employee dissatisfaction gets reflected in the team performance.

Davidescu et al. (2020) have highlighted that frequent communication between the team members was needed in a conventional work-from-office format. However, in this case, managers cannot get frequent updates of the projects and face issues in handling an out-of-sight team. It might be a roadblock for a wide range of I.T (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1981). Managers, resulting in remote Work becoming problematic for them. When communication breaks down, several issues arise. Workers feel alone, and the task doesn’t advance as quickly, eventually lowering morale. Due to various timetables and accessibility, having everyone on board join an online video or audio conference might be a challenge. If circumstances aren’t right, this could hinder efficiency. According to Galanti et al. (2021), managers should be able to handle backlogs even when working with remote teams boosts productivity. A project’s backlog is a challenge that might jeopardise the entire endeavour if not overcome early on.

Repeated conversations are required to deal with backlogs, which are deemed challenging when working abroad, particularly when staff are in various time zones. It is simple to interact with and manage the workforce if they are all located in the same area. But in the case of remote workers, where the team is dispersed globally across several geographic areas, it can be difficult to schedule time off for one another because of different time zones. This method of coordination is more difficult. Additionally, it is challenging to monitor whether each member of the team is routinely signing in as scheduled.

For instance, if a team member has logged out while you are waiting for a response to a critical email, this increases downtime and lowers productivity. A manager’s primary responsibility is to make sure that every employee completes all tasks within the allotted time with efficiency and in accordance with the standards of the organisations (Deorah, 2020). Managing teams gets tiresome when they are distant. For a worker, meeting deadlines is important, but other factors like quality and standards are also important. Reaching out in time for adjustments may not be possible for those who only work a few hours. In both situations, productivity decreases, and managers must virtually check in with staff members to ensure the assignment is completed correctly and on schedule. One of a leader’s biggest problems is this. The amount of time an employee has spent on productive Work is never known to the management.

Savić (2020) has highlighted that as per a significant number of multinational I.T. firms, communicative language, as well as cultural issues, has been found to be a major issue that affects not only their productivity but also the productivity of the team (Hair et al, 2010). Considering the fact that in MNCs, employees from different cultural background Work together, there exists major cultural barriers due to different work cultures and culturally detecting holidays. The differences impact how the team communicates as well as how information is transferred as well as received. While there is a gap in this, the I.T. managers must work twice as hard to get the team on the same page, thus enhancing the time spent and lowering the overall productivity. Oakman et al. (2020) have added that differences in opinions and cultural discrimination or misunderstanding often result in conflict, which greatly lowers the team’s productivity.

2:7 Strategies used by organisations to increase the productivity of business managers in I.T. during Work from home

According to Chi (2021), crisis management in business includes the recovery of liquidity flows by effective financial management. Considering the fact that the degree of involvement of the managers of the I.T. firms ensures the degree of success in crisis management, several MNCs in the I.T. firms introduced anonymous surveys of the employees, higher management, consumers and other stakeholders of the business (Beham et al, 2011). The key purpose of the surveys was to understand the managers’ degree of involvement and the associated loopholes. The employees were surveyed to understand the soft skills and effective team management skills demonstrated by the manager’s consumer’s survey was conducted in order to understand the operational skill and performance of the team leaders and managers to meet the client’s demand. Based on the results, strategies to enhance the productivity of the management are taken. For instance, organisations like Hyperlink infoSystem, DataArt and BJSS have initiated virtual soft skill enhancement sessions for managers to enhance their people management skills and higher productivity. Qian and Fan (2020) have added that excessive attrition from the end of the employees of I.T. firms were taking place due to conflict between managers and employees, and it was resulting in deterioration of the productivity of the managers, enhancement of soft skills to retain employees did improve the productivity of the business managers. The key soft skills focused on included communication skills, cultural competence, understandability, empathy, persuasive attitude and critical decision-making abilities. The managers’ soft skills not only helped them to enhance team productivity and prevent attrition, but also helped them to enhance client retention through effective communication.

Poudel et al. (2020) have highlighted the effectiveness of conflict management skills of the managers to ensure their own enhanced productivity along with the productivity of the team members. A significant number of It firms, during the work-from-home scenario, are undergoing a high level of employee dissatisfaction due to frequent conflicts between team members as well as team members and management (Kramer, 2020). Since face-to-face communication between colleagues and leaders is not taking place, information is often misinterpreted, resulting in conflict. Debata, Patnaik and Mishra (2020) have added that since several team members are not aware of each other’s culture and are working remotely, a lack of interpersonal bonding can be evidenced. This, in turn, results in a conflict situation and thus reduces the productivity of the employees as well as managers. Therefore effective conflict management can not only save the time and productivity of the employees and managers. Effective conflict management skills are therefore highly crucial for employees. According to Chetty et al. (2020), effective conflict management skills help managers increase their productivity by preventing a conflict situation from getting critical or by handling a critical conflict within a limited time.

