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Modernity’s Challenges: Heidegger, Nietzsche, Kant, and Augustine

The current global is fraught with complex issues that have the potential to affect our present and destiny. These demanding situations, from dictatorship and consumerism to nihilism and thoughtlessness, offer a new paradigm for information subjectivity and its link to modernity’s difficult situations. The philosophical field has these days been more extraordinarily involved with subjectivity. Martin Heidegger’s work was concerned with the impact of technology on our thoughtfulness and interaction with the world. These conceptions of subjectivity have given an upward push to numerous issues of modernity, which include the alienation of individuals from each other, ecological crises, and the lack of human values in the face of technological development (Turanli, p 12). This paper argues that Heidegger’s challenge with thoughtlessness and technology is a critical problem of modernity that requires attention. By analyzing the subjectivity presented through Nietzsche, we can apprehend how this author has contributed to the emergence of this issue while also acknowledging how Kant and Augustine’s conceptions of subjectivity may offer solutions to this issue.

Problem of Modernity

The problem of modernity explored by Martin Heidegger in his work Technology and Thoughtlessness is that of the human relationship to technology. Heidegger argues that technology has become a “mode of revealing” that shapes our expertise and engagement with reality (Rauno & Leena, p 23). This mode of disclosing, Heidegger argues, affects no longer only how we engage with the world around us but also what kind of beings we have become. The risk posed by using this “revealing” lies in its ability to strip away our humanity from the world, leaving us disconnected from each other, our environment, or even ourselves. As a result, individuals become increasingly alienated from their humanity as they lose their capability for genuine thoughtfulness through their immersion into technological advancements.

Heidegger argues that humans in modern society have become “-humanized” due to the abandonment of thoughtfulness and its replacement with technology. He calls this process the “forgetting of being,” characterized by losing our capacity to think deeply and reflect upon our lives. This results in a disconnection between ourselves and the world, which can appear in diverse forms with ecological destruction or totalitarian regimes. Heidegger’s challenge over the effects of this problem lies not just in its capability to cause bodily destruction but in its capacity to strip away our humanity (Jager, p 189). By analyzing how technological advancement has affected human behavior and relationships, Heidegger’s work highlights a vital issue of modernity that requires attention.

The problem of technology and thoughtlessness is in detail related to modernity. Modernity emphasizes individualism, improvement, and speed. Technology has allowed us to do more in less time, communicate without delay with people worldwide, and get the right to enter an unprecedented quantity of data. Although technology has advantages, it has also caused a loss of connection between individuals and the world (Heidegger, p 12). Heidegger believed that technology’s presentation of the universe as a tool for our use has distanced and alienated us. Thus, we feel isolated and unwelcome in our global community. Technology has also resulted in a decline in the significance and direction of life. As we grow to be extra targeted on efficiency and productivity, we must catch up on what is essential. We become disconnected from our values and ideals and, as a substitute, prioritize material possessions and social repute (Aydan, p 9). This attention to external markers of achievement ends in an experience of emptiness and dissatisfaction with life.

As discussed by Heidegger, the issue of technology and thoughtlessness will be further explored through comparison with other authors throughout this paper. This exploration will delve into how the subjectivity presented by Nietzsche has contributed to the emergence of the problem of technology and thoughtlessness, as well as how Kant and Augustine’s conceptions of subjectivity may offer solutions to this issue. We will focus on how these authors’ ideas relate to the loss of connection between human beings and the world and the failure of meaning and purpose in life that are characteristic of the problem of technology and thoughtlessness.

Subjectivity and the Problem of Modernity


Nietzsche, a 19th-century philosopher, had a unique perspective on how people relate to their surroundings. Nietzsche believed no authority could provide objective reality or morality. Instead, he claimed that humans create meaning and purpose through worldly behaviors (Hutchinson, p 206). His “self-overcoming” notion pushes people to embrace change and uncertainty to create something greater than themselves. By doing so, people can create new values and residence methods, which could cause greater self-actualization.

Nietzsche’s concept of self-overcoming creates a predicament about technology and thoughtlessness in Heidegger’s feel. On the one hand, Nietzsche encourages individuals to push beyond their comfort zone and embrace risk (Rampley, p 22). On the other hand, technology has made our lives extra predictable and secure, reducing the need for hazard-taking or innovative questioning. This lack of creativity has caused an average decrease in significant interactions with our surroundings and a feeling of emptiness and dissatisfaction related to existence (Thomasa, p 163). By insisting that people embody chance and uncertainty as a way of self-actualization, Nietzsche’s subjectivity can contribute to the problem of modernity by growing an environment in which significant thoughtfulness is not valued or advocated.


