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Discuss What Relevant Theories of Organization Behavior Suggested, Such As Teamwork and Motivation, Evident in the Selected Organization


National Health Service (NHS) is a government-funded healthcare facility based in the UK that offers medical services to communities at subsidized costs. Teamwork and motivation are essential in enhancing effectiveness in service delivery to enhance the welfare of patients in the Covid 19 pandemic. Teamwork entails the capability of individuals to work together and communicate effectively to inspire confidence and unity while performing their roles. Motivation involves enhancing the cognitive, emotional, and social forces to activate and initiate behavior that is goal-oriented. Patients visiting such facilities access urgent care services in case of severe medical conditions. During the Covid 19 pandemic, healthcare professionals at NHS have been actively involved in identifying the symptoms of the disease, testing the patients, isolation, and vaccinating. The health facility maximizes its workforce to ensure that patients access value-adding services for improved health. It is a facility with approximately 1.3 million experienced and motivated employees. The research question aims at discussing the appropriate ways of resolving workplace challenges through motivation and teamwork will be discussed to enhance effective healthcare activities. NHS employees have been overwhelmed in response to the Covid 19 pandemic and therefore, teamwork, and motivation levels are essential in handling the pressures that are associated with supporting patients and saving lives. This study aims at addressing the challenges faced by NHS during the Covid 19 pandemic through enhancing organization behavior theories: such as teamwork and motivation to positively impact the health of communities through improved healthcare.

Case Study

Background Analysis

NHS has been supporting patients during the Covid 19 pandemic to enhance their health and well-being. Due to the increase in the number of infections, health care workers have experiences contagion fear, family health concerns, stigma, interpersonal isolation, and quarantine which have resulted in mental health issues (Wilson 2018). Healthcare professionals have also gone through stress, anxiety, and fear when offering direct patient care, especially in instances where the protective resources are inadequate (Wilson 2018). Workers have had to work for long hours with minimum rest to meet the increasing demand for healthcare services (Wu et al. 2021). As a result, they get overwhelmed, demotivated, exhausted and stand a risk of providing substandard services (Wu et al. 2021). Healthcare professionals are committed to offering exceptional care services and, in the process, risk their health and well-being (Wu et al. 2021). Generally, the Covid 19 pandemic places significant pressure on the capability of the NHS to offer high-quality and safe care services (Wu et al. 2021). Coping under an overwhelming working environment inhibits the ability to provide exceptional services hence the need for addressing the challenges experienced by healthcare professionals in their courses of duty during the Covid 19 pandemic.

Despite the challenges experienced by NHS and healthcare professionals, the facility is still committed to offering exceptional healthcare services during the Covid 19 pandemic, which seems interesting (Grey 2008). The facility ensures that healthcare professionals are well versed with the recent information regarding the Covid 19 pandemic through knowledge improvement programs (Grey 2008). In such sessions, knowledge regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures is imparted for proper coordination among staffs and patients (Valenza 2022). With a clear understanding of the processes and procedures to be followed for effective healthcare services, patients have better experiences while accessing healthcare services (Valenza 2022). With such pieces of training, healthcare workers learn to appreciate each other’s skills and consider them as their strengths in the profession (Valenza 2022). As such, an organizational culture that makes people to feel like they belong is enhanced (Valenza 2022). Also, teamwork and motivation are enhanced hence improved treatment options.

Major Organizational Behavior Challenge

The major organizational behavior challenge experienced by NHS is the inadequacy in the number of staff that has resulted in overwhelming workloads, moral distress, burnout, and unrealistic expectations during the Covid 19 pandemic. This challenge has been caused by an increase in the demand for healthcare services, especially for Covid 19 patients (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). Without sufficient healthcare workers, effective care services are limited, putting the health of patients at risk. NHS has also experienced challenges in workforce recruitment, planning, and retention (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). As a result, during the Covid 19 pandemic, a backlog of care was created. More attention has been given to the Covid 19 patients, and patients with non-Covid needs have regularly found healthcare services unavailable for them. The overwhelming experiences of the healthcare workers have made them to shift attention to Covid 19 patients with routine care, and planned operations have been suspended to free up resources such as hospital beds (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). Recently, approximately more than 300,000 patients have been waiting for their non-Covid needs to be met during the Covid 19 pandemic (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). The morale of the frontline workers has deteriorated as Covid 19 has put workers at NHS under significant strain. Doctors and nurses are exhausted and, in most cases, are nearing burnout (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). Such instances have been caused by insufficient healthcare professionals in the NHS to meet the increasing demand. Approximately one in ten nursing posts are currently vacant at NHS, resulting in approximately 40,000 vacancies (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). These healthcare professionals have demonstrated commitment in their roles during the pandemic, but all this has been to their personal detriment, as they sometimes lack adequate protection (Buchanan and Huczynski 2003). In the long run, these healthcare experts could develop severe mental health challenges such as post-traumatic stress disorder during and after dealing with Covid 19 at the frontline.