Another major strategy that has been opted by the management for enhancing the productivity of the organisation includes strengthening the virtual communication process. According to Brinca et al. (2020), in several developing nations like India, China, Srilanka and others, a significant number of employees were unable to work from home due to a lack of effective access to the internet. Several MNCs and local I.T. firms, to enhance the productivity of the employees, invested in ensuring high-speed internet facilities for the employees working from home. Her team managers acted as a facilitator who helped the company develop an awareness of the number of employees who require internet facilities and how the provision of internet facilities will benefit the organisation (Kramer, 2020). High-speed internet faculties not only strengthened the team but also acted as a major help for managers. Managers were able to conduct the necessary video conferences required to discuss plans with the employees (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The communication between the team members and managers got enhanced to a great extent. This, in turn, resulted in an enhanced level of productivity of the managers as well as the team members as a whole.

2:8 Chapter Summary

From the above literature review, it has been found that till now highly limited amount of researchers on the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic has been done majority of the researchers that has been conducted are on the employees. When it comes to managers of the I.T. sector, a further lower amount of research on the managers of the firms has been found. Thus, this research has been conducted to close the gap detected in literature. This has been presented and engaged in well with the rest of the study.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3:1 Introduction to Methodology

This study aims to examine the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. This study will rely solely on secondary research to gather information about the topic. The methodology will focus on selecting the appropriate research design, constructing the method, selecting the sample, and identifying limitations and potential problems (Fornell & Larcker, 1981).

3:2 Choice of Research Design

The research design outlines the methods and procedures used to collect and analyse data to answer research questions. There are two main research design types: primary and secondary. Primary research involves collecting data from the source through surveys, interviews, and observation. Secondary research, on the other hand, involves analysing existing data from sources such as academic journals, books, and online databases to answer research questions (Fornell & Larcker, 1981).

In this study, secondary research is the preferred research design for several reasons. A secondary research design is appropriate for this study because it is cost-effective and time-efficient. The researcher does not have to collect primary data, which can be time-consuming and expensive. Secondary research provides access to a wide range of information from different sources, such as academic journals, books, and online databases. The research will review existing literature, reports, and studies on the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers working from home in the I.T. industry during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Additionally, secondary research can provide a broader perspective of the subject matter, making it easier to identify trends and patterns (Flick, 2018).

Furthermore, secondary research allows the researcher to analyse large datasets, which is useful when exploring factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. For instance, the researcher can analyse data on remote work trends, I.T. industry performance during the Pandemic, and productivity measures used by businesses during the Pandemic. This will help provide a comprehensive overview of the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Khosrow-Pour, 2020).

3:3 Construction of method

The COVID-19 Pandemic has forced many businesses to adopt remote working practices to ensure business continuity. This has led to many I.T. managers working from home, which could affect their productivity. This paper uses secondary research as the research method to examine the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

According to Saunders et al. (2018), secondary data offers economies of time, money and personnel and is more accurate than primary research, which would be challenging to collect in this case due to the ethical implications of asking about failed initiatives. Qualitative analysis will be used through an assessment schematic to understand individuals’ perceptions of the world (Miles et al., 2020). Data collection involves collecting and analysing data, modifying theory, refining research questions, and identifying and dealing with validity threats (Miles et al., 2020). Qualitative analysis of the data will be used through an assessment schematic. According to Bryman (2016), qualitative research focuses on understanding individuals’ perceptions of the world. Quantitative research has been criticised as not being suitable for social science research, as it does not lend itself well to experiments, official statistics, and survey data. Therefore, a qualitative analysis of the available data will be conducted.

According to Creswell (2013), several activities are carried out simultaneously during qualitative research, including collecting and analysing data, developing and modifying theory, elaborating or refocusing research questions, and identifying and dealing with validity threats. Therefore, all collected and analysed data will be recorded to ensure that any modifications and interpretations are included in the research paper.

Assessment Schematic Explanation
Relevance to the research question. The literature will be evaluated to determine its relevance to the research question, specifically examining whether it provides insight into factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Currency and reliability of the sources. The quality and currency of the sources used will be evaluated to ensure that the information presented is accurate, reliable and up to date
Methodology used in the research. If the literature contains primary research, the methodology used will be examined to determine the validity and reliability of the research.
Scope and breadth of the literature. The Scope and breadth of the literature will be examined to ensure that the literature comprehensively covers the research question and provides a broad perspective on the topic.
Presentation of findings. The presentation of findings will be evaluated to determine whether they are clearly and logically presented and if they support the research question.
Consideration of alternative perspectives. The literature will be evaluated to determine whether alternative perspectives and conflicting evidence have been considered.
Implications and practical applications. The literature will be evaluated to determine if the implications and practical applications of the research have been clearly articulated and if they are relevant to the research question.

