Need a perfect paper? Place your first order and save 5% with this code:   SAVE5NOW

How Human Resource Department Can Achieve Equal Employment Opportunities


1.1.Background and Rational of the Research Problem

Exercising equality plays a central role among the citizens of a given nation, and it constitutes their action in exercising their constitutional freedoms and rights, religious and political beliefs, race, gender, colour, social status, and national origin notwithstanding (Sharma, 2016). Thus, the constitution is among the elements that value equality among people not only within the workplace but also in all social environments. Apart from a country’s constitution, equality is regulated and guided through enacted laws and transnational treaties that are integral to a nation’s legal order. According to Stoilkovska, Ilieva, and Gjakovski (2017), in many instances, there are instances of ambiguity in discriminatory treatment; however, for policy creators to efficiently battle discrimination, it is paramount to identify a case where discrimination is evident. Moreover, it can as well be argued that, for the Human Resources department to combat discrimination and realize work equality, it is vital to comprehend the issue that is facing elimination and how it can be accomplished.

In reference to the pointed-out regulations, workers in any given institution have to receive equal treatment, and this pertains to all employment matters. Since democratic principles dictate equality amongst citizens of a particular nation, it is also necessary for the human resources department to offer equal employment opportunities and to remedy the past ills resulting from unjust and discriminatory conduct revolving around employment. As a result, some of the larger firms have adopted a new trend that crusades for equality in employment, and this is manifested through the recognition of merits, which are associated with upholding an equal opportunity culture, and these firms are using this approach to gain a competitive edge (Raghavi and Gopinathan, 2017). Furthermore, it is obvious that there are laws about equal employment opportunities; however, the legislations may not be followed on a regular basis. Supposing the regulations are effective, it is expected to bring adjustments to contemporary employment practices, provided that companies are willing to conform to the legislation with the intent of averting sanctions and are ready to implement freshly ratified norms. Nonetheless, after narrowing down to a few companies, it may be difficult to confirm if there are equal employment opportunities, given that most job ads highlight the applicant’s sexier age. Even when nations pass laws allowing for equal employment opportunities, provision conflicts always arise during the employee recruitment and selection process. On the contrary, discrimination in terms of a person’s nationality within the process of employment is safeguarded by legislation, even though the laws may inhibit a fraction of the applicants from specific world regions from taking part in the recruitment and selection process because of the lawfully determined number of opportunities for individuals regarded as being minorities (Stoilkovska, Ilieva, and Gjakovski, 2017).

Even though the paper may present a review of legislation pertaining to employment discrimination on various grounds, the impact within the process of equal generation of opportunities in recruitment and selection processes, and the perception that this paper will be built upon existing latent discrimination practices disadvantaged from banal sensibilities such as mental and social frameworks, Therefore, it can be inferred that the Human Resource departments and administrators within this division are tasked with ensuring equality in employment opportunities as they carry out recruitment and selection. The Human Resource experts are entrusted to actively implement equality policies and promote cultures that offer support for these rules through supervising integration of equality guidelines into the entirety of institutional practices and human resource policies. Besides, the human resources department can define the prevailing cultural situation and the manner in which it enhances or undermines institutional goals. The strategic function of the Human Resources department, which comprises the comprehension of changes and the manner in which to handle these adjustments, paves an avenue for improving the perception in regards to equal employment opportunities. This study will help reveal the role human resource departments in various institutions can play to ensure equality in employment opportunities and how it can be attained.

1.2.Research Aims and Objectives

  1. To determine the role the human resources department can play in the attainment of equal employment opportunities.
  2. To determine the fundamental principles and merits that come along with achieving equal employment opportunities.
  3. To determine and discuss organizational philosophies and the human resource management.

1.3.Research Questions

How can the Human Resources department fulfill equal employment opportunities? What are the fundamental principles and advantages of equal employment opportunities? What policies and laws does Human Resource Management support in order to ensure equal employment opportunities?

1.4.Justification of the Study

It is critical for businesses to provide equal employment opportunities and ensure fairness in employee treatment regardless of religion, sex, physical orientation, race, nationality, or political affiliations, and this should be reflected in job advertisements (Lindgren and sterlind, 2018). Thus, all individuals must be subjected to similar treatment, unimpeded by any artificial hindrance, preferences, or prejudices, apart from instances where specific distinctions are explicitly acceptable. Besides, achieving equal employment opportunities can lead to Improved Employee Satisfaction and Retention. Providing equal employment opportunities can also lead to improved employee satisfaction and retention. When employees feel valued and respected, they are more likely to be engaged and committed to their work. This can lead to lower turnover, improved productivity, and better overall performance.