Cause of the Challenge

Such health consequences have been caused by the UK government’s reluctance attitude to investing in medical knowledge improvement programs. The training costs of doctors and nurses are usually high, which is evident in a publicly funded system (Thompson and McHugh 2009). During the Covid 19 pandemic, reducing training costs has not been an effective move as it makes staffing a major challenge (Thompson and McHugh 2009). Healthcare professionals can not officially assume their roles without the necessary knowledge having been imparted to them, as service delivery could be compromised (Thompson and McHugh 2009). Healthcare workers should be seen as an asset at NHS rather than a liability to ensure adequate care services (Thompson and McHugh 2009). Cost-cutting initiatives at NHS have therefore placed barriers on recruitment at a time when such experts are needed most.

Theory Discussion

Teamwork and Motivation Theories

Teamwork Theory

Teamwork refers to the process of working with people collaboratively to achieve a specific goal. The teamwork theory aims at reducing burnout issues as one person is no longer responsible for handling patients (Somani 2021). A team of health care professionals come together and exchange ideas on how best they can offer reliable services to enhance the well-being of patients (Knights et al. 2006). A collaborative effort gives healthcare professionals an opportunity to work together and offer assistance and guidance in their areas of strengths and weaknesses (Knights et al. 2006). Healthcare workers work as a team to enhance their confidence levels in their roles and provide relief in overwhelming cases (Somani 2021). Teamwork theory will therefore address the challenges associated with overwhelming workloads, moral distress, burnout, and unrealistic expectations that NHS has been experiencing during the Covid 19 pandemic (Knights et al. 2006). Through teamwork, employees and managers can communicate effectively to address pressing issues that hinder effective services (Knights et al. 2006). When all clinical and non-clinical workers work collaboratively, improved patient outcomes are experienced. Medical errors will also be prevented, improving efficiency and enhancing patient satisfaction. Workloads make healthcare professionals unproductive and are likely to offer substantial services (Knights et al. 2006). The teamwork theory makes it possible for workers to assist one another appropriately for patients’ well-being. Staff relationships are also improved through teamwork, making assistance when handling challenging healthcare roles possible (Knights et al. 2006). Teamwork also improves job satisfaction, and employees become passionate about their roles (Knights et al. 2006). Motivation levels increase as well, encouraging development and career growth among healthcare professionals.

Motivation Theory

Motivation theories provide insights to organizations regarding what makes workers perform better. Such theories offer managers with tools to motivate employees by understanding how staff can be supervised better (Flodgren et al. 2011). Through motivation, organizations initiate, guide, and maintain behaviors that are goal-oriented (Flodgren et al. 2011). Motivation is what drives people to act the way they do and is influenced by emotional, social, and cognitive forces (Flodgren et al. 2011). Considering the staffing challenges that NHS has been experiencing, the goal-setting theory is applicable in addressing the issue.

The goal-setting approach is a motivation theory that was introduced by Edwin Locke. The methodology holds that health workers get motivated when specific goals are set to direct their roles and responsibilities (Willan et al. 2020). It is a methodology that will boost the morale of frontline workers at NHS, which has been deteriorating due to the overwhelming experiences (Flodgren et al. 2011). In this theory, commitment to goals and self-efficiency are critical in promoting effective operations (Flodgren et al. 2011). By defining the goals of providing exceptional healthcare services and incorporating measures to impact positively the well-being of communities NHS will enhance effectiveness and efficiency (Flodgren et al. 2011). Awareness regarding the proposed goals should be created for healthcare workers to enhance consistency in care services (Flodgren et al. 2011). The means to achieving the proposed goals, such as the provision of adequate resources, should also be communicated clearly by NHS for systematic operations (Flodgren et al. 2011). Through the goal-setting approach, NHS will also enhance self-efficiency by executing healthcare behaviors that will enhance confidence in attaining specific performance goals (Flodgren et al. 2011). Initiatives such as hiring, retention, and motivation are supported by this theory and will address the issue of inadequate staffing in NHS. Staff retention resolves inadequacy in healthcare workers, and the costs of hiring will also be cut (Flodgren et al. 2011). Training costs associated with orientation and recruitment will also be managed through staff retention (Flodgren et al. 2011). Motivation, therefore, plays a critical role in enhancing a conducive working environment for healthcare experts (Flodgren et al. 2011). When they are motivated, they are influenced to perform their roles to the expected standards for efficiency in service delivery. When healthcare workers are motivated to work, they express commitment, and in the long run, patients will have better health experiences.