Table 1 Assessment Schematic

This study aims to investigate the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry who work from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The study will utilise various theories and approaches, including happiness, productivity, satisfaction, and work-life balance, to analyse the literature and identify positive and negative effects. The findings will be presented in a visual model that represents the benefits and drawbacks for both the host and tourist within PPT initiatives. The discussion of the results will be presented in subsequent chapters. Overall, this study will provide valuable insights into how business managers in the I.T. industry can improve their productivity while working remotely during the Pandemic.

3:4 Sample

The sample size of the literature will be determined by access and inclusion credentials, and the analysis will be carried out using a checklist. This approach will enable the extraction of the overt, covert, and subliminal meanings of the literature to establish the authors’ underlying messages and meanings.

The validity of this research is supported by the large sample size of authors with different backgrounds and perspectives, providing a comprehensive analysis of the subject matter. This ensures that the arguments presented cover various angles and are unbiased. Additionally, the use of peer-reviewed, published authors adds to the reliability of the research, as these sources are credible and have been reviewed by experts in the field. Using multiple authors also ensures that the findings are not based solely on the views and opinions of one or two authors, thus enhancing the reliability and robustness of the study.

Issue Reason for Inclusion Reason for exclusion
Year Published  Published within the last three years, however, articles that bring to the attention of the reader valid points prior to this date are included.  Articles that are older than three years have not been used unless they contain valid points that are still relevant today.
Journals  Peer-reviewed journals with a focus on the I.T. industry and working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journals that do not pertain to the I.T. industry or working from home, and those that are not peer-reviewed.
Books  Books containing theories on Productivity, management, and remote Work in the I.T. industry during the Pandemic. Books that are not relevant to the subject or are outdated.
References  Quality references from credible sources. References that hold no credible credentials themselves or those that are not relevant to the subject.
Relevance Articles or books that contain relevant information on Productivity, management, and remote Work in the I.T. industry during the Pandemic. Articles or books that are not relevant to the subject.
Author Credentials Authors who are academics or specialists in the I.T. industry or management field. Authors who do not have credible credentials or are not specialists in the relevant fields.
Content Discussion – Bias? Articles that provide a balanced argument with both positive and negative aspects. Articles that are biased towards a specific purpose or agenda.
Social Climate of Publication, including Country of Publication Authors from a variety of locations, especially from the country of interest, were sought to provide a local perspective. The social climate of the country of publication was taken into consideration to account for potential bias. Articles that are biased due to political or social issues.

Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for literature

Furthermore, the literature review will focus on sources published in 2020 and 2021, which is highly relevant considering the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the I.T. industry and the shift towards remote Work. This ensures that the research is up-to-date and relevant to the current situation.

In Conclusion, this research approach is valid and reliable, as it draws on a large sample size of credible sources with diverse perspectives. The findings of this study will provide valuable insights into the factors that influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

3:5 Limitations of Secondary Research

One limitation of using only secondary research is the lack of up-to-date empirical data. Primary research would allow for more current data (Creswell, 2014). Additionally, secondary research limits the Scope of the research as particular questions cannot be asked of participants in interviews or other data collection techniques (Babbie, 2016). However, secondary research allows for more initiatives to be analysed without spending time, money, and resources to travel to them and collect data. This wider variety of data will allow the initiatives to be compared in terms of their benefits, negatives, cultural aspects, the inclusion of women, and gaps found in the initiatives Saunders et al. (2018).

3:6 Conclusion

In Conclusion, secondary research is the most appropriate research method for this study. It allows the researcher to collect and analyse existing data, access a wide range of sources, analyse large datasets, and provide a comprehensive overview of the factors that may influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. This research approach is valid and reliable, drawing on a large sample of credible sources with diverse perspectives. The findings of this study will provide valuable insights into the factors that influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Chapter 4: Findings and Discussion

Based on the analysis of secondary research, several factors were identified that impacted the effectiveness of IT sector managers during the Covid-19 outbreak. This section presents a thorough examination based on the literature review presented.

4.1 To investigate the impact of work engagement on the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home.

The first research question was what is the impact of the empowerment or autonomy provided by I.T. organizations on the productivity of the business managers working from home. From the primary data, it has been found that as per majority of the managers the ability of making shift related decisions of themselves as well as that of the employees has imposed positive impacts on their performance. According to Patanjali and Bhatta, (2022), one of the key benefits that has helped the employees of business organizations to enhance their performance includes the ability to work as per their convenient time. This is also true for managers of I.T. firm. The second most received response was no major additional autonomy or empowerment had been provided to the managers. However, from the literature review, it can be found that firms have enabled managers to make certain decisions so that they can manage the performance of the team as well as their own performance. From the secondary study, it has been found that the frequent absence of project managers, which had made working from home challenging during the early stages of the Epidemic, was quite noticeable during the Work from scenario (Vahdat 2021). While the management has cited the increased number of meetings as a justification for the absence, numerous employees have cited unwillingness to work as a key factor.