It can as well contribute to Diversity and Inclusivity (Sharma, 2016). Companies are increasingly recognizing the benefits of a diverse and inclusive workplace, including improved creativity, problem-solving, and decision-making. The HR department plays a critical role in promoting diversity and inclusivity by creating and implementing policies and programs that support equal employment opportunities. Therefore, it is important for the Human Recourse department to work toward achieving equality in the workplace.

1.5.Research Methodology

This research shall entirely rely on secondary sources; a wide range of scholarly materials that inform on the research questions and topic shall be analysed and thoroughly scrutinized.

1.6.Study Limitations

It may be challenging to obtain accurate and comprehensive data on HR practices and policies related to equal employment opportunities; This is because HR departments may be reluctant to disclose information on their internal processes, and there may be privacy and confidentiality concerns related to sensitive employee information. Moreover, the study may be constrained by the availability of data and resources, as well as the research design and methods used. For instance, in the event of the study relying on self-reported data, there may be issues of social desirability bias and limitations in generalizing the findings to other organizations. However, these limitations can be minimized by conducting comprehensive information searches and carrying out a thorough scrutiny on existing literature.

1.7.Organisation of the Study

The paper shall conform to the below outline:

Chapter One: Background and Scope of the Study.

  • Introduction
    • Background and Rational of the Research Problem.
    • Research Aims and Objectives
    • Research Questions
    • The Justification of the Study
    • Research Methodology
    • Study Limitation/Risks
    • Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review.

Chapter Three: Methodology.

Chapter Four: Results

Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion



Literature Review

The statement “equal opportunity” refers to a lack of discrimination found in various personal characteristics that are sometimes involuntary. Some of the cases where such attributes may be witnessed include in ethnic or racial origin, age, sex, religious belief, sexual orientation, and disability. According to FBA (2011), the concept of equality of progress establishes equality through fair and open competition, particularly in areas where resources are scarce, but it does not criticize an inequitable distribution of services and other fundamentals in society. Likewise, Armstrong and Taylor (2020) give another meaning of the term “equal opportunity” as a term that most human resources professionals use to depict the measures and actions taken to make sure that there is fairness in recruitment and employment. In other words, equal opportunity can be described as an address or as the representation and balance of a society within an organization. Therefore, people should be treated equally, with no judgments being made against them, nor should they be judged based on exaggerated conceptions.

It is significant to appreciate, understand, and value the role of employees in an administration, especially those who have various sets of abilities and skills. In doing so, it is also important to utilize their talents to achieve best organizational and personal achievements. Further, when employers adopt the essence of offering courteous, fair, and equal opportunities to their employees, there will be an increase in productivity in the organization. However, it is unfair if the equality of opportunity’s factors become beyond control when an individual’s chances in life are shaped by them. Besides, a person’s life chances are enhanced when formal equality of opportunity is justified. This will also maximize the prosperity of society. Regardless of the socioeconomic background of an organization’s most ambitious and talented employees, the exponent of equality of opportunity associated with a meritocracy system dictates that they should be the most rewarded. In addition, Ali, Yusoffii, and Aliiii (2019), suggest that talented and qualified individuals are the only ones who have the aptitude to make a certain change in the workplace and society.

In conjunction with the above discussion, employment equity is highly demanded and important in diverse workplaces for fair treatment between employers and employees. That is why the creation of equality among workers is an ongoing procedure that many managers use to remove and identify every type of injustice and barrier. Employee promotion procedures, steps of an administration’s employment policies, and equal salary policies based on experience and qualification are examples of such procedures. Employment equality necessitates equal opportunities for every person so that they can contribute to the process of advancing the basis of potential, merit, and ability, as well as to the empowerment process (Van der Heyden, 2016). Mostly, people tend to assume that when one comes from a homogeneous situation, they can become competitors on an equal basis. As a result, any procedures and processes that violate the principle of equality will result in unequal treatment in the workplace.It should be known that equal opportunity is a reflection of how commitment results in a fair working environment.

