Uncertainty in the worldwide market has made firms more conscious of and prone to adopting continual change. The intricacy of corporate operations necessitates participation from across all levels of the organisation. Aside from land, labour, and money, human resources are a vital asset of every firm (Bratton, & Gold, 2017). It is critical to the institution’s efficient operation and achievement of its objectives. Human resources, if handled successfully, may become a company’s competitive edge in this ever-changing & dynamic international market. The workplace has altered in recent times of the Covid-19 epidemic. “The COVID-19 crisis has brought the role of business in society to the fore, from environmental issues to employee welfare, from social inclusion, being better corporate citizens or frankly just providing jobs. It’s really about the changing role of business in building a better world for the long run” (ACCA and IFAC, 2021). Therefore, the current assessment is based on the case study Coffee and Cake (C&C). The study will demonstrate and apply different management theories, leadership needs, performance management and development plan for Coffee and Cake (C&C)
LO1: Management theories to specific organisational challenges
An organisation requires leadership, managerial behaviours, and a culture that allows individuals to develop and become talented to expand the business, boost revenues, and provide great performance.
Leadership is described as the procedure of encouraging individuals and groups to work together to accomplish a common goal. Leadership is a strong tool that enables administrators to encourage the people to do what has to and must be accomplished. This team is one of a few small groups that do high-risk projects. The ability to deal with risk necessitates effective leadership (Grint, 2009). Leaders’ actions have an impact on the design, working method, and performance of their teams. Management is a complex emotional bond among persons based on trust, obligation, devotion, love, and a shared objective. In addition, various traits or features were used to assess or assess leadership.
Impact of leadership style
Leadership styles, such as visionary, coaching, collaborative, and consensus, characterise the activities of a leader. In the workplace, several sorts of leadership styles exist (Grint, 2009). The culture and aims of a business decide which effective leadership is most suited to the organisation. For instance, Transformational leadership seems to be more akin to strategic vision in that leaders inspire the staff to go above and beyond set standards (Doucet et al., 2015). Autocratic leadership sometimes referred to as an authoritarian rule, is defined by identifying possible overall choices and limited involvement from team members. These executives decide based only on their thoughts and opinions, without consulting with other group members. Democratic leadership is a style in which group members and peers’ feedback is acknowledged and respected. Everybody in the organization is asked to share their thoughts. The Democratic Leader enables the employees to discuss ideas during the decision-making procedure. A transformative leader often guides their staff by offering them a vision. He is a dynamic leader who attempts to motivate others with his passion and charm.
Situational leadership theory asserts that different leadership styles should be used in different circumstances. Hay McBer (2000) research, which relied on a random selection of 3,871 executives chosen from a registry of over 20,000 globally, discovered Six distinct leadership styles, Managers who get the best outcomes need not rely on a single style of leadership (Watkin, 2000).
Source: (Session 3, 2022).
Mckinsey’s 7’s tool assesses a by investigating seven important internal features of the firm’s organizational design: “strategy, structure, systems, shared values, style, staff, and skills,” to see if they are perfectly aligned and enable the company to fulfil its goals. It aimed to show human resources as a key to greater organizational performance (Bratton, & Gold, 2017), instead of the typical mass manufacturing tangible things of capital, structure, and machinery. The 7-S model can be used in a variety of situations where it would be advantageous to assess how successfully the organization interact with each other. It aids in the improvement of the organization effectiveness and the determination of the optimum technique to accomplish a certain strategy. (Cox, Pinfield, & Rutter, 2019). These factors are generally simple to detect, and the administration has direct control over them (Session 2, 2022). The “soft” characteristics are more impacted by the corporate culture. They are, nevertheless, equally as necessary as the hard elements if the organization is to succeed.
Max Weber was a German philosopher who championed bureaucratic as a universal method of organizational design. Administrative efficiency was the ultimate purpose of the bureaucratic system (Byrkjeflot, 2018). These qualities or elements of the bureaucratic organization may be found in the principles of bureaucratic organization: – Significant division of labour and specialization (Session 2, 2022). There is indeed a long chain of command that guides organizational functioning. The rules apply to everyone in the organization, from the top to the lowest, and must be scrupulously enforced. Technical credentials are used for hiring and appointment and only bureaucratic or legal authority is valued.