4.2 To assess the challenges faced by business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home and how these challenges affect their productivity.

The second research question was what are the challenges faced by business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home. From the primary research it has been found that lack of the power to make decisions during the pandemic time and ineffective digital communication facilities and lack of ability to of the higher management to recognise the issues has been found to be some of the most critical issues faced by the managers during WFH that imposed negative impact on their performance (Vahdat 2021). Lack of effective communication and frequent conflict issues are two of the key issues that can be highlighted from secondary research. Aum, Lee and Shin (2021) have highlighted lack of communication or misunderstanding while communicating managerial message were some of the major changes faced by the managers while working from home. However, this paper has provided the audience with a new aspect that highlights the intense pressure from the end of the higher management to implement programs resulted in lack of flexibility in decision-making of the middle level managers, which in turn affected their productivity to a great extent (Azizi et al. 2021).

4.3 To identify strategies used by organisations to increase the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry during Work from home.

The third research question was what is the relationship between the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry and working from home. From the primary research, it has been found that delayed delivery to the client due to stipulated deadline misses is one of the major impacts of Work from home faced by the managers. In addition to this, poor team performance has resulted in poor manager’s performance. Overall, from the primary research have highlighted the negative impact of Work from home on the overall performance of the managers. The secondary research papers have also supported that Work from home has imposed a negative impact on the overall performance of the employees.

Savi (2020) has noted that a substantial number of international I.T. organisations have discovered that communication-related linguistic and cultural challenges are a big problem that not only impair the individual’s productivity but also the productivity of the team. Due to differing work cultures and culturally specific holidays, there are significant cultural hurdles when personnel from different cultural backgrounds work together in MNCs (Ramasamy 2020). According to Oakman et al. (2020), disagreements over ideas and cultural prejudice or miscommunication frequently lead to conflict, which significantly reduces the team’s productivity. Managers are unable to get frequent updates of the projects and face issues in handling an out of sight team (Feleen and David 2021). For a wide range of I.T. managers, it might be a roadblock, resulting in remote Work becomes problematic for them. When communication breaks down, several issues arise. Workers feel alone and the task doesn’t advance as quickly, which eventually lowers morale. This in turn lowers the performance of the team as well as the productivity of the managers. Thus it can be said that this research have found that while working from home impose both positive and negative impact on the performance of the employees, for managers, Work from home has mainly imposed negative impact.

4.4 To explore the productivity model for business managers in the I.T. industry and working from home.

The fourth research question was how to improve the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home (Suresh and Gopakumar 2021). From the primary research, it was found that increased communication and interaction with the team members can be considered as one of the effective strategies that has shown a positive impact on the productivity of the managers. In addition to this, conducting multiple meeting along with optimization of team members’ involvement have been found to be highly effective for increasing the productivity of the managers. The majority of the managers have suggested that allowing more power to the managers so that they can make decisions based on the internal and external environment, will not only enhance their productivity but will also increase the performance of the het firms during the pandemic situation. Similar information has been obtained from secondary research. The workers, senior management, customers, and other stakeholders of the organisation were surveyed anonymously by a number of MNCs in the I.T. sector. On the basis of the findings, management productivity improvement initiatives are implemented. To improve managers’ people management abilities and increase productivity, firms like Hyperlink infoSystem, DataArt, and BJSS, for example, started virtual soft skill improvement strategy sessions. Communication skills, cultural competency, understanding, empathy, a persuasive attitude, and the capacity for critical decision-making were among the main soft skills that were highlighted. Suresh and Gopakumar (2021) have emphasised the managers’ ability to effectively handle conflicts in order to assure both their own increased productivity and the productivity of the team members. A significant number of It firms, during the Work from hoe scenario, are undergoing high level of employee dissatisfaction due to frequent conflicts between team members as well as team members and management (Yadav et al. 2020).

4:5 Conclusion

In Conclusion, working from home during the Covid 19 pandemic has brought about various unexpected forms of transition for business managers. The major factors influencing I.T. managers’ productivity levels are technical issues, internet problems, family issues, burnout, and workload-related stress. It is essential to support managers in managing their workload and reducing stress levels during this challenging time to improve productivity in the I.T. industry.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

Right after the emergence of the Covid-19 Pandemic across different parts of the world, nearly everyone was required to make quite several adjustments to cope with the entire situation. One of these adjustments was the way different organisations decided to switch to the work-from-home culture al also came to terms with the existing benefits and disadvantages associated with working from home.