Moreover, being committed to promoting a fair working environment is a form of strategy that enhances a workforce that represents the diversity of every employee despite coming from various races, ages, levels of social class, and genders. As a result, every employee should be given the opportunity for advancement and employment for legitimate reasons such as their ability to complete the task assigned to them. In the article written by Shen et al. (2017), they state that employment equity comprises a series of initiatives that are designed to eradicate any cases of discrimination in the organization. In this regard, the process should review the practices, policies, and procedures to ascertain that cases of discrimination are dealt with since they can affect employment progress. New programs and policies should be enforced to provide balanced employment opportunities, eliminate barriers, and assist in creating supportive and positive working conditions. That is why you find countries like Canada using the tenet of employment equity to cure the ongoing disadvantages that people with disabilities, women, ethnic employees, and minorities face, as well as cases of discrimination in organizations.

Nonetheless, according to Nelson (2007), he suggests that every employer is a subject to the Federal Contractors Program (1986) and Federal Employment Equity Act (1986), which were later revised in 1995. According to the two federal agents, employers are supposed to collect and recount data on the company agent of their organization and to make a plan that includes promotion, recruiting targets, and even developing measures that will help eliminate barriers associated with discrimination in employment practices and policies and also adapt to every diversity presented within an organization. Additionally, the 1986 Federal Contractors Program and Federal Employment Equity Act also state that employers are subject to both compliance audits and employees in workplaces. An employer’s formal statement should always be a subject of the act vacant to the public and the state Human Rights Commission, since it is the only one that has power to adjudicate and file complaints of consistent discrimination within various organizations. The research and studies conducted by Nelson (2007) state that employers are responsible for increasing the productivity of an organization. This can be achieved if they treat their workers with equity and fairness and if they invest in them.


3.0. Introduction

Within any research paper, the methodology part plays a significant role. The systematic approach to solving a specific research problem is referred to as research methodology. In research, methodology refers to the processes that are structured for carrying out a study. Techniques are used in a variety of methodologies, and the methodology section is frequently thought to include study design, data collection, and data analysis. This section primarily aims to inform the reader as to why the exploration was carried out, how the research problem was defined, how and why the hypothesis was created, what type of data was gathered and what specific method was chosen, why certain data analysis techniques were used, and a variety of other similar questions are frequently addressed in connection to methodology and concerning the study and research problem. In research, the methodologies can either be qualitative or quantitative (WARFIELD, 2010). Although it is ideal for complete research to attempt to combine both of these approaches, this is sometimes not achievable owing to time and resource limitations. In order to test ideas and hypotheses, research procedures are often utilized in scholarly studies. An ideal research design would guarantee that the research is valid, that is, that it directly tests the hypothesis and does not include other variables; the study has to be dependable—it should consistently produce the same findings (Williams, 2007).

The manner in which the research is accomplished constitutes one of the aspects of the research approach. This process is known as the study design and often entails the use of interviews, questionnaires, experiments, and observations. The processes used in evaluating and interpreting the information collected are often included in the methodology, which specifies the study technique to utilize. In many cases, different and complex statistical interpretations of data are used to determine statistical significance and correlation within findings. It can prove challenging to conduct objective, representative studies since a small sample size is often involved with tests. As a result, researchers must have a thorough awareness of the many types and restrictions associated with the study methodology they use. In brief, the methodology section of any scholarly study plays a central role in providing a vivid understanding of the purpose of the scholar’s work (Coy, 2019).

The methodology provides the necessary framework for an explorer to map out the research effort in relation to creating sound plans at the correct moment and developing the research activity. Besides, the methodology encourages scholars to be active and get involved in the topic of inquiry that they are studying (Coy, 2019). The research subject and goal will not at all times be the same because of its aims and flow, but by using the right approach, this may be accomplished. A suitable research technique directs the researcher in the appropriate direction from subject selection through study execution. A correct methodology lays a solid foundation for the overall research strategy. Furthermore, with the aid of an ideal methodology, it is possible to establish that macro-surroundings form the study through the provision of a comprehensive notion on choosing the proper research aim, together with the literary viewpoint, which is founded on results gathered through questionnaires and interviews. Research methodology should encompass the microenvironment through the comprehension and determination of the correct kind of approach, study, time horizon, philosophy, strategy, techniques, and procedures that are founded on the research topic. Furthermore, the methodology section serves as a nerve midpoint because the entire dissertation is bound within it; thus, for a researcher to conduct a successful investigation, both the external and internal environments must conform to the correct scholarly methodological procedure (Williams, 2007).

