Biological evolution is described as any genetic change in the populations of organisms over successive generations. It is achieved using genetic variation and natural selection. Biological evolution is based on the idea that All living creatures are related and slowly change over time (Restrepo 2008). On the other hand, environmental learning examines how the natural environment shapes our behavior in our built environment. Environmental learning greatly influences our personality depending on the environmental factors around us. Human thinking and behavior revolve around their physical environment. The cognitive structure is a mental structure that explains a form of human knowledge. Cognitive structures organize information for learning; therefore, they play an integral role in understanding and memorizing information.
Chomsky, Pinker, and Brown show that the process of language acquisition in children is biologically determined. They believe in the natural approach to learning. Chomsky proposed that children are born with the knowledge of how language is innate to human beings, which comes naturally. Children worldwide acquire language effortlessly since all languages contain a similar universal. They argued that linguistics had an important contribution and should be contributed to cognitive psychology. Skinner argues that all children have adopted a similar pattern of linguistic development. Chomsky believed that language is innate and is biologically inherited, whereas skinners theory states children learn how to talk by using positive reinforcements from adults. Criticisms of these theories of nurture and nature are that they offered hypothetical information and ignored the importance of social interaction (Pinker 2009). The models cannot explain why children with down syndrome have delayed language.
Psychological characteristics in childhood and behavioral differences that emerge have resulted from learning (Harman 1967) Behaviors in the human being are based on both genetics and an individual’s environment. Both nature and nurture create a cognitive structure because both refer to underlying beliefs about the world. In Bio cognitive theory, individuals are inseparable from mind, body, and culture and always search for contextual meaning (Plomin et al 1993) The bio cognition theory, in this case, would be; Gaining knowledge and comprehending involving mental processes. The cognitive process requires higher-level brain functioning, like thinking and remembering, and its relationship to establish the biological cause.
Cognitive learning is about how human learning occurs through the internal processing of information by the brain. Abstract thought involves complex thinking that enables one to conclude beyond what is obvious. Comedians are a great example of abstract thinkers as they connect to the world and make sense of the information absorbed around the world. Abstract thought is hard to understand through cognitive learning because one has to give real concretes even though they lack the experience to base them. Cognitive learning is connected closely to objects and experiences that can be directly seen, while abstract thinking skills develop as we grow.
The evidence-based practice integrates the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of a patient’s culture and characteristics. It relates to any evidence relating to the accused’s mental state, including reports. The purpose is to enhance health and promote the effective psychological practice. Evidence-based is hard to learn because of its inconsistency cognitively, and it’s generally based on science which is hard to process in the brain. Scientific reasons for including clinical expertise and characteristics of the patient are neglected. For cognitive learning, a distinction needs to be made between efficient psychotherapy and the scientific findings in medicine. Patients’ characteristics influence and culture show that the patient needs to have a say on matters regarding their life.
Cognitive learning engages our senses in a constructive and long-lasting way. Forgetting stuff is not part of cognitive learning (Kolbe et al 2014). It is the loss of information previously stored in the short or long-term memory. Cognitive learning deepens the memory and retention capacity of the brain. It maximizes the brain’s potential and makes connecting new information with previous experiences easy. It requires a deep understanding of the subject, thereby discouraging cramming. Interference with memory can be caused by distraction when one learns new information meaning you did not retain the previous information (Piaget 2003). Getting rid of distraction is almost impossible, but one can develop tactics to fight it. Even though we control intentional forgetting, unintentional forgetting is difficult to eliminate. Forgetting is considered adaptive as it tends to reduce future interference.
People keep changing their opinions because of the way their minds are built. Our brains are faster at processing opinions we agree with. People hate changes that go against their beliefs. Despite the common beliefs, people judge each other based on preexisting beliefs. Cognitive learning makes us feel bad for predicting how future events make us feel emotional. Opinions are not stubborn and fixed, as cognitive learning puts it. Changing our minds enables us to see the two sides of something we previously didn’t know. Changing our beliefs about ourselves enables us to have self-confidence.
Human beings are always competing in one way or the other. Psychologically, it is necessary to compete in small rather than large groups; it is considered a personality trait and not something learned. The act of not being social is associated with a functional deficit like poor cognitive control. Most people measure their self-worth through comparison with others. Being antisocial cannot be considered cognitive learning because it doesn’t focus on more effective use of the brain. The idea is that people’s thinking leads to arousal, which leads to disturbed or adaptive behavior. A competitive person’s personality is a result of both nature and environmental learning. The human tendency to compete can be a natural outgrowth externally.
Multitasking is the ability to do two or more things simultaneously. Performance and efficiency are reduced during multitasking because the brain can only focus on one thing. Multitasking lowers the short-term memory that is concerned with linguistic processing. The process affects cognitive learning since it makes one not be attentive. Switching between tasks comes with repercussions such as mentally adjusting to the new task and mentally competing with carrying over to the new task. High cognitive load also affects our ability to process information. Most people underestimate the ability to multitask, and it’s so clear that the brain cannot process many tasks at once. Multitasking can cause harm to our brains and also lead to memory problems.
Creativity is a non-cognitive skill that is very important as it helps in problem-solving by generating ideas. Creativity is not a product of cognitive learning because it’s not measurable. It’s a cultural and social construct and psychological and cognitive process. Creativity creates a pathway to memories by improving the strength of neural pathways. Creativity is a crucial element of human progress. Creative learning tends to explore the cognitive processes associated with cognitive learning. Cognitive functions such as flexibility, influencing, and working memory constitute creativity in cognition learning. Creativity is based on convergent and divergent thinking.
Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2014). Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. In Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles (pp. 227-248). Routledge.
Pinker, S. (2009). Language learnability and language development: with new commentary by the author (Vol. 7). Harvard University Press.
Harman, G. H. (1967). Psychological aspects of the theory of syntax. The Journal of Philosophy, 64(2), 75-87.
Piaget, J. (2003). The psychology of intelligence. Routledge.
Restrepo, J. E. (2008). Biological Evolution and Evolutionist Psychology. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 37(3), 428-451.
Plomin, R. E., & McClearn, G. E. (1993). Nature, nurture & psychology (pp. xvi-498). American Psychological Association.