This study has identified several important factors that can influence the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry while working from home during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Kramer, 2020). The findings indicate that work engagement significantly impacts productivity and that various individual and contextual factors influence productivity. Challenges related to technology, communication and collaboration, work-life balance and leadership and management style were major barriers to productivity. Organisations need to implement strategies that address these challenges to enhance productivity. This chapter presents a conclusion of the research study and discusses the research findings. Furthermore, recommendations based on the Conclusion are provided in this chapter.

5:1 Conclusions

  • While many I.T. managers have expressed the benefits of working remotely during Covid 19 pandemic, it has also observed several adverse effects on the work-life balance.

Ever the remote working was able to take place, different types of employees have been in a position of raving about how it has been one of the greatest moments to be able to perform different tasks remotely, independently based on their schedule, among several other benefits that are associated with working from home. Moreover, focusing on the bigger picture, there still exists quite several disadvantages that are associated with working from home. One of the main disadvantages of working remotely is the blurred lines between Work and personal life (page 30, Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). With no clear separation between the two, I.T. managers often work longer hours, take fewer breaks, and feel constantly connected to Work. All those can also lead to social isolation and loneliness, further impacting the work-life balance and productivity (page 9, Golden, 2020).

Moreover, working from home can also lead to distractions and interruptions, such as household chores, family responsibilities, and other distractions. This can further exacerbate the challenges of maintaining a healthy work-life balance. However, maintaining a healthy work-life balance is important for the productivity of business managers (page 11, Rodrigues et al., 2021). Managers who separate Work and personal life tend to be more productive and less stressed.

  • Working from home during Covid 19 pandemic is a condition that is not likely to be welcomed by every employee within an organisation

Not all employees in an organisation may be comfortable with the idea of working from home during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Working remotely may not be suitable for every individual’s personality or capability. Some I.T. managers may prefer the structure and routine of working in an office environment. These individuals may find it difficult to adapt to the new work-from-home setting and struggle to maintain productivity. Some I.T. managers may not have access to the necessary technology or infrastructure required to work from home efficiently. This can include a reliable internet connection, high-performance computers or laptops, and other tools required to perform their Work effectively ( page 29, RingCentral, 2021).

Without these resources, managers may struggle to perform their tasks, decreasing productivity. Furthermore, even with access to reliable technology and infrastructure, some managers may still find it challenging to work from home due to distractions, lack of information, and other factors affecting their productivity and mental well-being. Moreover, they may feel isolated and miss the social interactions of working in an office (page9, Golden, 2020). In addition, some staff may also value personal interaction with their managers and seek face-to-face guidance from their top management team to help them achieve their goals and complete tasks efficiently (page 31). Effective communication and collaboration among team members and with the organisation are essential for the productivity of business managers (page 10, Fjermestad, 2021). Managers with clear communication channels and collaborative tools tend to be more productive.

In contrast, some employees may thrive in a work-from-home environment, benefiting from its flexibility. These individuals may be better suited to a more independent workstyle, allowing them to focus and complete tasks more efficiently (page 9). However, it is important to note that remote working may not be ideal for every employee, and it is essential to consider individual needs and preferences when implementing such policies.

  • Without the usual office routine, I.T. managers struggled with time management during Covid 19 pandemic

While remote Work offers benefits such as increased flexibility, reduced commuting time, and cost savings, it also poses challenges that can impact productivity, particularly in time management. The absence of a typical office routine has been identified as one of the primary challenges I.T. managers face when working remotely. Research has shown that without the structure and routine of an office environment, managers may find it challenging to manage their time effectively, leading to decreased productivity.

Additionally, the research reveals that several factors contribute to the difficulty in managing time while working from home, including the lack of face-to-face communication and increased distractions such as family obligations and household tasks. These distractions can lead to managers struggling to prioritise tasks, leading to missed deadlines and uncompleted projects (page 30, Simeonova and colleagues, 2021). Several studies have shown that remote Work often blurs the boundaries between Work and personal life, making it difficult for I.T. managers to manage their time effectively (page 30, Gajendran & Harrison, 2007).. Managers may struggle to prioritise tasks, focus on critical activities, and manage their time efficiently, leading to decreased productivity. Therefore, I.T. managers must implement effective time management strategies to remain productive while working from home.

  • The COVID-19 Pandemic has made communication and collaboration challenging for I.T. managers and their teams working remotely

Remote Work has become the new norm for many companies, creating new challenges for communication and collaboration. The lack of face-to-face interaction can lead to communication breakdowns and hamper collaboration, making it challenging for managers to keep their teams aligned and productive (page 16, Pathak 2021).. Since traditional methods of communication like face-to-face meetings and in-person check-ins are no longer feasible (page 16, Debata, Patnaik and Mishra 2020). As a result, managers must rely on various digital communication tools like video conferencing, instant messaging, and email to communicate with their teams, but those are not without their limitations. Technical issues, such as poor internet connectivity or software glitches, can interrupt or delay communication, leading to frustration and poor productivity (page 29, RingCentral, 2021).

