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Human Health and Climate Change


Variations in climate are a major problem affecting our natural environment now. These variations in climate have an indirect and direct impact on health. Most emerging countries’ urban areas are currently experiencing a tremendous increase in population. The United Nations postulates that the world’s population will have increased by over fifty-seven percent by 2050. Over 90% of the projected population increase in urban areas will come from developing nations. Due to this postulated population increase, the world health organization has encouraged member nations to take urgent action to handle the health impacts of variations in climate. Although variations in climate are well-known current alongside future ecological problems, its effects on people’s lives, especially safety in workplaces, have gotten remarkably minimal attention. For instance, the urban heat island occurrence has become a part of the climatological impacts of activities of the people in the urban areas due to the growing worldwide urbanization and industrialization pattern (Moda et al.1).

Moreover, for years, scientists have debated the relationship between migration and change in the climate. Human migration has been triggered by changes in climate since prehistoric humans initially left Africa, and movement has ever since been a way of adapting to long-term shifts, climate shocks, and recurrent climate conditions. Since the inception of the notion of “environmental refugees,” the area of climate migration has been garnering worldwide scientific and public interest, particularly around the 1970s. Since the movement ‘crisis’ in Europe in 2015, the topic has sparked more debate and quasi commentary in the press. Climate change will certainly serve as a danger multiplier for other migratory reasons as the twenty-first century progresses. Despite the lack of legal recognition of words like “climate refugee,” migration and war are seen as significant pathways via which changing climate is now a top worldwide health problem. Climate change’s indirect health effects, like those mediated through relocation and dislocation, are frequently overlooked and understudied (Parrish et al.1).

It is critical to note that the changes in climate and calamities due to climate change, such as those arising from hydrological, meteorological, climatological, and biological hazards, are becoming increasingly important to human health worldwide. For instance, in 2016, the number of persons impacted by catastrophes reached its greatest level in a decade, with climatological, hydrological, and meteorological disasters accounting for over 90 percent of all catastrophes, excluding biological threats that are impacted by climatic changes. The mortality and morbidity rates resulting from these disasters are very high, and there is a need to take decisive action (Banwell et al.2)

Amid rising temperatures in metropolitan areas and, more often, heatwaves, there has been a sharp increase in the prevalence of thermal diseases, which has resulted in increased rates of death and other negative health consequences. This study investigates the effects of high subjection to elevated temperatures and individual wellness issues in open-air workers and the effects of output alongside workplace security in third-world nations (Moda et al. 2). The study also offers a vital overview of the climatic relocation literature and a novel proposed framework for identifying migratory determinants in the face of climatic changes. It emphasizes how determinants interact and change with space, time, and society. The common characteristics of climate change and weather catastrophes’ indirect and direct health concerns are also discussed.

Previous studies have proven that global warming has been linked to ozone layer depletion and increased levels of ultraviolet radiation at the planet’s surface. Outdoor workers may be exposed to Ultraviolet light more frequently, intensely, and for extended periods, increasing their risk of unfavorable visual impacts, dermatological cancer, and perhaps immunological malfunction. Furthermore, increased heat stress may arise from elevated temperature and regular bouts of heat, possibly leading to further instances of thermal-related disorders such as heat exhaustion, heatstroke, raised vulnerability to exposure to chemicals, and weariness (Banwell et al.4)

Materials and methods

Researchers undertook reports of previously filed published literature to aid in the work process. The review takes a comprehensive picture of the matter, which aids in describing the effects of global warming, adaptability, and workplace wellness and security issues in open-air workers. In one of the studies, the researchers used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria to select eligible resources for participation in the sample (Moda et al.3)

From January 2002 through March 2019, we examined Medline, Google Scholar, web of science, and PubMed databases for research that investigated the influence of climatic changes on employees’ health and performance. Furthermore, shifts in climatic changes; shifts in the timing and intensity of fast-onset of climatic events such as severe weather events, periods of drought, river flooding, and heatwaves; and gradual-onset climatic changes, which include long-term changes in mean temperature, flooding, rainfall, and prolonged dry spells were taken into account (Moda et al.3)

During the study, the weather-sensitive catastrophes are treated as hazard constituent parts. When the well-being of disadvantaged individuals is influenced by exposure to hazards, the similarities between health impact pathways of climatic changes and weather-sensitive catastrophes become clear. Researchers applied All the above methodologies to develop comprehensive results, as explained in the subsequent paragraphs (Parrish et al.4).


