This paper presents a report that focuses on the approaches and initiatives that aim to promote health and improve the wellness of individuals and society as a whole. This report comprises two main sections: a comprehensive report on the approaches to health promotion and improvement of well-being and a campaign report on the initiatives for health improvement and health promotion. Health promotion is enhancing people to improve and increase their control over their health. In contrast, wellness is aimed at disease prevention and health promotion. Social mobilization and motivation motivate people to change their attitudes concerning their health and adopt active health decisions. As such, health improvement and the promotion of well-being are the leading precursors to disease prevention for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The best way for people to improve their health and achieve promotions in their well-being is to adopt a positive attitude, behavioral change, and overall lifestyle changes.
Value in healthcare means that stakeholders in the healthcare service have improved the health outcomes for both individuals and families. Mead and Irish (2020) indicate that health promotion measures often target or focus on some priority diseases, both non-communicable and communicable. This paper presents a report that focuses on the approaches and initiatives that aim to promote health and improve the wellness of individuals and society as a whole. Health promotion enhances people’s improvement and increases their control over their health (Golden et al., 2017). In contrast, wellness is aimed at disease prevention and health promotion. Social mobilization and motivation motivate people to change their attitudes concerning their health and adopt active health decisions (De Toledo et al., 2019). The analysis of health improvement and promoting well-being approaches is that they focus on advancing the health system of a person, and the individual has to include these approaches in their daily routine and change their behaviors holistically to get the best on their health from these methods.
2.0 Task 1- A Comprehensive Report on Approaches for Health Improvement and Promotion of Well-being
Friedman, Rubin, and Sullivan (2017) state that the main health improvement and promotion approaches focus on five health dimensions: educational, medical, societal change, behavioral change, and client-centered activities. Adopting a positive lifestyle like diet changes and incorporating physical exercises into one routine are some of the basic methods of promoting and improving one’s health (Cardoso et al., 2019). These methods have an overall impact on advancing one’s health system. Health improvement and the promotion of well-being are the leading precursors to disease prevention for both communicable and non-communicable diseases.
The social change approach and other perspectives meant to promote health effectively focus on enhancing the health-promoting capacity of people and society as a whole (Turunen et al., 2017). Other strategies include creating supportive environments, developing personal skills, strengthening community action, building healthy public policy, and reorienting health services (Gourevitc et al., 2019). It is worth underscoring that the best way to achieve the goals of health improvement and promotion of well-being is to start with the intrinsic changes and move to extrinsic changes or modifications (Fry et al., 2018). This idea is necessary to have a wholesome achievement concerning the advancement of one healthcare needs and health system.
2.1 Evaluating the Concept of Health and Ill Health
The World Health Organization identifies health as achieving different interlinked factors and actions. Vasquez et al. (2017) state that health is a state of social, mental, and complete physical well-being and not just the absence of infirmity or disease. Therefore, the leading concepts of health include physical, capacity, psychosocial, and control as they continue to emerge following different evaluations of the health statuses of individuals (Mackenzie, Skivington, and Fergie, 2020). The concept of health articulates that health is achieved when a dynamic equilibrium exists between the environment and the people. According to their organism components, the disease is just a kind of maladjustment of humans to the environment (Chandan et al., 2019). To this end, health and well-being can be defined as the achievement and maintenance of mental stability and physical fitness, even though the ideas concerning well-being and health could change over time and continue to vary between different periods and cultures (Kabisch and Bosch, 2017). People, therefore, need to adopt environmental-friendly measures as these are key determinants of their health.
People’s health becomes stable when they maintain their environmental-friendly objectives and achieve other health outcomes. These positive outcomes indicate that the people are healthy. This outcome is characterized by their physiologic, anatomic, and psychological integrity to perform personal value improvements on their well-being or health (Crowe et al., 2019). The ability of the human body to function well means that a person is healthy, even though this concept has changed to indicate that the maintenance of a good lifestyle leads to better health that is incorporated or integrated into six other components.