Another challenge is collaboration. In a remote work environment, it can be harder to collaborate on projects and share ideas (Kramer, 2020). Tools such as cloud-based project management platforms and document-sharing services can help, but they require careful management and training to ensure that team members are using them effectively. However, not all employees may be comfortable or familiar with these tools, leading to communication breakdowns and misunderstandings.

5.2Recommendations for future research

In relation to the above conclusions, the relevant recommendations will therefore be as follows.

Based upon conclusion 1:

It is necessary to develop further research on various ways that can be used to curb the negative impacts of working from home.

Based on the Conclusion that remote Work can have adverse effects on work-life balance, it is recommended that I.T. managers take steps to mitigate these effects. Companies and I.T. managers need to find ways to create clear boundaries between Work and personal life to ensure their employees’ well-being and productivity. This could include setting clear boundaries between Work and personal life, encouraging employees to take breaks and time off, and fostering social connections among remote workers. I.T. managers could also provide resources and support for employees to manage distractions and interruptions, such as offering flexible schedules or providing access to tools and resources to help manage household responsibilities(page 30, SHRM, 2021).

It is also important for I.T. managers to prioritise employee well-being and recognise the potential impact that remote Work can have on mental health and social connections (Mental Health America, 2021). This could include offering mental health resources and support, promoting virtual team-building activities, and encouraging employees to maintain a healthy work-life balance.

However, there is a need to conduct research on the employees who are not comfortable working from home as this will offer an opportunity to critically understand some of the best conditions for a healthy work-life balance and enhance productivity.

Based upon conclusion 2:

It is essential to develop a clear understanding on the employees who support working from home and also the ones who are against the idea.

Based on the conclusion 2, it is recommended that organisations assess individual needs and preferences before implementing remote working policies. It is important to identify individuals who prefer working from home and those who prefer working in an office environment. This information can help organisations make informed decisions about remote working policies and ensure that they cater to all employees’ needs (Grant et al., 2019).

Additionally, to ensure productivity, managers should have access to the necessary technology and infrastructure to perform their tasks effectively. Clear communication channels and collaborative tools should also be in place to foster teamwork and maintain productivity. Organisations should also offer support to employees who may struggle with the new work-from-home setting and provide opportunities for social interaction and face-to-face guidance (Grant et al., 2019). Ultimately, a flexible approach that takes into account individual needs and preferences can help organisations navigate the challenges of remote working during the Pandemic.

Given the potential challenges and benefits of working from home during the Covid-19 Pandemic, future research could explore the factors that contribute to employee preferences and performance in remote work environments. Specifically, the research could investigate how different personality traits, work styles, and job functions influence employee perceptions of working from home and their ability to maintain productivity and engagement in this setting.

Based upon conclusion 3:

Implement effective Time Management Strategies for I.T. Managers Working Remotely: How to Maximise Productivity and Minimise Distractions

Given time management challenges while working remotely, I.T. managers need to adopt effective strategies to enhance their productivity. One strategy that can help is to establish a routine that mimics the typical office environment. This routine could involve starting and finishing Work at the same time each day, scheduling breaks, and setting daily goals and objectives. Establishing a routine can help managers to manage their time better and create a sense of structure, reducing the likelihood of distractions and procrastination (Simeonova et al., 2021).

Another effective time management strategy is to create a dedicated workspace free from distractions such as noise, T.V., and family members. This workspace should be organised, well-lit, and equipped with the tools and resources to effectively complete tasks. By creating a designated workspace, I.T. managers can focus on their Work without interruptions, minimising the risk of wasting time and losing focus.

Moreover, I.T. managers should prioritise tasks based on their importance and urgency. They should identify critical tasks that need to be completed promptly and allocate sufficient time and resources to complete them. This approach will help them to manage their workload efficiently and reduce the risk of missed deadlines and incomplete projects.

Based upon conclusion 4:

Improving Communication and Collaboration in Remote Work Environments can increase productivity

As the COVID-19 Pandemic has made communication and collaboration challenging for I.T. managers and their remote teams, it is crucial to identify effective ways to manage and improve remote work communication and collaboration (conclusion 4). One of the most important things managers can do is to establish clear communication protocols and expectations for their teams. This includes setting regular check-ins, providing clear instructions, and establishing guidelines for digital communication tools. (Anderson & Gerbing,1988). Managers should also consider using a range of communication tools that meet different needs. For example, video conferencing can be used for team meetings and check-ins, while instant messaging can be used for quick questions or updates. Additionally, managers should ensure that their teams have access to reliable internet and technical support to minimise disruptions. To improve collaboration, managers can implement cloud-based project management platforms that allow team members to work together on projects in real time. These tools can help to centralise project information, streamline communication, and increase transparency. Managers should also encourage their teams to share ideas and collaborate through online channels such as chat rooms or discussion forums (Pathak, 2021).