In brief, research methodology comprises all systems that are involved in the gathering of data, which informs research projects. These facts can be assembled for practical or theoretical studies; for instance, management studies might be tactically theorized together with change management and operational planning techniques. Some of the significant aspects of methodology are data validity, reliability, and ethics. It is crucial for any scholar to come up with a research design that aligns with the problem selected. Even though two problems may need a single research approach, the methodology may differ. Thus, it is critical for a researcher to identify and comprehend the appropriate research methodologies and techniques to employ. A theoretically articulated collection of concepts, theories, and ideologies associated with a specific field and discipline of inquiry is referred to as research methodology. In addition to referring to a simplified set of techniques and methods, it also refers to philosophical assumptions and rationale that can inspire specific research in comparison to a given scientific technique (Coy, 2019).

3.1. Research Philosophy

Philosophical research involves dealing with nature, sources, and knowledge development. It constitutes beliefs concerning the manner in which facts regarding particular phenomena can be gathered, interpreted, and implemented (Ponterotto, 2010). In reference to methodology, there are different philosophies, and these include positivism research philosophy, realism research philosophy, interpretivism, phenomenology, and pragmatism research philosophy (Tamminen, and Poucher, 2020). The pragmatistic research philosophy will be more appropriate for this particular study. As a scholarly philosophy, pragmatism rejects being associated with contentious hypothetical conceptions like reality and truth. Rather, this philosophy accommodates and supports the idea that there exist multiple and single realities, which can lead to and inform empirical inquiries. Pragmatist academicians have presented their arguments, which indicate that there are realities that are objective and that are viewed as being part of the human experience (Giacobbi, Poczwardowski, and Hager, 2005).

Nevertheless, the reality in discussion is founded within a setting and can be evidenced only through human experience. The principal pragmatistic underpinning is that reality and knowledge are founded on habits and beliefs, which are constructed socially. Generally, pragmatists are of the opinion that in the contemporary world, knowledge is a social construct; however, a fraction of these versions of constructs align with people’s experiences much more when compared to those of other individuals. Pragmatists are uncertain of whether reality will ever be identified. Pragmatists perceive reality as being a normative conception and affirm that the working element is reality. Consequently, they assert that information prerogatives might not be fully abstracted from conditional experiences, habits, and beliefs. According to pragmatists, reality can be evident provided it aids individuals in attaining satisfactory connections with other components of their individual experiences. Truth can refer to a thing that can be validated as being good; according to Baker and Schaltegger (2015), truth can refer to anything that has endured thorough analysis on an individual basis as time progresses.

Nevertheless, it is necessary for one to remember that pragmatism does not generally imply that all that work can be regarded as the truth. Scholars who are pragmatists cannot just disregard philosophical opinions, especially the metaphysical controversies, as they work toward fulfilling their scholarly explorations; instead, they have made inferences based on informed views of the involvement and effort, which the extensive philosophical opinions might fail to solve, and this is because meaning depends on context and cannot be separated from the needs and experiences of humans. Pragmatists and academicians’ selection of one version of reality over another is guided by the extent to which this selection leads to the realization of desired and anticipated outcomes. Unlike constructivism and positivistic research philosophies, pragmatism involves the processes of defining objects and entities on the basis of the function they play; a pragmatist defines an object in terms of how it helps him achieve a specific goal rather than offering a definition of the object based on what the object is used for.

As per Morgan (2014), pragmatists are of the belief that humans have the liberty to lay faith in anything; however, a fraction of these beliefs satisfy and meet human requirements and goals. Pragmatism should be understood as more than just a mere philosophical position; instead, it should be perceived as an array of valuable philosophical techniques that can be applied to remedy various challenges (Biesta, 2010). Pragmatism, as a research philosophy, is concerned with the practical resolution of problems in the real world. In reference to this dissertation, this philosophy shall inform and be applied as an inquiry method. According to the proponents of this conception, inquiry refers to both social work and social life research, and it becomes efficient after its main purpose has been achieved. According to Biesta (2010), pragmatism refutes the traditional conceptual dualism of subjectivity and objectivity; it allows scholars to reject the forced dichotomies of constructivism and postpositivism. Within the pragmatistic philosophy, empirical nationalistic methodologies are preferred over idealistic approaches. Instead of assigning constructivism and post-positivism into two divergent epistemological and ontological camps, pragmatists inform the scholar to lay emphasis on two dissimilar inquiry approaches (Morgan, 2014).