These six other components of health include cultural health, cognitive, spiritual, emotional, physical, and social health. The people or health professionals who embrace all these components of health can overcome different forms of ill health and lead more complete lives (Jackman, Boyd, and Elrod, 2020). When one maintains good health, everything else comes into place.
On the other hand, ill-health is a condition whereby a person has a recurrent medical condition that bothers them for a long time as it is only manageable and not fully treatable (Crowe et al., 2019). Therefore, a person who keeps ill or has an illness suffers from ill-health. For instance, an individual working in a company is retrenched or forced to retire because they have recurrent disease or illnesses or simply ill health (Jackman et al., 2020). Also, children who suffer regular bouts are said to have ill health. Some main examples of ill health include asthma, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disease. And heart disease (Trunen et al., 2017). These diseases are not treatable but are only manageable.
2.2 Comparing and Contrasting Models of Health
Every human possesses the fundamental right to enjoy the highest attainable health standard. Grumbach et al. (2017) indicate that this attainment has to be without distinction or discrimination based on social and economic conditions, political beliefs, religion, and race. Ideally, the models of health include the social, medical, biopsychosocial, salutogenic, and ecosystem health models (World Health Organization, 2022). The comparison and contrasting of these health models are as follows;
All the models of health are the social, medical, biopsychosocial, salutogenic, and ecosystem health models, underscore the fact that human health is achieved through a combination of a person’s lifestyle, attitude, and environmental influences (Murphy et al., 2021). When a person maintains good health, other positive things follow. Examples of such things include the prevention of disease and mostly non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, but to some extent, peaceful coexistence in the society and increased economic growth and development.
Other positive outcomes include increased reproduction rates, low mortality rates, and burden reduction caused by disease, among other positive outcomes (Singh, Tiwari, and Singh, 2021). Again, the introduction or discovery of these health models is linked with the uprising of human rights movements in the 19th century and the great scientific inventions and innovations that happened during the enlightenment period or from the 18th century and beyond (Sharma, 2021). The focus of all these models of health is to advocate for human maintenance of good health and accrue the positive outcomes related to good health.
Each one of these models of health has its foundations or basic arguments. The social model of health came about due to the social model of disability as it was advocated for by the disability rights movement (Murphy et al., 2021). This model then emerged as a reaction to the conventional medical model. Notably, this model advocates or examines all the factors that influence health like political, cultural, social, and environmental factors (Barry et al., 2019). For instance, the problem of poor housing causes stress and depression amongst the residents as the place is becoming inhabitable day by day. Also, low self-esteem harms health.
On the other hand, the medical model believes that science alone can cure all diseases and illnesses and remains a core factor of modern medicine (O’Reilly et al., 2019). According to this model, disease means that a person is unhealthy. In contrast, the absence of disease indicates that a person is healthy. This model ignores the power of other health influences other than science and medicine.
On the hand, the biopsychosocial model of health indicates that health results from many other factors. This model mostly focuses on humanness, thereby viewing health as a scientific outcome or construct given the social phenomena (Nutbeam, 2019). This framework considers the biological and psychological factors affecting health (Edelman and KUdzma, 2021). Examples of these factors include age, illness, gender, perceptions, and other cognitive influences on health. The social component of this model is that the presence or absence of relationships determines a person’s health.
Another model of health that is critically significant is the salutogenic model. Fleming and Parke (2020) indicate that this model focuses on increasing the understanding between coping, health, and other stressors. Understanding the influence of these factors is crucially important when undertaking actions that will influence positive health outcomes of a person.
The fifth model, which happens to be the ecosystem model of health, argues that the more there is increased climate change, population growth, land use, resource depletion, urbanization, pollution, and the loss of biodiversity, amongst other factors, disrupt the natural self-regulation mechanism of the biosphere thereby affecting health negatively (Leitch et al., 2021). In the long run, these changes will become crucial and consistently harm people and other components of the ecosystem, such as the forests and the water bodies.