Therefore, future research should focus on exploring the most effective communication and collaboration tools for remote teams and identifying the best practices for their implementation. Studies could investigate how to leverage these tools effectively to address communication breakdowns and facilitate collaboration among remote team members. Future research can help organisations adapt to the changing work landscape and ensure that remote Work is sustainable and productive for both employees and employers.

Overall, further research is needed to develop comprehensive strategies and best practices for I.T. managers and their teams to navigate communication and collaboration challenges in remote work environments.

5:3 Linking to Objectives

In this section, the researcher has assessed whether this study has met its objectives (Anderson & Gerbing,1988). The first objective of this research was to investigate if the empowerment or autonomy provided by organisations influences the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry who are working from home. It has been found that the ability of the managers to manage their shits and provide the team members with flexible shifts has positively impacted their productivity. However, no major empowerment of the managers has been evidenced.

The second objective of the research was to identify some of the challenges that business managers in the I.T (Anderson & Gerbing,1988). industry face while working from home. It has been found that lack of communication with employees, enhanced rate of meetings and conflict situations and excessive pressure from the end of the business owners and higher management are some of the major challenges faced by managers.

The third objective of the research was to explore the relationship between the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry and working from home. From the study, it has been found that working from home is adversely related to the productivity of managers. A higher rate of missed deadlines, a higher rate of attrition, and an enhanced stress level among the managers can be considered as some of the key reasons behind this.

The fourth objective of the research was to determine the factors that can improve the productivity of business managers in the I.T. industry working from home. From this study, it has been found that an enhanced level of training to increase the conflict management skills of managers, along with increasing their skills, can enhance managers’ performance. In addition, mid-level managers should be provided with enhanced power, and their points should be considered while making decisions for the company.


Anderson, J.C. and Gerbing, D.W. (1988), “Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103 No. 3, p. 411.

Anitha, J. (2014), “Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance”, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 63 No. 3, pp. 308-323.

Azizi, M., Rastegari-Pouyani, M., Pouriran, R., & Hoseini, M. H. M. (2021). Chitin and chitosan as tools to combat COVID-19: A triple approach. International journal of biological macromolecules, 183, 235-244.

Babar, K. and Pramanik, A. (2020), “Work from home gets real; efficiency, productivity challenges crop up”, available at: (accessed July 23 2020).

Babbie, E., & Rubin, A. (2010). Essential research methods for social work. Belmont, Ca.

Beham, B., Drobnič, S. and Pra¨g, P. (2011), “Work demands and resources and the work–family interface: testing a salience model on German service sector employees”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 78 No. 1, pp. 110-122.

Bendor-Samuel, P. (2020), “Managing productivity with employees working from home”, Forbes, available at: (accessed July 24 2020).

Bentler, P.M. (1990), “Comparative fit indexes in structural models”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 107 No. 2, p. 238.

Bloom, N. (2014), “To raise productivity, let more employees work from home”, Harvard Business Review, available at: (accessed July 23 2020)

Bloom, N., Liang, J., Roberts, J., & Ying, Z. J. (2015). Does working from home work? Evidence from a Chinese experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(1), 165-218.

Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. D. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research: Some implications for a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 560-569.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). Introduction to Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables. Wiley.

Bommer, W. H., Johnson, J. L., Rich, G. A., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1995). On the interchangeability of objective and subjective measures of employee performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 48(3), 587-605.

Brynjolfsson, E., Horton, J. J., Ozimek, A., Rock, D., Sharma, G., & TuYe, H. Y. (2020). Covid-19 and remote Work: An early look at U.S. data (No. w27344). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Carbonara, N., & Schiuma, G. (2004). The new product development process within industrial districts: A cognitive approach. International Journal of Product Development, 1(1), 92-106.

Chung, H., & Van der Horst, M. (2018). Flexible working and unpaid overtime in the U.K.: The role of gender, parental and occupational status. Social Indicators Research, 151(2), 1-26.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Damanpour, F., & Evan, W. M. (1984). Organizational innovation and performance: The problem of organizational lag. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(3), 392-409.

Dana, L. P., Rounaghi, M. M., & Enayati, G. (2021). Increasing productivity and sustainability of corporate performance by using management control systems and intellectual capital accounting approach. GreenFinance, 3(1), 1-14.

Dash, S. (2020). WFH effect: These companies are paying for employees’ power bills, internet cost and more. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Deorah, S. (2020). COVID-19 impact: Is Work from home the new normal? Financial Express. Retrieved from

DeSanctis, G. (1984). Attitudes toward telecommuting: Implications for work-at-home programs. Information & Management, 7(3), 133-139.

De Sivatte, I., Gordon, J. R., Rojo, P., & Olmos, R. (2015). The impact of work-life culture on organizational productivity. Personnel Review, 44(6), 883-905.

