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Psychological Impact and QoL of Middle-Aged Males in Hong Kong During COVID-19 Pandemic

A study showed views about quarantine measures (hostile) that all predicted mental health symptoms. Gender (male), age, economic status, occupational prestige (unemployed), stronger adaptive capability and faith in organizations, and optimistic sentiments regarding quarantine measures were all found to predict well-being. Men had a 31.7 percent predominance of prevalent mental diseases, whereas women had a 52.3 percent prevalence. The current study’s well-being scores were much lower than in earlier observed studies (Prati, 2021). Another study highlighted how the COVID-19 outbreak has had a tremendous impact on the majority’s mental health, with considerable implications for individual and social well-being both during and after the outbreak. This research provides a clear picture of psychological effects over a COVID-19 outbreak year, which is valuable information for tailoring more comprehensive mental health interventions (Gori &Topino, 2021).

As highlighted in another study, among five hundred and fifty-six participants in the study. A WHO well-being rating scale of less than 13 was reported by 40% of the participants, indicating poor mental health and the need for additional depression screening. Participants under age 30, female gender, single population, reported mental disorder, living alone, and those accessing unstructured channels for COVID-19 relevant information had lower mental wellbeing. Poor mental wellness was indicated by more participants who had a reduced sleeping patterns score and a higher perceived stress score (Shrestha et al., 2020).

Additionally, the results from another study indicated that being a woman, feeling alienated, living in areas directly impacted by the global epidemic and shutdown, anticipating a loss of money as a result of needing to stop having to work as a result of the disease outbreak, and knowing the history of given a diagnosis psychiatric conditions are all substantially related to psychological (p0.05). Even during the present COVID-19 outbreak in Chile, the findings of this study show the necessity for psychosocial interventions to protect individuals’ mental well-being and social measures to alleviate economic uncertainty (Duarte & Jimenez-Molina, 2021). As shown in another study, the calculated marginal means of stress and anxiety, the multiple regression revealed a strong interaction between COVID-19 dread and financial wellbeing. Fear of the pandemic paired with financial difficulties is linked to increased stress and anxiety, especially among women and youthful Lebanese adults who live in difficult conditions at home. As a result, healthcare providers should evaluate mental health issues in subgroups with multiple risk factors.

Another study showed that COVID-19 phobia and stress were much higher in female subjects than in males. COVID-19 phobia was found also to be substantially linked to sadness, anxiety, and stress. Anxiety, stress, gender, physical diseases, and mental disorders have been established as important predictors of COVID-19 dread (Salameh et al., 2020). The outcomes of this study emphasize the critical necessity to focus even more attention on protecting the public’s emotional health throughout this worldwide crisis. In another study, a total of 459 children and adolescents in SOS Children’s Villages Spain assisted living, adoptive homes, sense of belonging households, or household boosting initiatives were assessed using the SDQ to assess mental health and behavioral problems, as well as the KIDSCREEN-10 index to assess health-related quality of life. The chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and independent samples t-test were performed. The emotional health of the children and young adults in this research was lower than that of the 2017 Spanish comparison group, which was before the COVID-19 pandemic. The living standard remained unchanged. There were no variations in care approaches discovered (Al-Shannaq & Mohammad, 2021).

While the world attempts to limit COVID-19’s physical effects, the psychologica l effects may take much longer to address. Another research emphasized the critical need to assess health science students’ mental health as it may significantly influence individual obligations and future obligations as shown from the research findings (Raviv et al., 2021). Another study highlighted how the level of fear and concern among students was substantially higher before the outbreak was notified when the possibility of COVID-19 spreading was just announced (Fernandez-Abascal & Martin-Diaz, 2021). The tension and anxiety markers decreased some few weeks later, when such a situation remained problematic everywhere, even though containment measures had already been implemented. After the learning curriculum reopened and the number of uncertainties in the situation diminished, the data acquired suggest that Russian pupils could easily adapt to the modifications and containment measures (Bashir et al., 2020).