2.3 Analyzing Factors Affecting Health and Well-being
Several factors influence health. Haber (2019) indicates that these factors may generally be categorized into five broad categories called the influencers or the determinants of health. These factors include physical influences, genetics, environmental, behavior, social, and medical care factors (Corbin, Jones, and Barry, 2018). There is an interconnection between these factors.
Therefore, the specifics of these influencers include health care, heredity, random events, quality of the environment, person’s behaviors, the decisions that a person makes, and the quality of their relationships (Hubley and Copeman, 2018). Therefore, our health is also determined by the state of our environment, the place where we live, income and educational level, and our genetic composition or makeup. All these factors have considerable impacts on health (Schillinger, Chittamuru, and Ramírez, 2020). The other factors include access to health and the use of health care services often have less influence than these other factors (Corbin et al., 2018). All these factors determine our health, and the outcome is either positive or negative outcomes on our health statuses.
The influence of these factors on our health is the key factor that determines whether there will be health inequalities in a country or there will be fairness in healthcare promotions and services. Haber (2019) says that health inequalities are the inevitable, unfair, and unavoidable differences in the health status of individuals between groups of people or the society as a whole.
The well-being of an individual is incomplete if their health has deteriorated. Having physical well-being does not necessarily mean that a person has good health (Hubley and Copeman, 2018). Instead, a person’s well-being comes from the interconnection and interdependent function of the factors identified above. The person’s health will enhance their cognitive abilities and other areas of benefit and henceforth overcome diseases, including mental ailments and other psychological problems.
2.4 Analyzing the Connection Between Diet, Health, and Exercise
The components of a good lifestyle include exercise, health, and diet. Jones (2019) indicates that the combination or the connection of healthy eating and exercise will always result in fewer illnesses or diseases. Ideally, the people who exercise regularly and eat right enjoy having a stronger immune system and a higher likelihood of subduing diseases or illnesses. A stronger immune system means working consistently without any sick offs.
The world health organization points out that more than half of the adults in the USA have one or more diseases that are more preventable even though chronic. This negative health outcome is associated with poor dietary plans and patterns and physical inactivity (Laverack, 2017). This adverse impact will then disproportionately affect the underserved and the loc-income communities. Arguably, a good diet and regular exercises help people overcome premature deaths due to chronic diseases that could have been avoided by having a good diet and making exercise a regular schedule.
Good physical activity, good nutrition, and healthy body weight (no obese s per BMI) are the essential components of an individual’s overall well-being and health (Luquis and Pérez, 2021). Markedly, when these factors work together, there is a high chance of the individual overcoming or reducing their risks of developing further serious complications or health conditions like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and stroke, amongst other medical conditions.
2.5 Evaluating Media’s Role in Influencing Attitudes to Health
Verra et al. (2019) indicate that the media influences health from different dimensions, including public health and individual health. The mass media has a substantial potential for enhancing health behavior. Huang (2019) suggests that the mass media may be a significant and crucial source of information concerning a relevant socialization force and health in line with a person’s behavior and attitudes.
The media, therefore, needs to promote health behavior change by influencing health behaviors and behavior change amongst individuals and groups of people. Holden and Valdez (2019) say that the type and the amount of information that the media presents, like in their documentaries or classified commercials, may include methods of shaping the peoples’ beliefs, perceived norms, and attitudes that, in turn, will lead to total behavior change.
Also, the media can indirectly influence people’s behavior by facilitating other trainers and presenters to train society on the need to change their attitude and make lifestyle changes, including their diet and exercise plans and drug use, including alcohol and smoking cigarettes.
Further, the media has a crucial role in today’s world by providing a platform to unify all public health communications, robust social relationship strategies, and comprehensive healthcare education guidelines (Fortune et al., 2018). It is expected that the knowledge that the media instills upon people will then be included in their new insights and trends and used to enhance their lifestyles and also share the experiences with their cohorts so that behavioral change takes place throughout the entire community (Kim and Kim, 2018). The result will be total social change and improvement of the health of a society.