Behavioural management theory
Behavioural management theory is often described as human relations approach since it stresses the human side of work. Behavioural theories believed that gaining a better understanding of workplace human nature, such as motivations, disputes, ambitions, and group dynamics, efficiency. The Hawthorne trials were two tests. A team of engineers performed the very first study to assess the association between illumination levels and productivity increases. The second round of tests began (Wickström, and Bendix, 2000). Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger of Harvard University oversaw a team of 5 females in a financial institution. They granted women particular advantages such as the ability to leave the workplaces without authorization, to take rest intervals, to have free meals, or have pay levels vary (Session 2, 2022). Mayo and Roethlisberger found in this example that a boost in production was due to the supervising structure rather than increases in illumination or even other related worker perks (Kwok, 2014). “The Hawthorne experiments concluded that human interactions and workers’ social requirements are critical parts of corporate management.” This human motivation concept aided in the revolutionization of managing ideas and practises.
Given the case of Coffee and Cake (C&C), they need to focus on both leadership and management.
Source: (Session 3, 2022).
LO2: Critical understanding of approaches to leadership in context.
Coffee and Cake (C&C) is a privately held enterprise in this situation. Initially, the firm was doing well, but revenues began falling in several places as rivalry from aggressive independent businesses and other coffee shop networks increased. Unpaid debt problems occur, and the corporation started struggling monetarily. By the period of the Covid outbreak, it was in serious financial trouble and on the verge of bankruptcy.
Management of employment relations at Coffee and Cake (C&C)
Management is defined as “the act of articulating, organising, and carrying out an action within the accomplishment of business goals while regulating relationships with stakeholders, technology, as well as other artefacts both within and across companies” (Clegg, Kornbegger, & Pitsis) (2008). However, there is a distinction between management and leadership. In the case of Coffee and Cake (C&C), there was both poor management and leadership. That led the new management to decide to a step on changing the approach for better organizational culture and employee performance.
Managers in positions of authority must be logical, consultative, persistent, problem solvers, analytic, organized, and authoritative. From the case scenario, it can be seen that the management of Coffee and Cake (C&C), was not logical as they could not manage the business at times of crisis. They struggled to manage the business during the pandemic that led the business towards insolvency. Further, the approach wasn’t problem-solving and analytic as the staff claimed “Every unit is understaffed, always.” And they didn’t care about the employee as “Head office only cares about the numbers, not the people”. Further, they were not organised and persistent “Management are underqualified and not trained. Many health and safety violations, especially regarding food. Equipment doesn’t get fixed, and the lack of training means things break a lot”
Leadership style at Coffee and Cake (C&C)
From the glass door reviews, the approach of the organization is determined. As the response suggests the management “Never put enough staff on shift. Bad at giving breaks” they also stated that “Every unit is understaffed, always.” In such a situation it can be observed that the staff was not asked about their concerns or their concerns and opinion were never addressed. This is the approach of autocratic leadership. Autocratic leadership is where leaders frequently make the decisions individually or with a small, offer a sense, and they want people to perform precisely what is requested of them. It might be useful to conceive of these leaders in terms of military officers (Rees, and French, eds. 2013). Employees are not consulted, and they are not permitted to provide comments. Employees are expected to comply with directives without being given any justifications.
“Head office only cares about the numbers, not the people” and “Some managers are controlling to the point of bullying. While others couldn’t care less. The unit managers and HQ are also incompetent. Nothing gets resolved quickly or accurately.” Leaders that are autocratic make choices without engaging their staff. This is deemed ideal when choices must be made fast, there is little need for discussion, and team consensus is not required for a good end. In the given case scenario, the leadership was highly autocratic as the comments claim that “Some managers are controlling to the point of bullying”
Bureaucratic Method Application
Bureaucracies, as per Weber, must have the following attributes to work properly such as established regulations and guidelines, impersonal behaviour, the hierarchy of labour division and organization of authority. From the above assessment, the organization was well structured however there was a poor relationship between the employee and the employer. “A very poor company on SOOOOO many levels – they won’t care about you – don’t go & work for them – they are full of the proverbial !!”
