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Diabetes: A Comparative Analysis of Management Strategies in the UK and India


Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global public health disaster, drastically impacting the well-being of people and straining healthcare systems globally. NCDs, frequently called chronic diseases, aren’t contagious and tend to have extended and slow-progressing consequences on people’s health. Among the most well-known NCDs is diabetes, a chronic metabolic sickness characterized using excessive blood sugar levels that can lead to severe complications if left unmanaged. World Health Organization (WHO) statistics screen the alarming NCD burden. NCDs account for about 71% of all worldwide deaths, with diabetes being a prime contributor to this statistic (Suryasa et al., 2021). About 463 million humans live with diabetes globally, and this variety is projected to have an upward push similarly within the coming years.

Furthermore, 75% of NCD-related deaths arise in low- and middle-income countries with anxious health disparities. This essay explores diabetes from a global public health angle, analyzing its occurrence and treatment within the United Kingdom (UK) and India. By checking on the approaches taken via these two countries, we can get precious insights into the complexity of handling diabetes in numerous country-wide contexts, even as acknowledging the broader implications for global health.

Global Trends and Health Influences of Diabetes

The diabetes epidemic has seen an overwhelming growth in incidence globally, in general, pushed through numerous influential factors. One of the foremost contributors to the diabetes epidemic is the rising incidence of obesity, particularly in Western international locations like the UK. Sedentary life, an overreliance on processed foods, and unhealthy nutrition have led to an alarming rise in obesity concerns, a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes (Lovic et al.,2020). Additionally, the excessive availability and intake of sugary beverages and excessive-calorie meals make contributions the obesity-diabetes link (Boutilier et al., 2021). Moreover, the global populace is growing old, leading to a better prevalence of type 2 diabetes, which is greater commonplace in older individuals. The demographic shift closer to a getting senior population is an important aspect influencing the diabetes burden globally. As humans age, diabetes-associated complications increase, placing additional stress on healthcare structures.

Rapid urbanization and way-of-life transitions in growing nations like India have appreciably impacted diabetes trends. As more humans migrate to city regions, they tend to undertake much less wholesome diets and lead increasingly sedentary lives, contributing to diabetes. The “nutrition transition” phenomenon, characterized by the shift from conventional diets to more excellent processed and energy-dense ingredients, performs a sizable function in the escalating diabetes level (Suryasa et al., 2021). Furthermore, diabetes showcases a clear link to socioeconomic disparities. In developed and growing countries, individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are disproportionately laid down with the disorder, highlighting the essential role of social determinants of health in the diabetes epidemic. Limited access to nutritious food, healthcare services, and health education exacerbates the burden of diabetes in deprived populations.

Incidence and Prevalence

In the United Kingdom, diabetes has become a normal health difficulty, mainly type 2 diabetes. According to the modern facts from Public Health England, approximately 4.8 million individuals have been identified with diabetes, around 8.9% of the United Kingdom’s population. Of these rates, about 90% have type 2 diabetes, even as the last 10% have type 1 diabetes (Standl et al., 2019). Furthermore, an anticipated 850,000 individuals inside the UK have undiagnosed diabetes, bringing the prevalence to nearly 5.7 million individuals laid low with the circumstance. Alternatively, India faces a drastically higher diabetes burden. India has the best range of pronounced cases of diabetes in the world, consistent with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Current estimates propose that nearly 77 million Indian adults have diabetes, with that range predicted to climb to 134 million by 2045 if developments continue. The prevalence of diabetes in India is about 11.8%, which is notably higher than the global rate (Boutilier et al., 2021). The alarming upward thrust in diabetes instances in India can be attributed to an aggregate of factors, which include genetic susceptibility, urbanization, modifications in dietary styles, and sedentary life. The nation’s enormous population and numerous cultural and socioeconomic traits exacerbate the challenges in diabetes management and prevention efforts.