2.6 Explain the Terms
2.6.1 Health Education
Health education focuses on promoting people’s understanding of maintaining personal health. The World Health Organization (2022) says that this type of education concerns familiarizing or communicating with people about the underlying environmental, economic, and social conditions that impact their health and individual risk behaviors and risk factors. Health education aims to show people how to utilize the health system to enhance their health, overcome unnecessary ailments, and improve health literacy, life skills, and knowledge conducive to personal and community health.
2.6.2 Health Protection
Health protection encompasses activities that lie or fall within public health. The World Health Organization (2022) defines health protection as protecting people from individual cases of contagious disease, outbreaks, and incidents. This plan also focuses on protecting people against environmental hazards such as radiation and chemicals that are non-infectious. Huang (2019) says that another form of health protection includes emergency preparedness, resilience and response (EPRR), and environmental health.
2.6.3 Disease Prevention
The World Health Organization (2022) indicates that disease prevention is the procedure by which people with risk factors for particular diseases are treated and prevented from the occurrence of the disease. The treatment usually begins either before or shortly after the first signs and symptoms of the disease. The interventions used in disease prevention are either individual-based, population-based, or specific to ensure the early detection of disease and apply primary, secondary, or tertiary methods to prevent the disease from occurring.
2.7 Explaining the Approaches to Health Promotion
According to Turunen et al. (2017), there are five different approaches to health promotion as identified by Ewles and Simnett. These approaches apply different activities, including behavioral, medical, educational, societal change, and client-centered perspectives. The health practitioner works with the clients to facilitate their health and behavioral changes with the client-centered approach. Cardoso et al. (2019) indicate that the medical approach focuses on overcoming infectious and non-infectious diseases by using medical sciences to treat and prevent diseases.
On the other hand, the behavioral change approach focuses on changing the attitudes and behaviors of people so that they can adopt a healthy lifestyle and minimize the chances of having lifestyle diseases and enhance their immunity. On the other hand, the education approach focuses on changing people’s knowledge levels by using information and communication to sensitize them to new methods of promoting their health (Golden et al., 2017). On the other hand, the societal change approach focuses on changing the physical and social environment so that society lives in a conducive environment with fewer risks for diseases.
2.8 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Different Models of Behaviour Change
Friedman et al. (2017) indicate three main models of behavior change: the social cognitive theory, the transtheoretical model, and the theory of planned behavior. Fry et al. (2018) say that the TBP (theory of planned behavior) has been applied effectively to different dietary and physical interventions. The effectiveness of these models is as follows;
- The transtheoretical model prevents different stages of change, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination (Crowe et al., 2019). This framework seems to be the least effective model of behavior change
- The social cognitive theory focuses on the role of observing and learning from other people and getting behavioral reinforcements that are positive (Jackman et al., 2020). This theory seems to be the second most effective model of behavior change.
- The theory of planned behavior (TBP) assumes that people’s behavior is influenced by their intention as predicated by their subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control (Sharma, 2021). TBP seems to be the most effective model of behavior change.
3.0 Task 2- Campaign Report and Support Materials Relating to a Health Promotion Initiative Selected
This health promotion campaign targets overcoming obesity as this has increasingly become a major health challenge in our country, especially amongst the youth. It will be a rigorous campaign. The focus is on promoting the well-being of our youths so that they can adopt healthy lifestyles like diet, exercise, or physical fitness, and reduce uptake of alcoholic beverages for those who imbibe alcohol of any kind, be it beer or wines. The main strategies to apply in the facilitation of this campaign program for overcoming obesity include preventative, lifestyle, and public health approaches.
3.1 Defining the Rationale of a Health Promotion Project
This health promotion campaign will significantly impact reducing the rates of obesity in our country amongst the youths. The World Health Organization (2022) indicates that health promotion measures often target or focus on several priority diseases, both non-communicable and communicable.