Motivation at Coffee and Cake (C&C)
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory that argues that 5 kinds of people’s needs govern an employee’s personality. Physiological, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization wants are among them. In the given case the basic need such as physiological and security needs of the employees are rarely being fulfilled. As “Low pay” is one of the concerns of the employee. Whereas one of the employees states that “wellbeing of their staff or the quality of service provided Longstanding staff are not appreciated or rewarded”
Adair’s Eight Rules in Motivating People
Adair contends that recognizing what inspires people to perform is critical to capturing their attention and directing their effort. Adair stresses the need for a stimulating environment and a motivated individual.
This list outlines fundamental activities that leaders may take to be more motivational to their staff. While all these guidelines haven’t been as well investigated as some other theories of motivation, the list is nonetheless quite valuable. However, the business was setting unrealistic goals for the employees. The glass door review of Coffee and Cake (C&C) states that “Management is more concerned about reaching unrealistic goals”. Further, it is also stated that “wellbeing of their staff or the quality of service provided Longstanding staff are not appreciated or rewarded. Low pay. Little to no training.”
HRM in managing people
Maintaining legal practise, enforcing the law, and remaining impartial despite personal views HR policies that are following the values and goals of the organisation. Effective HR strategy that adheres to the law supports organisational goals in activities such as recruitment, training, compensation and reward, and employee relationships (Session 4, 2022). HRM approach guarantees that the top employees are drawn to the organisation and desire to stay. To persuade people, present realistic, reliable facts that demonstrate the value to the organization’s aims. Coffee and Cake (C&C) clearly show a lack of efficient HRM practice with low pay, poor employee retention and no/little employee training. As per the Harvard model Stakeholder interests, along with Individual and societal wellbeing are considered in this model of HRM.
Source: (Session 4, 2022).
LO3: Leadership approaches: workplace challenges
Performance management is the practice and series of procedures that strive to develop and maintain employee productivity following the goals of an organisation. It is both strategic and operational, intending to ensure that people participate favourably to business objectives. Although numerous variables are contributing to C&C’s recent poor performance, it is evident that bad managing people is a big issue for some time. Staff turnover was almost 100% in 2019, and employee participation rates have been quite low in numerous coffee houses for some time. On the Glassdoor webpage, in which hundreds of current and former employees have left worrisome feedback about one ‘s work experience with the organization.
Developing a positive culture for the organization
Culture has an impact on both behaviour and architecture. So, we looked at Mckinsey’s model and how each component has to work together. Organizational culture, according to Schien (1992) in his Organizational culture and leadership, is “how people do everything here sometimes,” it is the unwritten standards, informal regulations that exist inside companies and governs employee’s performance. Artifact, Values, and Basic Presumptions are indeed the 3 parts of organisational behaviour. From the given scenario it is observed that the above aspects are missing at Coffee and Cake (C&C).
Coffee and Cake (C&C) needs to develop realistic values, goals and objectives for the organization and its employees. They must combine diverse HR functions; an overall structure or framework is required to ensure that the various aspects are complimentary. The company should also be flexible enough to accommodate the many ways groups or roles work inside a single company. As the glass door responses suggested there was a lack of a sufficient number of employees and the employees were overburdened. Further, the corporate strategic goals must serve as a springboard for the company and departmental goals, which should be followed by agreement on individual development and performance priorities. People and management may then create strategies and regularly assess progress. Feedback should be provided regularly, and it should be accompanied by official performance evaluations. Coffee and Cake (C&C) must also emphasise organizational-wide procedures necessary to support success, such as leadership, internal communications, and others.
Source: (Session 5, 2022).
Performance Related Pay (PRP) and appraisal
Coffee and Cake (C&C) must adopt PRP. It is a type of payment that provides people with monetary benefits in the form of raises in base salary or cash incentives which are tied to an evaluation of the performance, often in connection to agreed-upon objectives. Employees can be motivated because they will realize that the incentives are directly tied to their work. At Coffee and Cake (C&C) it will help in Increasing workers’ focus on and devotion to business goals. It will also assist in the development of a performance culture or strengthen an existing culture. It helps in recognizing an individual’s commitment to organizational progress. Further, it will also assist in the recruitment and retention of high-quality employees.