The management of diabetes within the UK is supported with the aid of the National Health Service (NHS), which plays a pivotal position in supplying access to comprehensive care, diabetes training, and essential medicinal drugs. The NHS Diabetes Prevention Program specializes in identifying people in great danger of growing type 2 diabetes and providing suitable interventions to prevent or postpone the onset of the sickness. However, the increasing burden of diabetes at healthcare centers poses massive issues in maintaining exceptional patient care. Efforts to promote patient self-control and schooling are ongoing (Standl et al., 2019). In India, diabetes control faces numerous barriers. Limited access to healthcare centers, especially in rural areas, poses a significant barrier to robust diabetes care. Many humans with diabetes in India stay undiagnosed or do not get hold of proper scientific attention, leading to complications and poorer effects. Moreover, lack of knowledge and affordability prevents substantial adoption of appropriate diabetes control practices. Although the authorities have initiated packages to tackle diabetes, implementing them correctly remains challenging, particularly in this diverse and populous country.

In the UK, public health campaigns and projects concentrate on diabetes prevention, advocating for healthy eating, regular workout, and early prognosis through ordinary screenings. Raising recognition and promoting wholesome existence has been imperative to the United Kingdom’s diabetes prevention efforts. The authorities collaborate with healthcare professionals, community businesses, and public health specialists to supply evidence-based preventive strategies (Boutilier et al., 2021). India, with its various cultural norms and ranging tiers of fitness literacy, faces unique challenges in diabetes prevention. Tailoring training and focus campaigns to neighborhood contexts will become critical to successfully coping with the disorder. India has released numerous public health initiatives geared toward elevating attention to diabetes, emphasizing the importance of physical activity, and encouraging the intake of conventional, nutritious foods. Moreover, they want to bolster primary healthcare centers and enhance health literacy stays paramount, especially in rural and underserved areas.

The UK has embraced technological improvements in diabetes management and non-stop glucose monitoring structures, insulin pumps, and telemedicine. Integrating technology in diabetes care has significantly stepped forward patient outcomes and is more advantageous to the overall goodness of healthcare (Sivaprasad et al., 2020). Digital health platforms enable patients to monitor their blood glucose stages more correctly, communicate with healthcare companies remotely, and get access to personalized treatment plans. While India is likewise exploring technological innovations in diabetes management, accessibility, and affordability remain sizable obstacles, particularly for marginalized populations. The adoption of technology in diabetes care ought to be coupled with efforts to bridge the digital divide and ensure equitable access to these advancements. Mobile health tasks and telemedicine services promise to attain patients in remote regions, but more work is needed to amplify their reach and impact.

Primary Prevention Programs

Primary prevention programs focus on addressing the risk factors that are adjustable to reduce the occurrence of these diseases. The United Kingdom has programs that address the risk factors, such as the antismoking campaign, which aims to discourage individuals from smoking. United Kingdom’s government proposed a polluters levy for smokers and tobacco companies to discourage smoking (Hopkinson, 2020). The National health service in the United Kingdom launched a program known as “Healthier You NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme,” which helps identify people who are susceptible to developing diabetes; they start them on a nine-month program that is evidence-based to help change their lifestyle and avoid developing diabetes(Whelan & Bell,2022)The program offers both digital and face to face services where people receive support to help them eat more healthy foods and manage their weight and be exercising regularly in the aim to reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

India is a developing country and thus faces many challenges and has a higher burden of dealing with non-communicable diseases. It has various primary prevention programs to help deal with the risk factors that lead to diabetes. The government of India developed a program for non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, known as the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & Stroke (NPCDCS). The program aims to promote healthy living to help avoid the number of people with diabetes. According to (Misra et al., 2019), the program advocates for health promotion and education to create awareness and campaigns on the importance of exercising and healthy eating at the community level so that every person knows.

Secondary Prevention Programs

Secondary prevention programs focus on detecting diabetes at an early stage and help reduce the complications and deal with the burden of the disease early enough. The United Kingdom has a well-developed health system to help detect these diseases early enough. The health system ensures that people get regular checkups and free screening to see diabetes so they are dealt with correctly and avoid health complications (Scanzera, 2023). The United Kingdom government ensures that every person who goes to a health facility gets their blood sugar levels checked to detect diabetes.

India also has secondary prevention programs to help with screening and health checkups for early detection of these diseases. Despite the significant burden of non-communicable diseases, the government of India, through the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & Stroke (NPCDCS), organizes screening and regular checkups, even for those in rural areas to ensure everyone is included and to help reduce the burden and complications of the disease when it advances to further stages. India has also partnered with the private sector to ensure that screening and diagnostic services are available for the people, especially in the urban areas, and is pushing for easy access to health services even in rural facilities.

