The long 16th century involved numerous enslavement processes by colonialists who used slaves to empower their governments economically. First, as Gerald explains, the Ottomans enslaved Africans and Europeans. On the other hand, Spain developed an escape hatch by creating a “Free African” population. Also, as Gerald posits, many Spanish people were enslaved in Florida. Therefore, the century was marred with extensive slavery and competition for resources and power. Religion, white supremacy, and class wars also played a significant role in the century. For example, fanatic Catholicism in Europe barred many Europeans from participating in various economic and social activities based on religiosity, as explained in Gerald’s book. Political leverage in various countries like the US, as Gerald explains, also allowed countries to form allies and develop their countries. The developments in the long 16th century made it a remarkable hinge point in global history regarding race, ethnicity, social class, and slavery.
The toxic settler colonialism and white supremacy also formed and characterized the long 16th century. During this century, countries in the West imported captives from Africa to work in their plantations for economic gain. For example, between 1501 and 1650, the Portuguese elites led in the enslavement of Africans. Many Africans were absorbed in Spanish settlements and Brazil. By 1866, about 5.2 million African slaves were already in North America. By 1526, in South Carolina, many slaves who had escaped from Spanish settlements led an uprising against their masters. Further efforts by the slaves to escape and gain freedom marked the century and increased the controversy between the Whites and Blacks. Apart from Africans, indigenes were also enslaved in various places. The toxic settler colonialism escalated the factors that defined the long 16th century and paved the way for the struggle against white supremacy.
The modernism that developed in the long 16th century contributed to the formation of racism. In other words, as racial differences became more apparent during the century, many groups that identified themselves based on race became more visible and organized. As Essed and Goldberg posit, the classical aesthetic and cultural norms developed through modernism in the century provided acceptable ideas about white supremacy. The characteristics of the long 16th century indicate that it was a turning point or a hinge in the war between races, social classes, and countries.
The differences between the Spanish and Anglo-American settler projects reflect the racial differences generated over the long 16th century. For example, as Ramon explains, according to the theory of internal colonialism, uneven economic development rocked the century, with many countries lacking equal access to resources. The theory was developed during the search for solutions to solve economic challenges that affected various countries during and after slavery. It also explains the reason why the Spanish and Anglo-American colonial projects were different. The racial preferences determined the type of projects that regions received and the resources distribution in various parts of the world.
One of the main reasons for the differences between Spanish and Anglo-American colonial projects was the scope and focus. For instance, most projects in urban areas focused on promoting the elites among the Anglo-Americans, thus leaving out the Spanish. The theory of internal colonialism developed out of the brutal conditions that urban people from minority groups faced. In other words, it is a reflection of the discriminatory projects among Anglo-American and Spanish dwellers. For example, the Chicanismo project was initiated to ensure the return of a homeland known as Aztlan. As a national masculinity project, its focus was primarily on gender differences and exclusionary. Therefore, the Spanish and Anglo-American views on gender differences and superiority determined how the projects were implemented.
Racial, ethnic, and religious differences among the people also affected the projects in the Spanish and Anglo-American regions. For instance, the “whiteness” project focused on restricting the rights that races enjoyed. During the religious conflicts between Muslims and Christians in Spain and the US, the “whiteness” project eroded effusions regarding skin color to allow Blacks to be “whitened” so long as they were religiously correct. In the wake of the 1572 massacre in London, religious differences between Catholics and Protestants exemplified how religion affected countries. Similarly, projects within Anglo-American and Spanish communities differed in their religious preferences. The settler projects allowed people to form alliances across their racial differences. The move broadened the scope of settler projects beyond what religion could achieve. Further differences emanated from the collaboration by republicans who pushed for the London settler project, whose purpose was to promote equality through the slogan “all men are created equal.” Therefore, the colonial settler projects between Spanish and Anglo-Americans were based on religious, focus or scope, racial, ethnic, and social-economic features.
Conclusively, the long 16th century involved erratic battles on white supremacy, socio-economic status, race, and ethnicity. Many of these features determined slavery trends, international alliances, and competition for resources and development. Similarly, settler colonial projects between Spanish and Anglo-American societies differed in focus, scope, religious, and ethnic aspects. Although the long 16th century marked a vital hinge point in modernism, it also triggered ethnic and racial differences that exist to date.
Essed, Philomena, and David Theo Goldberg. “Race critical theories: Text and context.” (2001).
Gutiérrez, Ramón A. “Internal colonialism: An American theory of race.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 1, no. 2 (2004): 281-295.
Horne, Gerald. The dawning of the Apocalypse: The roots of slavery, white supremacy, settler colonialism, and capitalism in the long sixteenth century. Monthly Review Press, 2020.
 Horne, Gerald. The dawning of the Apocalypse: The roots of slavery, white supremacy, settler colonialism, and capitalism in the long sixteenth century. Monthly Review Press, 2020.
 Horne, Gerald, 2020
 Essed, Philomena, and David Theo Goldberg. “Race critical theories: Text and context.” (2001).
 Gutiérrez, Ramón A. “Internal colonialism: An American theory of race.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 1, no. 2 (2004): 281-295.
 Horne, Gerald. 2020.