Programs for reducing risks of disease, injury, and death brought on by dangerous working conditions and environmental dangers are known as “hazard reduction programs.” These programs often incorporate prevention techniques, including setting up safety gear, instructing staff members in correct safety procedures, carrying out routine safety inspections, and giving staff members access to safety resources. Additionally, designing evacuation plans, hazard mapping, and emergency response procedures may all be included in hazard reduction initiatives. Natural or manufactured disaster mitigation programs can be applied in managing the risks as they differ based on the type of disaster involved.
Natural disasters mitigation programs
Flood Mitigation: Programs to mitigate the effects of floods on people and property are called flood mitigation measures. This may include structural measures, like building levees, flood barriers, and flood control systems, as well as non-structural ones, including managing floodplains, educating the public and enforcing land-use restrictions. Usually, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or state and local governments serve as the source for these programs. Floods impact mitigation plans ensure that localities are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen. This might include producing precise flood maps, designing structures with flood protection, and offering flood insurance(Yuan et al., 2021).
Earthquake Mitigation: Programs for earthquake mitigation aim to lessen the effects of quakes on people and property. This may include non-structural measures like public awareness campaigns, land-use restrictions, seismic zoning, and structural ones like upgrading structures to make them more robust to seismic activity. Usually, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) or state and municipal governments serve as the source for these initiatives. In order to make sure that societies are more equipped and prepared to handle these catastrophes when they happen, communities’ experiences with earthquakes are reflected in mitigation initiatives. This might include producing precise seismic maps, designing seismically sound structures, and offering earthquake insurance.
Wildfire Mitigation: Programs for reducing the effects of wildfires on people and property are known as “wildfire mitigation.” This may involve structural measures like the construction of fuel and fire breaks and quasi-ones like public awareness campaigns, land use rules, and fuel management. Usually, the United States Forest Service (USFS) or state and municipal governments serve as the funding source for these initiatives. Wildfires impact mitigation initiatives to ensure that localities are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen (Yuan et al., 2021). This may include producing precise fire maps, designing structures with fire resistance, and offering fire insurance.
Manufactured disasters mitigation programs
Cybersecurity Mitigation: Programs for cybersecurity mitigation aim to lessen the effects of cyber-attacks on individuals and businesses. This might include structural measures like reliable authentication and encryption techniques and non-structural measures like public outreach, awareness raising, and the enforcement of security guidelines. Usually, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or commercial security companies serve as the source for these programs. Cyber-attacks impact mitigation plans by ensuring that companies are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen. This may include designing safe systems, offering cyber insurance, and generating precise threat models.
Terrorism Mitigation: Programs for terrorism mitigation aim to lessen the effects of terrorist attacks on individuals and organizations. This might include both structural and non-structural actions, such as the deployment of effective counterterrorism programs and the enforcement of security regulations. Usually, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) or private security companies serve as the programs’ sources. Terrorism impacts mitigation strategies by ensuring institutions are more equipped and ready to react to these catastrophes when they happen. This may include establishing secure systems, constructing precise threat models, and offering terrorist insurance.
Chemical Disaster Mitigation: Programs to mitigate chemical catastrophes are intended to lessen the effects on individuals and organizations. This might include structural measures, such as establishing strict safety rules, and non-structural measures, such as public awareness campaigns and enforcing safety regulations. Usually, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or commercial safety companies serve as the source for these initiatives. Chemical accidents impact mitigation strategies to ensure that businesses are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen (Bronfman et al., 2019). Examples include developing precise risk models, designing secure systems, and offering chemical insurance.
Depending on the kind of catastrophe, different programs are implemented. In order to lessen the potential effects of flooding, for instance, floodplain management often involves the identification of flood danger regions and creating of zoning rules, land-use restrictions, and other measures. Directed burning, fuel treatments, and other strategies are used in wildfire prevention to lower the danger of wildfires. The creation of building guidelines and guidelines for new construction, as well as the retrofitting and strengthening of existing structures, are all aspects of earthquake mitigation (Rijal et al., 2020). The creation of emergency preparedness plans for dealing with artificial catastrophes is part of emergency management planning (Bronfman et al., 2019). The correct handling, labelling, and disposal of potentially dangerous items are all part of hazardous materials management. Implementing safeguards against online attacks and other unwanted behaviour is part of cybersecurity.
Impact of the programs, including the program effectiveness and unresolved issues
Numerous communities are now more prepared and able to react to natural and artificial catastrophes due to the programs’ tremendous effect. Reduced loss of life and damage, quicker emergency responses, and more public knowledge are all signs of the program’s efficacy. To further improve program efficacy, specific extraordinary challenges must be addressed (Canton, 2019). These problems include insufficient money for mitigating measures, a lack of public awareness and education, and insufficient implementation of security and safety laws. Governments, corporations, and communities must collaborate to ensure that mitigation measures are appropriately financed and executed to address these concerns effectively.
Bronfman, N. C., Cisternas, P. C., Repetto, P. B., & Castañeda, J. V. (2019). Natural disaster preparedness in a multi-hazard environment: Characterizing the sociodemographic profile of those better (worse) prepared. PloS one, 14(4), e0214249. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214249
Canton, L. G. (2019). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. John Wiley & Sons. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-rKMDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP13&dq=Identify+the+sources+for+each+of+the+programs+and+explain+the+influence+of+disasters+on+mitigation+programs&ots=5PL8K0e1wY&sig=71zYaP9mhUyk5foU0_Vj5W3r4YY
Rijal, S., Adhikari, S., & Shrestha, A. (2020). Guiding documents for disaster risk reduction and management in health care system of Nepal. JNMA: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, 58(230), 831. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654482/
Yuan, Y., Pan, Y. T., Zhang, Z., Zhang, W., Li, X., & Yang, R. (2021). Nickle nanocrystals decorated on graphitic nanotubes with broad channels for fire hazard reduction of epoxy resin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 402, 123880. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389420318690