3.2. Methodological Design

As already pointed out, the methodology part of any dissertation or academic research serves a critical purpose and directs any research. The primary research approaches incline toward quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative research approaches are quite a subjective research branch that is designed in such a manner that it looks beyond percentages with the primary intent of gaining a comprehension of viewpoints, impressions, and feelings. According to Guba and Lincoln (1994), the qualitative approach is founded on constructivism and interpretivism. From an ontological level of perception, there exist a number of truths and realities that are founded on an individual’s reality of construction. And as already pointed out in the preceding sections, reality is a social construct that maintains the ability to change. Unlike quantitative approaches, qualitative research involves focusing on texts instead of numbers. Qualitative methods are inductive in nature. On the other hand, quantitative research approaches place emphasis on the quantification element within the gathering and interpretation of data. Often, quantitative research methods involve a deductive reasoning tactic, which is the direct opposite of inductive reasoning, and it conforms to the process alongside: Theory -> Hypothesis -> Data Collection -> Research Findings -> Confirmed or Rejected Hypothesis -> Revision of Approach However, for this study, the qualitative research methods will be approaches. Secondary scholarly materials were reviewed to answer the research problem and question in order to inform the theory of this dissertation.

Contrary to quantitative research approaches, qualitative methods depend on sources such as interviews, fieldwork, observation, questionnaires, texts, and documents. The explorer’s reactions and impressions are also taken into consideration. As opposed to carrying out quantitative studies, qualitative methods materialize from the notion that humans can be distinguished from their natural environment by their capacity to talk. Moreover, qualitative approaches are intended to aid scholars in comprehending people and their cultural and social environments. As opposed to quantitative methods, qualitative approaches shall permit a comprehensive scholarly exploration, and this is because this study shall be entirely explorative. In addition, qualitative methods make it possible for high levels of flexibility, unlike in quantitative methods that appear to be fixed; as per Queirós, Faria, and Almeida (2017), qualitative techniques present the researcher with the chance of recording particular attitudes as they transform since sentiments are more likely to undergo change. Qualitative methods enable studies that are considered speculative; thus, the researcher is allowed to explore areas that are relevant to informing specific research. Contrary to quantitative approaches, qualitative methods are not restricted; in the event of gathering textual data, the academician is in a position to give enough background in regards to the available data.

3.3. Data Collection

This exploration relies on existent literature and involves scrutinizing secondary textual information presented by different researchers. Data is collected by reviewing written materials, such as HR policies and procedures, job descriptions, or performance evaluations, to gather information about HR practices related to equal employment opportunities.

3.4. Data Analysis

As already pin-pointed, this research is constructed upon existent literature; therefore, data can be analyzed by employing techniques such as systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and narrative review. For this particular research, the narrative review has been extensively been employed; A narrative review involves summarizing and synthesizing the existing literature on a specific topic, such as equal employment opportunities in HR departments. This as well involves organizing the literature into themes, identifying gaps in the research, and providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge.

3.5. Ethical Considerations

Since this research is founded on existing literature, there are a number of associated moral concerns that have to be considered. Plagiarism is among the ethical considerations; to avoid plagiarizing, every source has been properly cited and referenced and all information taken from the literature are properly acknowledged. Confidentiality is also another ethical concern that needs to be considered; sensitive and confidential information within existing literature was not used inappropriately and was not disclosed. Misrepresentation of information was eliminated as this can hinder credibility and tarnish the reputation of a scholar.

The topic on “How the Human Resource Department Can Achieve Equal Employment Opportunities” is quite extensive and requires an in-depth exploration and for this research, it shall be more inclined on secondary approaches; a wide ranges scholarly materials have been appraised to reveal and outline the required information concerning achieving equality in the work place.