Training, coaching and guidance
Coaching and mentoring can indeed be efficient techniques of staff development. Both have risen in popularity, with several businesses adopting them to improve their employees’ abilities, (Caplan, 2003; Garvey Stokes & Megginson 2014) understanding, and performance concerning certain talents and goals. Coffee and Cake (C&C) must develop a Coaching Culture investigates the evolution of coaching cultures and provides guidance for coaches looking to further expand respective organizations’ approaches (Downey, 2004).
Source: (Session 5, 2022).
Employee engagement (including involvement and communication)
Coffee and Cake (C&C) must focus on employee engagement, as it is built on a company’s and its workers’ trust, honesty, two-way engagement, and interaction. It is a strategy that raises the likelihood of corporate success by improving individual and collective performance, profitability, and well-being.
Leadership style to adopt
A leader must be able can affect others around them; this is a critical characteristic of a competent leader (Northouse, 2012). A good leader ought to have the direction in order: a leader must be good at communicating with colleagues in a way that influences people to accomplish the set objectives; a leader encourages colleagues to facilitate the achievement of the established goals. In the given case scenario, the leadership was highly autocratic. Coffee and Cake (C&C) must adopt Transformational leadership, it influences workers’ views and attitudes through motivating them. They offer their staff a purpose and inspire people to achieve certain goals. Transformational leaders, as per Tajasom, Hung, Nikbin, and Hyun (2015), assist their followers in achieving organisational objectives and missions by engaging with and through them. Further, the Coffee and Cake (C&C) leaders must be a combination of Authoritative, coaching and democratic approaches (Northouse, 2012).
Source: (Session 6, 2022).
LO4: Development plans in response to a learning intervention
‘A change in attitude, knowledge or skill. The change can be physical and overt, or it can be intellectual or attitudinal. Coffee and Cake (C&C) lacked performance management considering the low salary, inefficient training and employee turnover therefore the organization can improve itself by a strategic and integrated approach. Considering the ‘Hawthorne Effect’ Production grew not even as a result of changes in workplace conditions but as a result of management’s desire in making changes. Although there is considerable disagreement about how to understand and replicate the Hawthorne effect, it is vital to remember that attentiveness, interpersonal relationships, and norms are all key determinants of performance. Performance must ideally be monitored across a variety of HR activities and procedures (CIPD, 2017).
Source: (Session 7, 2022).
The Learning Cycle
Coffee and Cake (C&C) must focus on Learning and activity leading is a continual cycle, not a one-time occurrence. Business leaders have a significant effect on their workers’ success. Their duties, however, might make it difficult to successfully drive excellent productivity. Managers are accountable for team achievement, fostering a pleasant environment, and addressing challenging challenges, among many other things. These disparate tasks may soon be uneven, and a drastic shift in the marketplace can divert leaders’ focus away from the staff. This might lead to a decrease in performance.
Because training and development encompass a wide range of HR tasks, an overarching structure or structure is required to ensure that the various components complement one another. Business strategic objectives should serve as a springboard for the company and departmental objectives, which should be followed by cooperation upon personal development and performance initiatives. People and management may then create strategies and regularly assess progress. Feedback should be provided frequently, and it should be supplemented with formal performance evaluations at agreed-upon intervals throughout the year. The programs can also emphasise organizational-wide procedures needed to support success, such as leadership, internal documents, and others.
Source: (Session 7, 2022).
- Coffee and Cake (C&C) must focus on creating and executing learning techniques and programs that are in line with the goals of the company. L&D leaders must recognize the organization’s core objectives.
- Accepting and putting various sorts of instruction into practice. Everyone learns uniquely. Learning and development (L&D) managers, it is critical that they embrace all sorts of training and include all methods of training into the Coffee and Cake (C&C) L&D program. Coaching (Clutterbuck, and Megginson, 2005), e-learning, individualized instruction, career training, and workshops are all required.
- Keeping track of finances and negotiating deals This is a logical extension of an L&D manager’s prior two tasks. They have to understand the company’s L&D funds to develop a training program and employ forms of training (from third-party vendors).