Desyatnikov, R. (2020). Why the Pandemic hasn’t changed the way we measure employee productivity. Forbes. Retrieved from

Gajendran, R. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2007). The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences. Journal of applied psychology, 92(6), 1524.

Ellison, J. M., Semlow, A. R., Jaeger, E. C., & Griffth, D. M. (2021). COVID-19 and mental health: Addressing men’s mental health needs in the digital world. American Journal of Men’s Health, 15(4), 15579883211030021.

Farooq, R. (2014). A clever approach to measure organizational performance: An overview. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 7(5), 34-46.

Farooq, R., & Vij, S. (2017). Moderating variables in business research. The IUP Journal of Business Strategy, 14(4), 34-54.

Farooq, R., & Vij, S. (2018). Linking entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: Mediating role of knowledge management orientation. Pacific Business Review International, 10(8), 174-183.

Farooq, R. (2016). Role of structural equation modeling in scale development. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 13(1), 1-24.

Feleen, F., & David, A. (2021). A Comparative Study of Work From Home vs Work From Office: Preference of Women Employees in IT Industry. Design Engineering, 7(1), 5763-5775.

Financial Express. (2020, June 9). COVID-19 impact: More staff in services sector companies to work from home in the future as well. Retrieved from

Flick, U. (2018). Triangulation in data collection. The SAGE handbook of qualitative data collection, 527-544.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Ghosh, S. (2020, June 20). Working from home: Monitoring employee productivity in the times of lockdown. Financial Express. Retrieved from

Golden, L. (2008). Limited access: Disparities in flexible work schedules and work-at-home. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29(1), 86-109.

Grant, S. A., Bienentreu, J. F., Vilaça, S. T., Brunetti, C. R., Lesbarrères, D., Murray, D. L., & Kyle, C. J. (2019). Low intraspecific variation of Frog virus 3 with evidence for novel FV3-like isolates in central and northwestern Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 134(1), 1-13.

Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

Hanaysha, J. (2016). Improving employee productivity through work engagement: Evidence from higher education sector. Management Science Letters, 6(1), 61-70.

Ibarra, H., Gillard, J., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2020, July 6). Why WFH isn’t necessarily good for women. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1981). LISREL V: Analysis of linear structural relationships by the method of maximum likelihood. National Educational Resources.

Kramer, A., & Kramer, K. Z. (2020). The potential impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on occupational status, Work from home, and occupational mobility. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 119, 103442. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2020.10344

Khosrow-Pour, D. B. A. (Ed.). (2020). Handbook of research on modern educational technologies, applications, and management. IGI Global.

Kaur, U., Ojha, B., Pathak, B. K., Singh, A., Giri, K. R., Singh, A., … & Chakrabarti, S. S. (2021). A prospective observational safety study on ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 corona virus vaccine (recombinant) use in healthcare workers-first results from India. EClinicalMedicine, 38, 101038.

Miles, D., Stedman, M., & Heald, A. (2020). Living with COVID-19: balancing costs against benefits in the face of the virus. National Institute Economic Review, 253, R60-R76.

Ramasamy, M. N., Minassian, A. M., Ewer, K. J., Flaxman, A. L., Folegatti, P. M., Owens, D. R., … & Demissie, T. (2020). Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. The Lancet, 396(10267), 1979-1993.

Rodrigues, T. S., de Sá, K. S., Ishimoto, A. Y., Becerra, A., Oliveira, S., Almeida, L., … & Zamboni, D. S. (2021). Inflammasomes are activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with COVID-19 severity in patients. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(3).

Simeonova, I., Petrova, S., & Mladenova, I. (2021). ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS REGISTERED FOR THE PERIOD 2012-2020, IN STARA ZAGORA REGION. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 19(2), 153.

Suresh, M., & Gopakumar, K. (2021). Multi-grade fuzzy assessment framework for software professionals in work-from-home mode during and post-COVID-19 era. Future Business Journal, 7(1), 10.

Vahdat, M. M., Hemmati, F., Ghorbani, A., Rutkowska, D., Afsharifar, A., Eskandari, M. H., … & Niazi, A. (2021). Hepatitis B core-based virus-like particles: A platform for vaccine development in plants. Biotechnology Reports, 29, e00605.

Yadav, G., Kumar, A., Luthra, S., Garza-Reyes, J. A., Kumar, V., & Batista, L. (2020). A framework to achieve sustainability in manufacturing organisations of developing economies using industry 4.0 technologies’ enablers. Computers in industry, 122, 103280.


Don't have time to write this essay on your own?
Use our essay writing service and save your time. We guarantee high quality, on-time delivery and 100% confidentiality. All our papers are written from scratch according to your instructions and are plagiarism free.
Place an order

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Need a plagiarism free essay written by an educator?
Order it today

Popular Essay Topics