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The Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith on the Relationship between Town and Country

Most people, Smith believes, would rather “invest their money in the development and cultivation of land than in industry or international trade.” Keeping one’s money inland, he claims, brings it “more under one’s sight and command.” Furthermore, “the magnificence of the country, the delights of country life, the peace of mind that it offers, and, when the injustice of human rules does not interrupt it, the true independence that it affords, have allured more or less everyone (Smith, 2020).

Despite the intrinsic appeal of rural life, Smith believes that “the advancement of money” has a greater influence on human decisions. People may “have a far broader range, and may take their sustenance from the furthest reaches of the globe, either in return for the manufactured output of their own industry or by acting as couriers between distant nations, trading the produce of one for that of another.” In this manner, a city might achieve immense riches and splendor while impoverishing and destitution not just the area surrounding it, but also all those with whom it trades.” Development, opportunity, technology, and creative energy are all represented in the city. Similarly, Smith claims that city inhabitants “arrived at liberty and independence more sooner than rural dwellers (Piqué, 2019).

Smith’s Definition of Market and Its Principles

Smith believed that allowing people to make and exchange things as they saw appropriate (free trade) and exposing markets to local and global competition would lead to greater prosperity than imposing rigid government rules. Smith claimed that people’s economic decisions had a direct impact on overall welfare. Indeed, they often have no intention of advancing the public interest and are ignorant of how much they do. To ensure his personal safety, Smith favors home industry to foreign industry, and he does so by managing it in such a way that its output is as valuable as possible (Smith, 2020).

Individual profit aspirations contributed to societal well-being by encouraging reciprocal interdependence inside and across industrial systems. This is how the market was established. The invisible hand of the economy has a direct and indirect impact on the integrated, upper edge planning authority. Many conceptual problems arise when the government is pitted against the invisible hand, which cannot be witnessed. When consumers and producers trade, a number of things happen. One of the most significant discoveries in economic history was Smith’s discovery of the concept of the invisible hand. It is one of the most compelling justifications for free-market thinking (Piqué, 2019). According to the invisible hand theory, society would naturally develop and prosper if commerce was allowed to operate without restrictions, at least in its current meanings. These concepts are fundamentally opposed to the government’s institution and goals.

Smith’s Explanation about the Product price

Smith’s market pricing strategy is based on a dynamic perspective of price adjustment in response to market imbalance, described in terms of actual price divergence from the normal price. Later-day demand functions are not included in this concept. Modern supply functions aren’t either, and the linkages between volume produced and the usual price is highly reliant on competing factors in each sector as well as external forces. His studies of situations where production is inelastic in response to effective demand confirm a latent assumption in his market-price approach: demand prices are impossible to formulate theoretically.

The invisible hand of the economy is shown by the unexpected effects of this competitive drive to improve oneself, as Smith describes how mutual vying reduces commodities prices to their natural levels, which correlate to their production costs. Apart from short-term price variations, the competitive process promotes labor and capital to shift from less profitable professions or regions to more profitable ones. Finally, Smith illustrated that the self-interest and competitive pressure that govern all three components of production costs, wages, rents, and profits, not only provided an ultimate reason for these natural prices, but also revealed orderliness in revenue distribution among employees, property owners, and manufacturers.

Direction for the Greater Part of Capital in the Society

Smith’s concept of the market as a self-correcting mechanism was groundbreaking. Nonetheless, he had more in mind than just proving the system’s ability to self-correct. Rather, the goal was to demonstrate how, as a consequence of the acquisition drive, the annual flow of national revenue steadily increased. The impulse to accumulate, on the other hand, causes problems. Because Smith’s plan precludes the development of labor-saving technology, the factory hiring new employees pays them more than their “natural” wage in order to hire them. As a consequence, his wages begin to fall, and the process of accumulation may come to a stop (Piqué, 2019).

An innovative technique has been devised to address this tendency. Because “demand for personnel, like that of any other commodity, inexorably controls the individual output,” the factory unknowingly initiates a process that boosts employment by bidding up the price of labor. Smith was especially concerned about the effect growing wages would have on newborn mortality rates. There can be no realization of Smith’s natural liberty if the government is committed to or led by the insignificant rapacity of retailers and entrepreneurs, who are not the rulers of humanity (Smith, 2020).

Reasons for the Improvement and Development of the Country

The government has just four responsibilities to the people: national defense, universal education, public works such as bridges and roads, and law enforcement. When individuals behave only for the sake of profit, the government will intervene to create and enforce laws prohibiting robbery, fraud, and other similar crimes in order to protect the public’s interest and safety (Smith, 2020). One of the key reasons for his emphasis on universal education was to combat the negative impacts of the unavoidable division of labor that came with industrialization. Smith aspires to adopt free-market principles in the federal government by lowering taxes, eliminating tariffs, and keeping expenditures in line with real money. Trade restrictions merely increased consumer costs while delaying international investment and commerce.


Piqué, P. (2019). The Theory of Moral Sentiments and The Wealth of Nations. Ethics, jurisprudence and political economy throughout the intellectual history of Adam Smith. Journal of Philosophical Economics12(2), 75-96.

Smith, A. (2020). An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, 2005. Project Gutenberg EBook [EBook# 3300].


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