According to the included studies’ publication dates (2002–2019), about 68 percent were documented between 2014 and 2019. About 12 percent of publications examined directly addressed the impact of climatic changes on workers’ health in various nations. Changes in climate, occupational heat exposure, and excessive heat among female employees were all covered in about 12.5 percent of the publications. About 20 percent of the publications in the construction sector concentrated on climatic changes, heat stress, occupational heat exposure, and other issues (Moda et al.6).

Generally, the impact of climatic changes and heat stress, occupational injury, and work productivity are among the subjects found in the publications reviewed. It has been further demonstrated that Climatic changes as a threat determinant for health consequences induced by raising the intensity and frequency of climate-sensitive biological, hydrological, meteorological, and climatological hazards are among the commonalities in impact pathways (Banwell al.5).

Migration can take place on various geographical sizes, ranging from migrations between urban and rural regions to global migration and on various time scales, including brief, cyclical, and everlasting travels. Each person’s choice to migrate may include varying degrees of personal agency. The choice to move is influenced by the family members or personal choice of a person and community factors. Thus, every prospective migrating person has a personal set of causes and determinants. Individualistic conditions are frequently defined in terms of the susceptibility of the person or society (Parrish et al.6).


Due to the rising urban population, a temperature rise of about 0.5 degrees Celsius with decreased precipitation, increasing skin infections, and vision impairment. The rising temperature has been contributed to due to increased human activities such as a human infestation of forests, thus cutting down trees leading to a rise in carbon dioxide levels, and the heating effect is felt. The overall outcome is the impairment of the hydrological cycle and hunger in humans (Banwell et al.7).

Furthermore, it has been documented that sunburn causes skin melanoma with dark spots on the skin surface (Moda et al.7). Some workers suffer from poor vision secondary to exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Thunderstorms and hailstones even kill some in a rainy areas; these are why such individuals or community members decide to migrate to better places to live. Each individual has their reasons for migrating. However, no one would like to continue living in an area prone to weather disasters such as flooding or drought; hence, they migrate (Prrisha et al.8).


People’s health is increasingly concerned about climatic changes and climate-sensitive events’ indirect and direct health effects. Many similarities exist between the health implications of climate-sensitive catastrophes and climate changes, indicating the possibility of combinatorial and additive responses (Banwell et al.10). Additionally, climatic changes may considerably affect future migratory patterns worldwide and have ramifications for population health, human safety, and long-term growth. Climatic changes are already contributing to huge numbers of displaced, domestic migrants, refugees, and international migrants (Prrisha et al.11). And lastly, the prevalence and strength of utmost hot weather conditions resulting from climatic changes, utmost occupational heat subjection, and the reduction of workplace diseases and harm will remain to be difficulties in developing nations situated in the tropical regions, as well as around the world (Moda et al.9).

Works Cited

Banwell, Nicola, et al. “Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 3, 2018, doi:10.3390/ijerph15030538.

Moda, Haruna M., et al. “Impacts of Climate Change on Outdoor Workers and Their Safety: Some Research Priorities.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no. 18, 2019, p. 3458, doi:10.3390/ijerph16183458.

Parrish, Rebecca, et al. “A Critical Analysis of the Drivers of Human Migration Patterns in the Presence of Climate Change: A New Conceptual Model.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 17, 2020, p. 6036, doi:10.3390/ijerph17176036.


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