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Models, Strategies, and Classifications

Definitions, Examples, and their Applicability in the Course Design

The best way to define models in the classroom context is as a philosophy or pedagogical approach that directs the teacher’s approach to instruction. The workshop approach, which emphasizes students’ learning, illustrates this. The model facilitates a summary for the minilesson before learners are sent off to complete their research (Romiszowski, 2016). Conversely, tactics are the most excellent way to characterize how teachers employ techniques to support their pupils as they learn, such as tests, teaching-related jargon, and encouragement.

Classifications serve as a method of dividing knowledge or a topic into more manageable phases for particular assignments or classes. For particular tasks or courses, classifications are a means to simplify or identify expertise or a topic into more manageable sections. According to Branch & Kopcha (2014), Bloom’s Taxonomy, which divided cognition into six cognitive levels, is an example of classification. Models, techniques, and classifications all link distinct ways to produce the perfect classroom, despite the disparities between them.

All 3 complement each other well enough. For instance, even if you design your teaching using the Workshop Model, you might still face challenges in conveying the lesson’s objective to learners because your instruction method lacks strategies or classifications, either because you do not have enough of either to teach your students effectively or because you are poorly conveying the wrong classification for that lesson (Romiszowski, 2016). Additionally, all the 3 share the goal of improving instruction by personalizing and enhancing the cognitive development of the learners in order to help both them and the instructor.

Models for Instructional Design

Over time, numerous models for instructional design have been created by either adapting elements from other approaches or fusing various phases into one. Most of the models listed below were created regarding the classroom. According to Nair (2014), the establishment of these models was based on the assumption that different students learn and understand the same way. Therefore, the models give rigorous methods for all students by the instructors.

The ARCS Model is a problem-solving approach emphasizing that analysis and involvement can keep learners motivated throughout education. This model’s components are attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. The attention component encourages full involvement and inquiry from the students, while relevance establishes the students’ knowledge and gives it value (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). The component of confidence boosts the students’ chances of success, while satisfaction refers to the learners’ feeling of accomplishment.

The ‘Addie’ pnemonic means analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation, which comprise the ADDIE Model. The ADDIE model has served as the foundation for many additional approach designs that have been created, making it one of the most frequently used models for instructional design (IDC., 2022). Generally speaking, the approach is employed to identify the instructional challenge, specify learners’ needs, compile instructional resources, create understanding and development, and finalize the plans for summative and formative evaluations.

The research in cognitive psychology is the foundation of the backward design model. The approach encourages learners to reflect frequently and emphasizes enhancing the program content. According to Nair (2014), three stages make up the model: recognizing intended outcomes, where teachers evaluate syllabus anticipations; identifying the evidence of evaluation, where teachers differentiate and assess the various types of tests embraced; and finally, preparing perspectives and teaching, where teachers must design lessons and instructional tasks in light of the findings of the preliminary step.

The ASSURE Model enables teachers to customize teaching and optimal understanding for each learner. According to Branch & Kopcha (2014), in order to accomplish this, it is necessary to analyze the learners, go over the priorities and benchmarks, choose the techniques and techniques to employ in the class, and use the techniques and techniques during the class, involving learner engagement, and then assess and revise the lesson with the learners.

In order to tackle complex challenges, the Design Thinking Model collaborates with the student with compassion and understanding. According to IDC. (2022), the empathy/compassion component helps learners understand the problem, meaning it helps people comprehend the problem better after integrating the knowledge. Thus, people identify new solutions, prototype, which helps people invent solutions for the problems, and test, which helps people assess the solutions they established during the prototype phase.

Considering Instructional Design

I have understood more about instructional design models and how numerous they are after thoroughly discussing 5 of them. Since many of them were presumably founded on or inspired by one another, they are similar. I learned and implemented the Workshop Model during my student teaching experience, and I found it to be planned, precise, and easy to apply.

Additionally, having an understanding of these models and comprehending the psychology within them, I believe there is a probability that I would incorporate them into my teaching career. I particularly enjoyed the ones that stressed the importance of customizing courses for the learners, including being able to relate to them on a personal level to comprehend their challenges better and how to support them.


Branch, R. M., & Kopcha, T. J. (2014). Instructional design models. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 77-87). Springer, New York, NY.

IDC., (2022). Instructional Design Content.

Nair, U. (2014). Instructional design models in the 21st century: a review. EdTech Review, March.

Romiszowski, A. J. (2016). Designing instructional systems: Decision making in course planning and curriculum design. Routledge.


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