Organizations that prioritize equal employment opportunities tend to have more diverse workforces and experience benefits such as improved creativity, better decision-making, and higher employee engagement and retention. However, achieving these benefits requires a deliberate effort from the HR department. Developing EEO policies and providing training to employees and managers is a critical first step towards creating a culture that values diversity and inclusion. However, policies and training alone are not enough. The human resource department must also work to eliminate biases in the recruitment and hiring process, as well as in everyday interactions in the workplace; this can be accomplished through implementing objective selection criteria, providing diverse candidate pools, and offering implicit bias training.

Fostering a diverse and inclusive culture is also crucial for achieving equal employment opportunities. HR can achieve this by creating a workplace culture that is welcoming and respectful of all employees. This can be accomplished by celebrating different cultures and offering opportunities for employees to participate in company initiatives. Moreover, monitoring and measuring progress towards achieving equal employment opportunities is also essential. HR should regularly analyze data related to employee demographics, recruitment, promotion, and retention rates to identify areas that need improvement and develop strategies to address any disparities.

Therefore, achieving equal employment opportunities requires a sustained effort from the HR department. By developing policies, providing training, eliminating biases, fostering a diverse and inclusive culture, and monitoring progress, HR can create a workplace where all employees have the opportunity to thrive. In order to achieve equal employment opportunities, the human resource department must take several steps. One case study that demonstrates the importance of these steps is the case of the Coca-Cola Corporation; this company is a large organization with operations in several countries. The company has a diverse workforce, but there have been complaints of discrimination and unequal treatment (Chepkonga, 2021).

To address these issues, the human resource department at Coca-Cola Corporation conducted a thorough review of their hiring practices, including job descriptions, recruitment strategies, and interview processes. They also implemented training programs for managers and employees on diversity and inclusion. Additionally, the company created an internal task force to investigate and address any complaints of discrimination or unequal treatment. As a result of these efforts, Coca-Cola Corporation has seen significant improvements in their diversity and inclusion metrics. They have also received positive feedback from employees and customers, who appreciate the company’s commitment to equal employment opportunities.

Cross-Case Analysis:

Across industries and companies, there are several key strategies that human resource departments can use to achieve equal employment opportunities. These include: (1) Reviewing and revising hiring practices to eliminate bias and promote diversity; this may include revising job descriptions, using diverse recruitment strategies, and implementing objective interview processes. (2) Providing education and training concerning the philosophies of inclusion diversity to all employees, including managers and executives. The strategy in vital in helping cultivate a work place that is inclusive as this will contribute to reduced incidents of discrimination and bias. HR departments should provide training to all employees, including managers and supervisors, on the importance of EEO and how to implement it in their daily work. Training should cover topics such as unconscious bias, diversity, and inclusion. (3) Creating internal task forces or committees to investigate and address complaints of discrimination or unequal treatment; this can help to ensure that issues are addressed promptly and fairly. (4) Measuring and tracking diversity and inclusion metrics, and setting goals for improvement. This can help to hold the company accountable for progress towards achieving equal employment opportunities.

By implementing these strategies, human resource departments can help to create a more equitable workplace and promote diversity and inclusion. Equal employment opportunities (EEO) are crucial to ensure fairness and equity in the workplace. HR departments play a critical role in implementing EEO policies and practices. In brief, HR can achieve equal employment opportunities through: (1) the development of a comprehensive EEO policy: HR departments should develop a policy that outlines the organization’s commitment to EEO and the steps it will take to achieve it. The policy should cover all aspects of employment, including recruitment, selection, training, promotion, and termination. As already pointed out in the preceding section, training employees on equal employment opportunities is crucial. (2) monitoring equal employment opportunities compliance; HR departments should regularly monitor compliance with EEO policies and practices. This includes collecting data on the demographics of employees, tracking recruitment and promotion processes, and conducting regular reviews of HR policies and practices to identify potential barriers to EEO. (3) ensuring fairness in selection and recruitment; the human resource departments should ensure that the recruitment and selection processes are fair and free from discrimination. This constitutes developing job descriptions that are clear and objective, using diverse recruitment sources, and conducting structured interviews that are based on job-related criteria.

Cross-case analysis can be useful in identifying best practices and common barriers across organizations. Some common barriers to achieving EEO in HR include:

  • Lack of awareness and understanding of EEO policies and practices among employees
  • Unconscious bias and stereotypes that influence hiring and promotion decisions
  • Resistance to change and a lack of commitment to diversity and inclusion at all levels of the organization
  • Limited resources and budget constraints that can hinder efforts to implement EEO policies and practices

To overcome these barriers, HR departments can learn from successful practices in other organizations, invest in training and development, and establish a culture of openness and accountability around EEO.