Immanuel Kant, an 18th-century German truth seeker, created a rationalist moral theory. He believed human beings ought to respond rationally as opposed to emotionally. This led him to suggest generic laws that could be implemented universally regardless of context. His idea of morality is built upon respect for autonomy, which includes treating others with respect and letting them make their selections and lead their lives as they want (Smith, p 133). Kant believed that autonomy must be respected in all instances and that people must continually try to act according to the “categorical vital” – a standard moral code of conduct. Kant’s concept of autonomy can be seen as providing a type of subjectivity that lets people make ethical choices primarily based upon what is proper or incorrect, rather than certainly relying on outside regulations or values imposed through society. His logic also urges people to consider the consequences of their acts before taking them. This thoughtful deliberation can help ensure that individual movements align with moral standards and do not cause harm or injustice to others.

Kant’s concept of autonomy may contribute to the problem of modernity and technological thoughtlessness. By encouraging individuals to assume seriously before making choices, Kant counterbalances human beings’ tendency to adopt generation without thinking about its implications (Saurabh, p 122). His emphasis on rationality encourages human beings to consider how their use of technology will impact others and whether or not it will result in any dangerous outcomes. In doing so, Kant’s idea of autonomy presents an alternative perspective that allows people to make knowledgeable decisions about their use of technology instead of following along with what society dictates or what is famous for the time being. Moreover, Kant’s idea of autonomy encourages people to take responsibility for their movements instead of blaming technology or external forces for adverse consequences. In this manner, Kant’s ethical concept facilitates fostering a sense of character responsibility which could help shield against inconsiderate adoption and misuse of technology (Evi, p 128). By encouraging people to think carefully about technology use, Kant’s subjectivity can help prevent most problems related to modernity and technological thoughtlessness.

Augustine’s Conception of Subjectivity

Augustine of Hippo was a significant theologian, philosopher, and early Christian writer whose work had a massive effect on Western thought. In his work, Augustine proposed an idea of a subjective experience that focused on the connection between self and God. He argued that personal subjectivity is rooted in a divine source that serves as its originator and sustainer. According to Augustine, understanding this divine source permits us to recognize our place inside the universe and fill our lives with that means and reason (Blackburn, p 465). Moreover, by connecting ourselves with this higher power, we will transcend time, space, and materiality limits to access non secular truths about our innermost selves.

Augustine’s idea of subjectivity provides a solution to the problem of modernity outlined by Heidegger in Technology and Thoughtlessness. By recognizing our human connection to something better than ourselves, Augustine allows us to know how we can interact with the world around us. Through this conception, human beings can try for spiritual growth and reconnect with their innermost Being by engaging with God’s grace. As Augustine stated in his work The City of God, “He who can apprehend with his mind things invisible which are eternal will find them more desirable than visible and temporal things” (Gerald, p 122). This illustrates how knowledge of our divine source can help us prioritize spirituality over materialism. In doing so, individuals can overcome the alienation caused by technological advancement and maintain their humanity despite modernity. Ultimately, Augustine’s conception of subjectivity provides an essential framework for addressing the dangers of technology and thoughtlessness in Heidegger’s work. By reconnecting with God’s grace, humans can experience more remarkable spiritual growth and access truths about their innermost Being, which transcend physical boundaries. In doing so, they can maintain their humanity as they progress through modernity rather than becoming mechanized or forgetful of Being. Such a solution is critical to overcoming the dangers posed by technological advancement and restoring our capacity for genuine thoughtfulness.


In conclusion, the problem of generation and thoughtlessness, as explored by Martin Heidegger, highlights the danger of losing our connection to the world and our humanity through our immersion in technological improvements. This trouble is intimately related to modernity, characterized by a rapid pace of trade, a focus on progress and performance, and an emphasis on individualism. The solution to this issue lies in a more profound expertise of subjectivity, as presented by numerous philosophers, which include Nietzsche, Kant, and Augustine. While Nietzsche’s emphasis on self-creation and self-overcoming may appear at odds with Heidegger’s challenge with thoughtlessness, both proportion a problematic situation for the person’s dating with the world. Similarly, Kant and Augustine’s conceptions of subjectivity provide capacity solutions to the problem of technology and thoughtlessness by emphasizing the importance of authentic thoughtfulness and reflection in our engagement with the world. By engaging with these authors’ thoughts, we can gain a deeper understanding of how subjectivity and the issues of modernity are inextricably linked and how we can use those ideas to address the challenges of our time.


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