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The Emergence and Size of Firms According to Coase (1937)

Ronald H. Coase’s groundbreaking 1937 paper, “The Nature of the Firm,” provides an in-depth explanation for the emergence and size of firms – providing a significant departure from previous economic theories that were unsatisfactory in this respect. Coase introduces transaction costs as an essential concept in understanding why firms emerge — to minimize transaction costs — and how they reach an optimal size where internal transaction costs balance external market transactions. This paper seeks to critically assess Coase’s account and examine its credibility by considering its ability to explain firm behaviour in its complexity rather than idealized markets of classical economic theory. Furthermore, we will investigate his theory with regard to both its explanatory power and practical limitations while considering its continuing relevance within economic discourse.

Coase challenges the conventional economic theory, which uses markets as the default allocation mechanism for resources and production, often overlooking firms as players in an economy (Coase, 1937). Coase introduced the notion of the firm as a distinct entity that subsumes hierarchical organization for some market transactions. He reasoned that firms appear due to transaction costs incurred while exchanging goods or services with others. These include costs associated with gathering information, negotiating contracts and enforcing them (Coase, 1960). According to his analysis, making decisions between organizing transactions within an individual firm or through the market should involve conducting a comparative cost analysis at the margin. Firms will continue expanding until the costs associated with conducting an additional transaction within their firm equal those incurred on an open market (Coase, 1937). Coase broadened traditional economic theory by including transaction costs in his analysis of market mechanisms, showing how firms can be more than mere production functions; they can serve as alternative governance structures that minimize transaction costs (Williamson, 1989).

Coase distinguished between two coordination systems: the market’s price mechanism and firm decisions made through centralized decision-making (Coase, 1937). Market coordination occurs through price signals; individuals exchange goods and services based on price information that reflects the scarcity and value of those items or services. Within a firm, coordination is achieved through the direction of an entrepreneur; pricing mechanisms have been replaced with command-and-control processes (Coase, 1937). Coase suggests that transaction costs are responsible for prompting firms’ emergence and expansion. When direct management can more efficiently coordinate production than individual market transactions, firms emerge and grow. Internal coordination can be defined as the ability to adjust more quickly to changes without constantly revoking contracts (Coase, 1991). The firm represents an answer to the market’s imperfections and costs; it acts as an alternative coordinating system, often acting more cost-effectively (Coase, 1937; Freeland, 2016).

Coase’s explanation of transaction costs highlights the inherent friction inherent to market coordination, where every exchange incurs costs that can inhibit efficient trading (Coase, 1960). These expenses include among others, costs associated with finding price information, bargaining to reach an agreeable agreement, and fulfilling contract obligations. As one transaction after another takes place in the market, buyers and sellers must devote time and resources to agree on an acceptable price (Williamson, 1989). This process becomes ever more burdensome over time (Williamson). Once contracts are signed, further costs arise in terms of monitoring and enforcement to ensure compliance with their terms, which often leads to additional spending and disputes between parties. Frictional costs associated with market transactions provide an incentive for firms to form, as they can decrease transaction costs by conducting their operations internally. Firms take advantage of economies of scale and scope by streamlining production and distribution processes in order to offer goods or services more cost-effectively than multiple individual market transactions could accomplish (Coase 1937; Williamson 1989). Internal markets managed by established protocols reduce negotiations among market participants, thereby saving on transaction costs associated with market coordination (Coase 1937; Williamson 1989).

Without firms, every exchange of goods or services would require its own contract that needed negotiating, enforcement and renewal – an expensive and ineffective process (Coase, 1960). Coase noted that within a firm, one long-term contract replaces all these transactions. This overarching contract delegated authority to the entrepreneur or manager, who could then direct resources according to its terms (Coase, 1937). Consolidation of transactions into one contract effectively decreases the need for multiple market contracts, thus cutting transaction costs associated with market systems. An entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial capacity enables more flexible and rapid reallocation of resources in response to changing circumstances without incurring additional terms negotiation costs – an advantage which reduces friction costs associated with market exchanges. Thus, the internal organization of firms provides an alternative governance structure that may replace market mechanisms when these become too costly, providing firms with a way of minimizing transaction costs while optimizing productivity (Coase 1937; Coase 1991).