5.1. Discussion

The issue of equal employment opportunities (EEO) is crucial for promoting fairness and equity in the workplace. Human resource (HR) departments play a critical role in implementing EEO policies and practices. In this section, the report analyzes the findings and cross-case analysis on how HR departments can achieve EEO. In reference to the presented research findings, it is indicated that HR departments should develop a comprehensive EEO policy, which outlines the organization’s commitment to EEO and the steps it will take to achieve it; this policy should cover all aspects of employment, including recruitment, selection, training, promotion, and termination. Research has shown that having a strong EEO policy can help to reduce discrimination and increase diversity in the workplace (Yadav & Lenka, 2020).

Besides, HR departments should provide training to all employees, including managers and supervisors, on the importance of EEO and how to implement it in their daily work. Training should cover topics such as unconscious bias, diversity, and inclusion. Research has shown that providing training on EEO can increase awareness of biases and promote inclusive behaviors among employees (Cox & Blake, 1991). Moreover, HR departments should regularly monitor compliance with EEO policies and practices. This includes collecting data on the demographics of employees, tracking recruitment and promotion processes, and conducting regular reviews of HR policies and practices to identify potential barriers to EEO. Research has shown that monitoring compliance with EEO policies and practices can help to identify and address discriminatory practices in the workplace (Crawford, LePine, & Rich, 2010).

Furthermore, the human resource departments should ensure that the recruitment and selection processes are fair and free from discrimination. This constitutes processes of developing job descriptions that are clear and objective, using diverse recruitment sources, and conducting structured interviews that are based on job-related criteria. Research has shown that using structured interviews can help to reduce biases and increase the validity of selection decisions (Rynes & Cable, 2003). HR departments should as well work toward fostering diversity and inclusion; this can be achieved through the development and creation of a work environment, which respects and values differences among workers. This includes providing accommodations for employees with disabilities, offering flexible work arrangements, and fostering a culture of respect and inclusion. Research has shown that promoting diversity and inclusion can improve employee engagement and reduce turnover (Ryan & Haslam, 2007).

5.2. Conclusion

The human resource departments play a critical function in achieving EEO in the workplace; achieving equal employment opportunities (EEO) in the workplace requires a multifaceted approach that involves the commitment and involvement of all employees, particularly the HR department. By developing comprehensive EEO policies, providing training, monitoring compliance, ensuring fair recruitment and selection, and promoting diversity and inclusion, HR departments can create a workplace that is fair and equitable for all employees. Cross-case analysis highlights the importance of overcoming common barriers to achieving EEO, such as unconscious bias and a lack of commitment to diversity and inclusion. By addressing these barriers and implementing successful practices, HR departments can help to create a more inclusive and equitable workplace.

Nevertheless, achieving EEO can be challenging, as several barriers can hinder the progress. These barriers include lack of awareness and understanding of EEO policies and practices among employees, unconscious bias and stereotypes, resistance to change, and limited resources and budget constraints. To overcome these barriers, HR departments can take steps such as increasing awareness and understanding of EEO policies and practices, implementing strategies to reduce unconscious bias, fostering a culture of diversity and inclusion, and allocating resources and budget to support EEO initiatives. Achieving EEO is a continuous process that requires ongoing efforts and commitment from all employees, particularly the HR department. By promoting fairness, equity, and diversity in the workplace, companies can develop more inclusive and productive work settings, which are beneficial to both the organization and employees. Therefore, it is essential for HR departments to prioritize EEO and ensure that it is integrated into all aspects of the organization’s policies and practices.

5.3. Recommendations

For the Human Resource Department to achieve equal employment opportunity, it is therefore important to ensure that:

  • Employees together with all the human resource administrators should be trained and made familiar to the equal employment opportunity laws.
  • The human resource department should cultivate an inclusive work-area environment. They should advocate for work setting that permits respect and professionalism for individual differences.
  • They should encourage open communication.
  • They should institute an objective and neutral criterion so that they can prevent subjective employment-related choices on the basis of hidden biases and individual stereotypes.
  • They should hire, recruit, and advocate for equal employment opportunities principles through the implementation of practices that are geared toward diversifying and widening pool of applicants who are considered for job openings.
  • The human resource management should ensure monitoring of equal employment opportunities compliance and this can be achieved through carrying out self-evaluations with the intent of determining if contemporary employment practices are negatively impacting people of color.
  • They should evaluate functions, competencies, and duties pertinent to the available jobs. They should then develop job-related and objective qualification standards that shall govern the functions, competencies, and duties; they should ensure that these are consistently implemented during employee recruitment and selection processes.