The results of another research study indicated that during the COVID-19 disaster, evidence of PTSD, sadness, anxiety, and stress was particularly frequent among university students. Prevention and intervention programs to mitigate the mental impact throughout outbreak conditions should be an intrinsic part of emergency preparedness (Zinchenko et al., 2021). A certain study showed that major depressive disorders were found in 37.5 percent and 29.8 percent of people, respectively. Psychological distress was more common in women, people over the age of 85, and those with lower schooling and a low monthly salary. Women, those with less education, and those with low monthly earnings were also more likely to have anxiety symptoms (Guillasper et al., 2021). Many with depression and anxiety symptoms had a lower standard of living and slept less.

In another study done in Hong Kong, negative relationships exist between psychological response and several dimensions of quality of life (Cigiloglu et al., 2021). However, positive correlations exist among basic self and various areas of quality of life. Females in Hong Kong experienced massive emotional and standard of living effects due to COVID-19. In another study, females had a considerably higher occurrence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) than males (37.8%). (23.8 percent ). GAD was linked to the female gender, financial damage, anxiety, and the number of times participants spent following news about the COVID-19 epidemic (Sirin et al., 2021). In another study, higher education, interests, and physical activity, on the other hand, were found to be significant predictors for generalized anxiety disorder (Hung et al., 2021). The majority of participants reported mild levels of anxiety but significant levels of psychological stress and corona-related worry. Higher levels of psychological discomfort and lower quality of life were linked to female gender, relatively young age, corona-related isolation, and underlying chronic disease (Horesh et al., 2020).


Al-Shannaq, Y., & Mohammad, A. A. (2021). Psychological impacts during the COVID-19 outbreak among adult population in Jordan: A cross-sectional study. Heliyon7(8), e07826.

Bashir, T. F., Hassan, S., Maqsood, A., Khan, Z. A., Issrani, R., Ahmed, N., & Bashir, E. F. (2020). The psychological impact analysis of novel COVID-19 pandemic in health sciences students: a global survey. European journal of dentistry14(S 01), S91-S96.

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Duarte, F., & Jiménez-Molina, Á. (2021). Psychological distress during the COVID-19 epidemic in Chile: The role of economic uncertainty. PLoS One16(11), e0251683.

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Gori, A., & Topino, E. (2021). Across the COVID-19 waves; assessing temporal fluctuations in perceived stress, post-traumatic symptoms, worry, anxiety and civic moral disengagement over one year of pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(11), 5651.

Guillasper, J. N., Oducado, R. M. F., & Soriano, G. P. (2021). Protective role of resilience on COVID-19 impacts the quality of life of nursing students in the Philippines. Belitung Nursing Journal7(1), 43-49.

Horesh, D., Kapel Lev‐Ari, R., & Hasson‐Ohayon, I. (2020). Risk factors for psychological distress during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Israel: Loneliness, age, gender, and health status play an important role. British journal of health psychology25(4), 925-933.

Hung, M. S. Y., Lam, S. K. K., Chan, L. C. K., Liu, S. P. S., & Chow, M. C. M. (2021). The psychological and quality of life impacts women in hong kong during the covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(13), 6734.

Prati, G. (2021). Mental health and its psychosocial predictors during national quarantine in Italy against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Anxiety, Stress, & Coping34(2), 145-156.

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Salameh, P., Aline, H. A. J. J., Badro, D. A., Abou Selwan, C., Randa, A. O. U. N., & Sacre, H. (2020). Mental health outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic and a collapsing economy: perspectives from a developing country. Psychiatry research294, 113520.

Shrestha, C., Ghimire, C., Sajan Acharya, P. K., Singh, S., & Sharma, P. (2020). Mental wellbeing during the lockdown period following the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal: a descriptive cross-sectional study. JNMA: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association58(230), 744.

Sirin, H., Ahmadi, A. A., Ketrez, G., Ozbeyaz, C., Dikmen, A. U., & Ozkan, S. (2021). Assessment of anxiety in elderly population during the COVID‐19 pandemic and the impact of compulsory home‐stay in the central districts of Ankara, Turkey: A quantitative, qualitative mixed method study. International journal of geriatric psychiatry36(11), 1785-1794.

Zinchenko, Y. P., Shaigerova, L. A., Almazova, O. V., Shilko, R. S., Vakhantseva, O. V., Dolgikh, A. G., … & Kalimullin, A. M. (2021). The Spread of COVID-19 in Russia: Immediate Impact on Mental Health of University Students. Psychological Studies66(3), 291-302.


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