- Creating instructional materials, the creation of training manuals is a part of an L&D manager’s work. This involved the design of e-learning programs, but also several different training approaches in today’s often online learning (think for instance of workshops) (Xie, Chu, Hwang, & Wang, 2019).
- Evaluating the effectiveness of development strategies to continue optimizing. An L&D management function is no exception. One of its primary roles is to monitor the outcomes of its development goals to continue to optimize where appropriate and assist staff in making the most out of the training opportunities that are available to employees.
- Recruiting and supervising L&D Experts. Recruiting and supervising Learning (Khandekar, & Sharma, (2005) and Development Experts is a duty for the L&D Management in bigger businesses with a Training & Teaching Division.
- Monitoring the HR team’s growth. The HR department of a corporation is frequently housed within the HR function (which makes it likely that both are concerned with the development of individuals). As a result, the L&D supervisor is excellently situated to supervise the training growth of the HR staff (Griggs, Holden, Rae, & Lawless, 2015).
I believe that Individuals can benefit from cultivating a regular habit of reflective practice. Reflection is the process of understanding and assessing oneself. This assessment has helped me understand and learn the concept of management. Going through different models of reflection I believe that I can express my learning experience best with Kolb’s reflective cycle (Din, Idris, & Tajuddin, 2020).
Source: (Session 8, 2022).
The entire module of Understanding and Managing People had led me to develop an insight into Human resource management. It has also led me to develop the importance of employees in the corporate system. The study was divided into 9 different sessions where each session focused on a different aspect of learning. The first session introduced me to the changing world of work, I find this essential as it led me to the base of the study. The next session was a very effective learning area as it helped me in Understanding the organisations, culture, structure & design, leadership theories, styles & approaches. Further sessions introduced me to leading and managing people in different contexts. This has helped me understand the importance of leadership in an organizational context. Further sessions dealt with the role of HR Management (people management practice) in the workplace, employee relations and employment dynamics. It was important for me to address the case study of the Coffee and Cake (C&C) company. The session on performance management & managing poor performance, help me develop a more practical insight into the areas of performance management. Then Learning and development methodologies assisted me in understanding to develop a strategy for the Coffee and Cake (C&C) company. Finally Individual personality, communication & motivation, personal reflection has helped me understand how the entire course has developed my understanding of the subject. I believe the initial session was more subjective and the later sessions were more practical. However, the most important area for me was session 8. Not ignoring the importance of the theoretical aspects, this has helped me to understand and introspect on learning capabilities and it was a revision of the entire module.
At the beginning of the course, I was a novice at the subject I was unable to understand why employees are so important to the organization. Going through the case study and the glass door responses I could relate how my family and friends discussed their employment concerns that acted as demotivation. I could learn that leaders are aware that turnover is significant, which would be influential on quality service and revenue. The organization culture and employee performance are interrelated. Further, the reflective aspect is not specific to the subject but also my ability to learn and grow. Every session and the assessment question led me to critical thinking, for instance, the LO4, which was associated with the Development plans in response to a learning intervention was the application of all the other sessions. Initially, I found it very difficult, however, revising all the lectures I could come up with a comprehensive approach for the Coffee and Cake (C&C) company. I believe this will be a boost for my future endeavours.
I believe that I lack confidence, communication and critical thinking approach before starting the module. Therefore, I found the entire assessment difficult at the start. I was underconfident to approach the case study and thought that the case study was too general to develop a specific plan. However, when I started revising, I could relate to every aspect of the case study. For instance, going through the importance of motivation in the second and third sessions I could relate it was the most important aspect the employees were lacking. Further, I could associate it with the leadership styles and importance of remuneration and training in the later session that helped me develop a plan.
