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Crisis Intervention Teams

Crisis intervention teams (CITs) are specialized units within law enforcement agencies trained to respond to mental health emergencies and crises. These teams typically consist of specially trained police officers and mental health professionals who work together to support and assist individuals experiencing a mental health crisis.

CITs can be an effective alternative to incarceration for individuals experiencing a mental health crisis because they are trained to provide a more appropriate and compassionate response to these situations. When individuals experiencing a mental health crisis are taken into custody, they may not receive the proper treatment and support they need, leading to further deterioration of their mental health and potentially harmful outcomes( Maree,2022).

By contrast, CITs are trained to de-escalate situations and provide resources and support to individuals in crisis, helping to prevent further harm and promote recovery. CITs can also connect individuals with mental health treatment and support services, which can be more effective in addressing the root causes of the crisis and promoting long-term recovery.

Overall, CITs can be an important resource in addressing mental health emergencies and crises and provide a more appropriate and effective response than incarceration. However, it is important to note that CITs are not a panacea and may only be the best solution in some situations. It’s also important to ensure that CITs have adequate resources and support to be effective and continue evaluating and improving their effectiveness over time.

The ABC model of crisis intervention is a framework for providing effective and compassionate support to individuals experiencing a crisis. It consists of four main components:

Reframing: Reframing involves helping the individual to reframe their thoughts, beliefs, and perceptions more positively and constructively. This can reduce distress and promote a more hopeful and adaptive perspective.

Educational Statement: An educational statement is a statement that provides the individual with information about their situation, the resources and support available to them, and potential coping strategies. This can increase the individual’s understanding of their situation and empower them to take action.

Empowerment statement: An empowerment statement is a statement that affirms the individual’s strengths, abilities, and potential for overcoming their crisis. This can help to boost the individual’s confidence and self-esteem and empower them to take control of their situation(Koziarski et al.,2021).

Validation statement: A validation statement is a statement that acknowledges the individual’s feelings and experiences and recognizes their right to have those feelings. This can help to build trust, reduce distress, and promote a sense of understanding and connection.

Overall, the purpose of the ABC model is to provide individuals in crisis with the support, resources, and empowerment they need to cope with their situation and move forward. It is a widely used and effective framework for crisis intervention and can be adapted and customized to meet the unique needs of different individuals and situations.

Suicide is a serious and complex issue affecting people of all ages and backgrounds. It is often the result of a combination of factors, including mental health issues, substance abuse, trauma, relationship problems, and other life stressors(Gunnell et al.,2020). There are several critical signs of suicidal ideation that may indicate that someone is at risk of attempting suicide. These can include: Verbalizing thoughts of suicide: This can include directly saying that they want to die or make a plan to commit suicide. Expressing hopelessness or despair: Someone who is suicidal may feel that their situation is hopeless and that they have no way out. Withdrawing from social activities and relationships: Someone who is suicidal may isolate themselves and withdraw from their usual social activities and relationships. Displaying a change in mood or behavior: Someone who is suicidal may exhibit a sudden change in mood, such as becoming more depressed or agitated or engaging in risky or reckless behavior.

Demonstrating a change in functioning: Someone who is suicidal may have a change in their daily functioning, such as sleeping too much or too little, losing interest in activities that they used to enjoy, or experiencing a decline in their academic or work performance. If you suspect someone may be at risk of attempting suicide, it is important to ask them directly about their thoughts and feelings. Some critical questions to ask during a suicide assessment include:

“Are you thinking about killing yourself?”

“Do you have a plan in place for how you would do this?”

“Do you have access to the means to carry out your plan?”

“Do you feel like there is no other way out of your current situation?”

“Do you feel like you would be better off dead?”

Asking these questions directly can be difficult, but it is important to do so in order to assess the individual’s level of risk and provide them with the help and support they need. By asking directly about suicidal thoughts and feelings, you can show the individual that you are willing to listen and support them and that resources are available to help them cope with their crisis. It is also important to follow up with the individual regularly to ensure that they receive the help and support they need and to monitor for any changes in their condition.