Coase’s theoretical framework on the size of firms proposes that their growth has an inherent limit, which is dictated by transaction costs (Coase, 1937). Expanding firms enjoy reduced external transaction costs but must contend with rising internal transaction costs as their business expands. These internal costs associated with managing an increasingly complex organization include costs associated with internal communication, coordination among a larger workforce, bureaucratic inefficiency and potential misalignments between the goals of agents and principals within a firm (Dunn, 1992). As firms expand, the benefits of internalizing additional transactions decrease while costs associated with managing them increase. Once a point of equilibrium has been reached, any further growth would result in diminished efficiency and could potentially create diseconomies of scale. Coase proposed that firms find an optimal size where internalizing transactions is no more costly than outsourcing them on the market to ensure they do not grow beyond what is economically justifiable (Coase, 1937; Dunn, 1992).

Coase asserted that competition is key in determining the efficiency of economic institutions (Coase, 1937). He noted how competition encourages firms to minimize both operational and transaction costs by forcing firms to compete fiercely with one another for customers and minimize both. Only those organizational forms capable of effectively controlling these costs will survive the competition for survival. Coase believed that markets act like a filter, filtering out inefficiencies and eventually reaching a natural equilibrium where only efficient institutional structures survive (Freeland 2016). Firms that find innovative ways to reduce transaction costs through internal mechanisms or strategic relationships will have an edge over their rivals through an ongoing process of market selection, firm structures and sizes that best balance market transactions against internal organization costs emerge over time. Therefore, the wide array of institutional forms we observe–ranging from small, normally structured firms to large complex corporations–is a testament to the effectiveness of competition in improving organizational efficiency within various market contexts (Coase, 1937; Freeland, 2016).

Evaluation of Coase’s Account

Ronald Coase’s contribution to economic theory stands out for providing a logical explanation for why firms exist – thus filling a void between classical and neoclassical economic thought. His insights on the tradeoffs between internal transactions and market transactions offer a definitive roadmap to firm growth: expansion occurs only to a point at which it no longer makes economic sense to organize an additional transaction internally (Putterman & Kroszner, 1996). This balance is an essential aspect of economic analysis, linking marginal analysis with institutional economics in an innovative fashion. Unfortunately, its strength lies more in explanation than prediction. Critics point out that Coase’s theory lacks a predictive model for the emergence of various coordination mechanisms, while subsequent work by scholars like Oliver Williamson, who built on Coase’s foundation to refine transaction cost economics, only serves to highlight this gap.

Coase’s foundational notion of transaction costs has also been widely criticized due to its lack of specificity; this hinders practical applications of his theoretical framework. He believes that competitive markets produce the most effective organizational forms; however, markets are far from flawless, often experiencing failures and imperfections that prevent optimal functioning. Coase may have oversimplified firms’ and markets’ relationship by depicting them as competing coordinators instead of complimentary ones, overlooking how firms depend on markets for inputs while markets require firms to turn these inputs into outputs. Critics have also pointed out that Coase has not adequately explored what makes a firm, such as internal work organization, technological influences or corporate entities themselves, leaving some theoretical and empirical questions unexplored and open for further examination.


In conclusion, Coase’s groundbreaking work on the nature of the firm has been pivotal in advancing our understanding of why firms exist and how they operate within the economy. By introducing the concept of transaction costs, Coase provided an economic rationale for the firm’s emergence as an alternative to market transactions. His analysis of firm size and the efficiency of organizational forms has led to a richer appreciation of the firm-market boundary. While his theory significantly enhanced economic discourse, it also opened avenues for further refinement and debate, particularly concerning the predictive power of transaction cost economics, the operationalization of transaction costs, and the dynamics of firm-market complementarity. Coase’s legacy thus resides not only in the answers he provided but also in the questions he provoked, fostering a continuous re-examination of economic institutions in the face of changing market realities.


Coase, R. H. (1991). ‘The Nature of the Firm: Influence’, Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, 7, 33-47.

Dunn, M. H. (1992). Firms, Markets and Hierarchies. A Critical Appraisal of Ronald Coase’s Contribution to the Explanation of the “Nature of the Firm.” Ordo.

Freeland, R. F. (2016). 11 The employment relation and Coase’s theory of the firm. The Elgar Companion to Ronald H. Coase, 148.

Putterman, L., & Kroszner, R. S. (Eds.). (1996). The economic nature of the firm: A reader. Cambridge University Press.

Williamson, O. E. (1989). ‘Transaction Cost Economics’, in Schmalensee, R. and Willig, R. D. (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, 1, 135-182.


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