Ali, A.A.A., Yusoffii, S.H. and Aliiii, K., 2019, July. Fundamental of Equal Opportunities in Employee’s Performance: a Critical Review. In 5th World Conference on Integration of Knowledge (Vol. 29).

Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2020. Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Baker, Max, and Stefan Schaltegger. 2015. Pragmatism and new directions in social and environmental accountability research. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal 28: 263–94.

Biesta, Gert. 2010. Pragmatism and the philosophical foundations of mixed methods research. In Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research, 2nd ed. Edited by Abbas Tashakkori and Charles Teddlie. Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 95–117.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. 2015. Business Research Methods. Oxford University Press.

Chepkonga, F. (2021). Human Resource Management of Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved March 2, 2023 from

Cox, T. H., & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Perspectives5(3), 45-56.

Coy, M.J., 2019. Research methodologies: Increasing understanding of the world. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications9(1), pp.71-77.

Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of applied psychology95(5), 834.

D’Netto, B., Shen, J., Chelliah, J. and Monga, M., 2017. Human resource diversity management practices in the Australian manufacturing sector. The International Journal of Human Resource Management25(9), pp.1243-1266.

Edwards, A., 2020. Qualitative designs and analysis. In Doing early childhood research (pp. 155-175). Routledge.

Giacobbi, P.R., Poczwardowski, A. and Hager, P., 2005. A pragmatic research philosophy for sport and exercise psychology. The sport psychologist19(1), pp.18-31.

Johnston, M.P., 2017. Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries3(3), pp.619-626.

Kalu, A.O.U., Unachukwu, L.C. and Ibiam, O., 2019. Accessing secondary data: A literature review.

Lindgren, E. and Österlind, L., 2018. Inclusion in a recruitment process.

Martins, F.S., da Cunha, J.A.C. and Serra, F.A.R., 2018. Secondary data in research–uses and opportunities. PODIUM sport, leisure and tourism review7(3).

Morgan, David. L. 2014b. Pragmatism as a paradigm for social research. Qualitative Inquiry 20: 1045–53.

Nelson, T. (2007). Canadian Politics in the 21st Century.

Ponterotto, J.G., 2010. Qualitative research in multicultural psychology: Philosophical underpinnings, popular approaches, and ethical considerations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology16(4), p.581.

Queirós, A., Faria, D. and Almeida, F., 2017. Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European journal of education studies.

Raghavi, Kan, and Nishnava Gopinathan. 2017. Role of Human Resources as Change Agent in Enabling Equal

Opportunity Practices. Journal of Economics, Business and Management 1 (3): 300–303.

Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of management review32(2), 549-572.

Rynes, S. L., & Cable, D. M. (2003). Recruitment research in the twenty-first century. Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology12, 55-76.

Sharma, A., 2016. Managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Cogent Business & Management3(1), p.1212682.

Stoilkovska, A., Ilieva, J. and Gjakovski, S., 2017. Equal employment opportunities in the recruitment and selection process of human resources. UTMS Journal of Economics6(2), pp.281-292.

Tamminen, K.A. and Poucher, Z.A., 2020. Research philosophies. In The Routledge international encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology (pp. 535-549). Routledge.

Van der Heyden, C.C., 2016. Employees perception of employment equity fairness within a mining organisation in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape).

WARFIELD, D., 2010. IS/IT Research: A Research Methodologies Review. Journal of theoretical & applied information technology13.

Williams, C., 2007. Research methods. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER)5(3).

Yadav, S., & Lenka, U. (2020). Diversity management: a systematic review. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal39(8), 901-929.


Don't have time to write this essay on your own?
Use our essay writing service and save your time. We guarantee high quality, on-time delivery and 100% confidentiality. All our papers are written from scratch according to your instructions and are plagiarism free.
Place an order

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Need a plagiarism free essay written by an educator?
Order it today

Popular Essay Topics