In addition to these critical questions, it may also be helpful to discuss the option of creating a suicide contract with the individual. A suicide contract is a written agreement in which the individual agrees to not harm themselves and seek help if they feel suicidal. This can be a helpful tool in helping to prevent suicidal behavior and can provide the individual with a sense of hope and support.

Developmental crisis refers to challenges arising during specific stages of human development. These crises can occur at any age and can be related to physical, emotional, social, or intellectual development. Developmental crises can be triggered by a range of factors, including changes in the individual’s environment, changes in their relationships, or changes in their circumstances.

According to Shafique (2022), Emic issues are cultural or contextual factors specific to a particular cultural group or community. These issues can influence an individual’s development and how they cope with crises or challenges. Workers must be aware of emic issues when working with clients from different cultural groups because these issues can affect the client’s perspective, experiences, and coping strategies.

To demonstrate sensitivity to emotional issues with clients, workers can:

Show empathy and understanding: It is important to listen to clients and show genuine interest in their experiences and feelings. Create a safe and supportive environment: Clients may feel more comfortable discussing sensitive issues if they feel safe and supported. Validate the client’s feelings: Acknowledge and validate them, even if you do not fully understand or agree with them.

Use culturally appropriate communication styles: Be aware of cultural differences and be open to adapting your style to better meet the client’s needs. Seek guidance from colleagues or supervisors: If you are unsure how to best support a client, seek guidance from colleagues or supervisors who may have more experience working with clients from that cultural group.

By demonstrating sensitivity to emotional issues, workers can build trust and rapport with clients and create a more positive and effective therapeutic relationship. This can be particularly important when working with clients experiencing a developmental crisis or facing other challenges related to their cultural identity.

Question 5

Crisis of loss refers to the emotional and psychological challenges that arise when an individual experiences the loss of someone or something important to them. Loss can take many forms, including the death of a loved one, the end of a relationship, the loss of a job, or the loss of physical ability. Kubler-Ross’s stages of death and dying and Worden’s tasks of mourning are two different models that help to understand the process of coping with loss.

Kubler-Ross’s stages of death and dying consist of five stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance(Mingo,2022). These stages are not necessarily experienced linearly or predictably, and individuals may move back and forth between stages. Worden’s mourning tasks consist of four: accepting the reality of the loss, experiencing the pain of the loss, adjusting to life without the person or thing that was lost, and emotionally relocating the person or thing that was lost. These tasks are not necessarily experienced in a specific order, and individuals may progress through them at different rates.

One key difference between these two models is that Kubler-Ross’s stages of death and dying are specifically related to the process of coping with the death of a loved one, while Worden’s tasks of mourning can be applied to any loss. Another difference is that Kubler-Ross’s stages describe the emotional states that an individual may experience. In contrast, Worden’s tasks describe the actions that an individual needs to take in order to cope with their loss.

Both models can help understand the process of coping with loss and can be used to inform approaches to supporting individuals who are grieving. It is important to recognize that every individual is unique and may cope with loss in their way and that there is no “right” or “wrong” way to grieve.


Gunnell, D., Appleby, L., Arensman, E., Hawton, K., John, A., Kapur, N., … & Yip, P. S. (2020). Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Psychiatry7(6), 468-471.

Koziarski, J., O’Connor, C., & Frederick, T. (2021). Policing mental health: the composition and perceived challenges of co-response and crisis intervention teams in the Canadian context. Police Practice and Research22(1), 977–995.

Maree, J. G. (2022). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: a critical overview. The Influence of Theorists and Pioneers on Early Childhood Education, pp. 119–133.

Mingo, S. R. (2022). Understanding pre-entry baccalaureate nursing students’ academic failure: Applying Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief. Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Shafique, K. (2022). Addressing community participation barriers using emic-etic perspectives. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, p. 81, 103270.


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