Tertiary Prevention Programs

Tertiary prevention programs focus on dealing with people who already have the disease and help improve their quality of life and reduce the occurrence of disability in these populations. According to James (2019), tertiary programs in the United Kingdom include palliative care centers that offer care to patients with diabetes to help them have a good and quality life during their end days. India also has tertiary programs focusing on easy accessibility of health services and specialized medical personnel who help patients with chronic illnesses (Das et al.,2022). The country also has ensured that patients with diabetes get priority medication and treatment to help improve their quality of life. The National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & Stroke (NPCDCS) also has created rehabilitation programs and palliative care for these patients to reduce disability and improve quality of life.

Implications for Health Security

The United Kingdom has well-established programs to help deal with diabetes and reduce the global burden. The health system ensures health education and promotion programs to create awareness are done, and there is easy access to health services for early detection and management of non-communicable diseases. The availability of diagnostic and specialized hospitals ensures that health security is resilient and the health burden is reduced (Whicher et al., 2020). On the other hand, India is more responsible for addressing diabetes due to income level (Parikh and Hota, 2023). Still, it uses the available resources to ensure health education, screening, and specialized hospitals to deal with this diabetes. To help. Improving health security in India is critical to addressing the health disparities in the healthcare systems.

The assessment of the risk, incident management, emergency planning, and legal and regulatory governance for diabetes in the United Kingdom and India is vital in dealing with the burden of this diabetes.

Risk assessment

Many studies conducted in the United Kingdom have contributed to the need to assess the risk factors for diabetes and how it affects public health. Public health in England is enforced by conducting regular research, such as the healthy survey for England, which offers data on the lifestyle behaviors of people and the other risk factors for developing diabetes. The global burden disease study is another body in the United Kingdom run by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). It offers data on the impact of diabetes on the population’s health and influences policymakers’ decision-making (Mahajan, 2019). India also carries out many studies and research to understand and develop ways to reduce the burden of diabetes in the country. One of the key players is the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which conducts surveys on the population’s risk factors and health behaviors regarding diabetes (Deepa et al., 2023).

Incident Management and Emergency Planning

In the United Kingdom, the Department of Health and social care addresses emergencies related to diabetes management, e.g., pandemics such as the coved 19 pandemic. The National Health Service in the United Kingdom is the leading key player in managing emergencies relating to diabetes, such as diabetes ketoacidosis (Whelan and Bell, 2022). It monitors the trends of disease outbreaks to come up with plans to reduce the disease burden. In India, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) plans for emergencies like disease outbreaks to help address the load due to diabetes (Varughese and Purushothaman, 2021. pp.16-35).

Legal and Regulatory Governance

In the United Kingdom, various policies, such as polluters paying for tobacco companies and smokers, help regulate and reduce tobacco use. Other approaches include taxes on unhealthy foods to reduce their consumption. Regulatory bodies, such as the Food and drug act, ensure that foods and medications that are sold meet the quality and safety standards to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. India also has regulatory bodies, such as the “National Health Policy 2017,” which advocate for prevention measures to avoid developing diabetes. The Food and drug act in India also regulates the safety and quality of food sold to people to reduce diabetes.

Impact on diabetes

The impact of risk assessment, incident management, emergency planning, and regulatory bodies is that it helps manage non-communicable diseases better, reducing that burden and improving health security. Efforts by both the United Kingdom and the government of India aim to reduce the occurrence of diabetes.

The health system must be enhanced well to ensure it can handle the burden of non-communicable diseases. Various bodies help ensure that the health of the population is promoted, such as the world health organization, the United Nations, the Center for disease control and Prevention, and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. The United Kingdom’s healthcare system and the National Health Service are critical in promoting health and reducing non-communicable diseases. The National Health Service offers various services, including public education to create awareness, health screening to help detect diseases early, and immunization of children (Whicher et al.,2020). The National Health Service also regulates primary care practitioners at the frontline of health promotion in offering health education on healthy eating and health behaviors to prevent diabetes (England, N.H.S. and Improvement, NHS, 2020). The United Kingdom also interacts with other stakeholders to promote the health of its citizens and global health.

India’s health system comprises private and public health service providers who work together to promote healthcare. Primary health care promotion is essential in India to help reach the vulnerable population in rural areas, and together with community workers, they carry out health education and health promotion initiatives to prevent diabetes (Lahariya,2020). India also collaborates with other global health stakeholders to ensure a healthy world.