Empirical Work

The NHS Leadership Academy advises that effective teamwork and motivation make healthcare facilities able to overcome the challenges they experience in a short time. Evidence from the academy has indicated that staff working as a team is a process overseen by the managers and supervisors, who should be role models in enhancing collaboration (Azizi et al. 2021). Staffs should also be aware of the importance of collaboration in enhancing the welfare of patients so that they are cooperative in the process (Chung et al. 2021). Also, when healthcare workers are motivated in their roles, they acquire the drive to perform their roles without having to be closely monitored or pushed (Azizi et al. 2021). They understand their roles and have the initiative to execute them.


Organizations providing healthcare services should embrace teamwork and motivation theories for quality services. These are methodologies that appropriately resolve the challenges experienced in their daily operations (Collings et al. 2021). NHS will appropriately resolve the issues surrounding them by applying these theories hence the need to embrace them (Collings et al. 2021). To effectively incorporate these theories, healthcare facilities should evaluate their challenges and identify appropriate areas where these theories apply for exceptional services.


I think, to effectively address the challenges that NHS has been facing during the Covid 19 pandemic, the teamwork and motivation theories should be applied. These theories are broad and provide realistic solutions to the challenges that NHS has been experiencing (Faupel and Süß 2019). NHS has been facing staffing issues where the healthcare workers available are inadequate to meet the increasing demand for healthcare services (Faupel and Süß 2019). Such challenges have made the entire workforce overwhelmed, risking the health of patients. The teamwork theory offers solutions to such challenges since, through teamwork, employees can communicate with ease and assist one another in areas of challenge for improved patient health (Faupel and Süß 2019). When teamwork is enhanced, staff workload will be adequately handled, reducing the patient traffic that has resulted due to fatigue and lack of enough rest. I also think that the morale of frontline workers can be effectively boosted through the motivation theory. The motivation theory provides room for enhancing commitment and self-efficiency when offering healthcare services, hence addressing the deteriorating staff morale that has resulted from the overwhelming experiences (Faupel and Süß 2019). When staffs are motivated to work, they are self-driven (Islam et al. 2021). They do not have to be closely supervised to enhance productivity. They are aware of their job description and are committed to their roles and responsibilities (Faupel and Süß 2019). I believe that NHS will resolve the issue of deteriorating morale of healthcare workers through applying the motivation theory that enhances self-drive and commitment amongst workers (Islam et al. 2021). NHS will also learn about the importance of providing the necessary resources for the appropriate protection of workers when handling Covid 19 patients (Islam et al. 2021). When staffs are appropriately protected, they develop confidence in service delivery, impacting positively the lives and well-being of patients.


The National Health Service (NHS) is a healthcare facility that offers medical services to communities at reduced prices. It is a government-funded institution that aims to positively impact communities through providing reliable healthcare services to patients. During the Covid 19 pandemic, NHS has been overwhelmed due to the rise in demand for healthcare services. The available workers have been inadequate, resulting in burnout, mental issues, and general fatigue making them not productive to the expected standards. Such challenges that the facility encounters in its daily activities which hinder seamless operations. Teamwork and motivation theories provide appropriate solutions to these challenges, especially during the Covid 19 pandemic. Healthcare workers at NHS have also had concerns such as contagion fear, stigma, and interpersonal isolation that has made it challenging for them to meet the expectations of their patients. When serving clients, these professionals are sometimes not appropriately protected as the available resources are overstretched. These challenges have been caused by the United Kingdom government being reluctant to invest in knowledge improvement programs for healthcare workers. Considering that the training costs are relatively high, the government has considered cutting on such costs, which is not a wise move either. Such programs should be given priority so that doctors and nurses are equipped with the appropriate skills to work effectively. Staffs that are inappropriately trained are likely to offer substandard services hence the need for a comprehensive training program. These inefficiencies have made recruitment and hiring processes challenging, resulting in staffing issues at NHS during the Covid 19 pandemic.


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