The Daqing groundwater has been polluted by the effects of petrol drilling industries that have populated the Daqing oilfields. The effects of the pollution are observable as the water has changed in appearance and is now smellier from the pollutants. The refineries that populate the city are responsible for the increased rate of pollution. In the process of refining the petroleum products, there has been a higher demand for ground water. The constant interaction between the refineries and the ground water has led to a devastating impact on the quality of the water. The effects of domestic waste from households is minimal showing that the oil refineries are largely to blame for the state of pollution. Unlike the pollution that is observed from water that is running on the surface, the pollutants are a product of dissolved substances that are washed into the soil after it rains. An evaluation by the Nemerow index shows that the groundwater in the Daqing oilfield is of poor quality with most of the tested points falling under Class IV. The results from the test show that the groundwater that was closer to the surface had a higher pollution rate of 34.48% as it was closest to the pollutants when they dissolved in the soil. The results from deeper confined areas shows a lower pollution rate of 20% (Wang et al., 2014). The main pollutant in the Daqing oilfield are are nitrite and nitrate nitrogen brought about by human activities in the region. The largest contributor to the state of pollution of the groundwater are inorganic waste while the organic waste from human activity contribute to a very small percentage of the pollution. To tame the level of pollution of the groundwater, the refineries have to opt for more ethical practices in ensuring there is proper disposal of their chemical waste.
Artificial land use for farming has also greatly contributed to the high nitrate and nitrite components in the soil. Due to the high population pressure in the region, the residents of the area have encroached on the riparian land using it for agriculture. Farming activities have destroyed the natural fauna of the riparian land. Siltation from the loose soil from these farms has made it easy for the pollutants to join the river as they are wash from the heavily farmed tracts of land on both sides of the river. The fertilizers used in the farms that have encroached on the riparian areas are loaded with nitrogen as one of the key contents. A large tract of riparian land is needed around a river bank to ensure that there is no loose soil that is being washed into the river(Xu et al., 2021). Farming along the banks has compromised the quality of the water in Daqing. To lower this pollution level, the riparian land has to be reclaimed and the natural vegetation reintroduced to limit the effect of human activity on the quality of the water in the region. With the spread of urbanization, farming has intensified in the region to meet the growing demand for more food. Abuse of riparian land is the biggest challenge that human activity poses to the region, although the short term gains are beneficial the long-term impact of the farming activities along the river banks.
Rapid urbanization is another contributing factor to the state of pollution of Daqing River. With the rapid increase in population, there has been more pollution from human activities. The city of Beijing and Tianjin both depend on the Daqing River for a source of water. With rapid urbanization, the previous waste disposal framework does not have the capacity to handle the increase in population leaving the disposal and treatment of the sewage in poor condition (Yuan et al., 2010). Urban areas are notorious for pollution because of the high population density. As more people move to urban centers, there is a strain on the existing amenities. This has led to an increased rate of pollution due to poor waste disposal. To resolve the issue of sewage disposal in the river, offenders found viable have to be punished. This will ensure more ethical disposal of sewerage waste from buildings and commercial companies. Rapid urbanization calls for more diligent planning for effective handling of the waste from these urban centers.
Microplastic Elements in Daqing
There have been several sightings of microplastics in some of the inland Chinese water systems. These systems are severely polluted with microplastics. Daqing River, for instance, suffers from significant microplastics pollution. Morphological features show that these pollutants are mostly originate from secondary sources (Mai et al., 2019). In Daqing, the microplastics are a result of the industrial and chemical industries that surround the river. These firms deposit their plastic waste into the river, and sustained deposit leads to widespread pollution.
Some of the most significant and concerning pollutants in Chinese inland waters, such as the Daqing River, include pharmaceuticals, artificial and generic sweeteners and personal care products. There are several studies in China that report the high occurrence of these emerging pollutants and contaminants. While these pollutants mostly originate from industrial sewage waste, the Daqing Oilfield, which is in close proximity to the Daqing River, has managed to develop an effective sewage disposal system that reduces the deposit of such contaminants into the river. Moreover, for over a decade now, the Changyuan Biomedical Treatment Station of Oily Wastewater, has exploited its engineering systems to ensure that its operations do not increase pollutants into Inland water systems. The most impactful and damaging pollutants that come from such treatment plants include polymers and synthetic fibers that rarely ever decompose. Therefore, the cause significant pollution in rivers and other water systems. The Daqing Oilfiedl has taken progressive steps to ensure that it improves the quality of its environment to change and transform the polluted waters of the Daqing River, Bilu Lake and Chengfeng Lake. The Oilfield treats its sewage, effectively turning it into clean ecological water systems such as lakes and rivers.
Sewage treatment plants
Between 2009 and 2018, the Daqing River’s sewage treatment plants rose from 19 to 87. This led to a significant increase in the discharge of wastewater into the basin, from about 16 million tons to over 55 million tons. The main control units that have the most substantial direct sewage wastage into the basin include Jiaozhuang, Pokou, Wurenqiao, Daliutan, Beiqing, Anzhou, Shaochedian, Nanliuzhuang and Dongmaying.
Water pollution at Daqing river is caused by issues and places such as sewage treatment plants, industrial waste and large scale poultry and livestock farms. The sources of these pollutants include rural life and livestock, urban runoff, agricultural and poultry farming and agricultural products such as pesticides and chemicals. The specific kind of pollutants are such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and total nitrogen and total phosphorus. This research includes three primary models which can be used to develop clean up strategies for the river.
Point Source Data
The main point source data originates from environmental data, while the rural non-point source data originates from the Hebei Rural Statistical Yearbook. The latter is mainly calculated by deriving the statistics from the compilation of inventory framework of a chosen project team. On the other hand, the calculations for the urban non-point source is usually based on academic studies and research.
This method is used to show how the rural population can contribute towards reducing sewage waste in the river. As stated earlier, the waste from rural areas usually comes from agricultural and poultry farming. Agricultural waste such as pesticides seep into the river and create a foul smell that combines with other pollutants. The point source data method is essential in determining where these waste specifically come from so that the adequate and suitable mitigation measures are taken. By identifying the point source data for pollution from the rural population, the cleanup project can be made more efficient and effective. Point sources also include pollution from industries. The highest pollutant producing industries include machine-made paper and paper plate manufacturing, cotton printing, feather or velvet processing, electronic elements, fur tanning processing, weaving processing, hair dyeing, nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing and cooking, which make up for over 65% of the total emissions that pollute the river. The main control units that have the highest discharge of water pollution include Pukou, Anzhou, Yanjiawu, Wurenqiao, Taitou and Jiaozhuang.
Daqing Oilfield. (2021). Environment Protection. Retrieved 13 December 2021, from http://dqyt.cnpc.com.cn/dqen/h03/dqen_common.shtml
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