Transnational bodies such as the world health organization, United Nations, center for disease control and Prevention, and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund play various roles with individual countries to promote health, as discussed below. The world health organization provides technical support and evidence-based guidance on approaching patients to care (World Health Organization, 2022). It also offers financial support to vulnerable countries to help deal with the disease burden. The world health organization has global goals to help prevent and manage diabetes and works closely with governments to ensure they work towards the same goals. The United Nations help develop health policies that promote and avoid diabetes in developed and developing countries (Nutbeam and Muscat, 2021). It also organizes forums where countries, including India and the United Kingdom, contribute to global health discussions to share the best approaches to preventing diabetes. UNICEF partners with both the UK and India to ensure that children’s health and nutrition are managed to help reduce the incidence of diabetes in children (UNICEF, 2020). The Centers for disease control and Prevention offers guidelines for diagnosing and managing various health conditions, including diabetes. Through working together with both the United Kingdom and India, health promotion and Prevention is done and promotes the population’s health.

Justified Case for System Changes for health promotion

Health promotion and disease prevention is the ultimate goal after a critical evaluation of the healthcare measures taken by India and the United Kingdom. Several recommendations can help deal with the current challenges in health care and offer solutions to improve the global population’s health, as discussed below.

Strengthen Primary Healthcare

Strengthening primary care in both the United Kingdom and India will be beneficial in preventing disease by addressing the risk factors of diabetes. Investing in ensuring health care is accessible even in rural areas ensures that people are screened early and receive health education on preventing themselves from diabetes (Baker et al., 2020). Health education included initiatives to promote healthy eating habits, exercise, and programs to prevent alcohol and tobacco abuse.

Targeted Health Promotion

Some vulnerable groups in the United Kingdom and India are more susceptible to diabetes. Health promotions that address these specific people will significantly help reduce the incidence of diabetes in these populations. Health promotion initiatives should address lifestyle behaviors, cultural issues, and social and economic disparities leading to diabetes ( Misra et al.,2019). Working closely with community health volunteers, peer groups, and locals is also essential. Organizations to help increase the success of health programs.

Integrate non-communicable diseases in emergency planning.

Pandemics may hugely disrupt the management of diabetes if the nation is not prepared to deal with them carefully. The United Kingdom and the Indian health system should plan for diabetes as an emergency to ensure that even during the pandemic, patients with diabetes still receive care. According to Randolph, the pandemic revealed the many gaps in healthcare planning and advocates for emergency planning. This includes ensuring that the supply of medication to these patients doesn’t in case of a pandemic and that even patients in rural areas have access to healthcare even in disaster. That way, they can deal with the effects of the pandemic without further complications.

Strengthen Global Collaboration:

Collaboration with stakeholders such as the world health organization, the United Nations, the Center for disease control and Prevention, and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund in addressing diabetes is essential in developing policies and evidence-based practices that improve patient care. A study by (Xie et al., 2020) shows the effects of global crises if countries do not cooperate; therefore, to avoid health crises, India and the United Kingdom should collaborate with other countries and learn improving health outcomes.

Monitor and Evaluate

Monitoring and evaluating the policies and other public health measures for diabetes management is crucial to ensure continuous improvement and increased effectiveness. In diabetes, time in range is critical for monitoring the person’s blood glucose and shows the time the blood glucose is within the desired range (Advani, 2020). Both countries should invest in research so that it can inform their decisions on where to invest more resources.


Diabetes is a condition that has become a global threat in India and the United Kingdom. The risk factors for diabetes include lack of exercise, obesity, and unhealthy foods, and if addressed, the prevalence of diabetes can be reduced. Measures put by both countries to combat diabetes include primary, secondary, and tertiary programs that address the risk factors, screening, and management of diabetes to give patients quality life. Risk assessment, incident management, emergency planning, and regulatory bodies help develop measures to reduce the burden of diabetes. Some recommendations that would help reduce the prevalence of diabetes include targeted Health Promotion, Integration of non-communicable diseases in emergency planning, Strengthening Global Collaboration, Monitoring and evaluating public health measures regularly and identifying areas that need improvement. Both countries should adopt the recommendations to improve health security.

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