I have led me towards the growth in self-awareness, emotional maturity, emotional management capability, and, as a result, inspirational motivation, impact, and also motivate others. I believe now I have an improved capacity to make judgments that demonstrate sound judgement, risk awareness, and the systematic impact of leadership and management on business practices, specifically business operation and HRM. It has increased my ability to develop creativity by asking open-ended questions and listening to the responses with an inquisitive attitude. Now I feel I have the capacity to be empathetic toward oneself and many others, as well as to inspire confidence through exhibiting integrity. Further not ignoring the impact of COVID-19 that has led to change in the business operation, I believe that business needs to be dynamic in the current market situation. I enjoyed the case study-based learning Further, I will incorporate social learning entails the exchange of knowledge. When knowledge is shared, it is reiterated, and recurrence enhances retention. Further, as the assessment was divided into different objectives and sessions, I believe that Breaking material down into digestible parts, also known as microlearning, help me to grasp an area before moving on. Finally, the parts combine to form the whole. therefore, I will structure my learning experience in such a way that I may finish little chunks at a time. I will spread out the learning to promote long-term retention. According to research, taking a break throughout a task enhances recollection. Most importantly I believe that having a goal in mind when studying gives the material significance and purpose.
The expectations of employees have shifted, and traditional leadership styles are being questioned, which will affect the way organizations lead and manage their people. Coffee and Cake (C&C) has been facing multiple organizational concerns such as leading to insolvency and the covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, the business must adopt a change management approach as well as performance management. The leadership must be a combination of different styles considering the scenario, thus situational leadership must be adopted. The management must focus on developing an inclusive culture and better HRM to avoid turnover. A comprehensive development plan is formulated that demonstrates the steps to be adopted by Coffee and Cake (C&C). Further, the reflective assessment helped in increased ability to develop creativity by asking open-ended questions and listening to the responses with an inquisitive attitude.
Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2017). Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Byrkjeflot, H., (2018). The Impact and Interpretation of Weber’s Bureaucratic Ideal Type in Organisation Theory and Public Administration. In Bureaucracy and Society in Transition. Emerald Publishing Limited.
Caplan, J. (2003) Coaching for the future: how smart companies use coaching and mentoring. London: CIPD
Clutterbuck, D. and Megginson, D. (2005) Making coaching work: creating a coaching culture. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Cox, A. M., Pinfield, S., & Rutter, S. (2019). Extending McKinsey’s 7S model to understand strategic alignment in academic libraries. Library Management.
Din, W.M., Idris, F. &Tajuddin, M., (2020). Adapting Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle in Enhancing Attitude and Skills Among Undergraduates through Volunteerism. Asean Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (AJTLHE), 12(2), pp.122-139.
Downey, M. (2004) Effective Coaching, 2nd ed. London: Texere.
Garvey B., Stokes P., & Megginson D. (2014) Coaching and Mentoring, Theory and Practice 2nd Ed. Sage, London
Griggs, V., Holden, R., Rae, J., & Lawless, A. (2015). Professional learning in human resource management: problematising the teaching of reflective practice. Studies in Continuing Education, 37(2), 202-217.
Grint, K. (2009) Chapter 1 “What is leadership: person, result, position or process?” Leadership: limits and possibilities, Palgrave (scanned, currently under BU7404 Leading and Managing Ethically)
Khandekar, A., & Sharma, A. (2005). Organizational learning in Indian organizations: a strategic HRM perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.
Kwok, A.C., (2014). The evolution of management theories: A literature review. Nang Yan Business Journal, 3(1), pp.28-40.
Northouse, P. (2012) Leadership: Theory and Practice,
Rees, G. and French, R. eds. (2013) Chapter 5 “Leadership” in Leading, Managing and Developing People, 3rd edition, CIPD (currently no scanned copies but multiple copies in Queens Park library)
Session 1., (2022) The changing world of work, by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 2., (2022) Understanding organisations, culture, structure & design, leadership theories, styles & approaches by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 3., (2022) Leading and managing people in different contexts by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 4., (2022) The role of HR Management (people management practice) in the workplace by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 5., (2022) Employee relations and employment dynamics by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 6., (2022) Performance management & managing poor performance by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 7., (2022) Learning and development methodologies by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Session 8., (2022) Individual personality, communication & motivation, personal reflection by Carol Banff Understanding and Managing People, BU7039
Watkin, C., (2000). The leadership programme for serving headteachers: probably the world’s largest leadership development initiative. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
Wickström, G. and Bendix, T., (2000). The” Hawthorne effect”—what did the original Hawthorne studies show?. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, pp.363-367.
Xie, H., Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Wang, C. C. (2019). Trends and development in technology-enhanced adaptive/personalized learning: A systematic review of journal publications from 2007 to 2017. Computers & Education, 140, 103599.