This campaign will use approaches and initiatives that aim to promote health and improve the wellness of individuals and society as a whole. Health promotion is enhancing people to improve and increase their control over their health.
This campaign also focuses on the wellness of the youths in our country. This idea is aimed at disease prevention and health promotion through social mobilization and motivation for people to change their attitudes concerning their health and adopt active health decisions.
This health promotion report will be of much significance in that it will adopt a holistic approach aimed at health improvement and promoting well-being, and advancing the health system of the youths by showing the need to change their daily routine and behaviors and ultimately improve their health by avoiding obesity.
The main approaches to health improvement and promotion to be included in this campaign report will utilize the five main dimensions of health: educational, medical, societal change, behavioral change, and client-centered activities.
Adopting a positive lifestyle like diet changes and incorporating physical exercises into one routine are some of the basic methods of promoting and improving one’s health (Golden et al., 2019). These methods will have an overall impact on advancing the health system of our youths as they are the leading precursors to disease prevention, mostly for obesity and the rest of the communicable and non-communicable diseases.
3.2 Seeking Approval or Permission to Proceed with the Project
This Project touches on public health matters since obesity amongst the youth is a nationwide problem and is an issue of public health. Therefore, the facilitators will seek the approval from the government’s departments of public health, from the world health organization, if possible, from the authority for disease prevention and control in our country, and also from the associations of medical professionals since some of the facilitators to run this campaign will be medical professionals serving in various hospitals in our country.
3.3 Designing Materials for the Project
The materials for this campaign project will include visualizations or pictorials, food items, cooking items, and gym equipment just to illustrate to the affected youths and the nob-affected how to adopt good lifestyles and change their eating and exercise habits to burn calories, lower cholesterol levels, and ultimately shed weight. The focus is to have a BMI of between 20 and 25 amongst most of the targeted youths, which is a safe one and indicates good and non-obese weight levels.
3.4 Carrying out A Health Promotion Project
This Project will be a year-long activity done in three phases of four months each. The theme will be adopting a total lifestyle change to overcome obesity and being able to shed weight up to acceptable and healthy levels. The main approaches to health improvement and promotion to be included in this campaign report will utilize the five main dimensions of health: educational, medical, societal change, behavioral change, and client-centered activities. Other health promotion methods to apply in this campaign include communication, social mobilization, lobbying, mediation, and advocacy.
3.5 Evaluating the Effectiveness and Impact of the Project
This campaign will be relevant and effective in that it uses the appropriate approaches to health promotion (educational, medical, societal change, behavioral change, and client-centered activities) and also that its facilitation is done in a way that will mobilize the youths to change their behaviors and change their lifestyles to overcome obesity and to enhance both health, social, and economic development in our country. Besides, this campaign program for overcoming obesity is effective in that it includes preventative, lifestyle, and public health approaches. Also, this campaign project is effective because there are three main models of behavior change to be applied in the facilitation: the social cognitive theory, the transtheoretical model, and the theory of planned behavior. These models will be applied effectively to different dietary and physical interventions
In summation, the analysis of health improvement and promoting well-being approaches is that they focus on advancing the health system of a person, and the individual has to include these approaches in their daily routine and change their behaviors holistically to get the best in their health from these methods. Health promotion is enhancing people to improve and increase their control over their health. In comparison, wellness is aimed at disease prevention and health promotion. Social mobilization and motivation motivate people to change their attitudes concerning their health and adopt active health decisions. The best way for people to improve their health and achieve promotions in their well-being is to adopt a positive attitude, behavioral change, and overall lifestyle changes. These ideas are the basics or foundations for achieving the targets concerning advancing one’s health system. Health promotion measures often target or focus on some priority diseases, both non-communicable and communicable. It is appropriate to use the approaches and initiatives that aim to promote health and improve the wellness of individuals and society as a whole. Health promotion enhances people’s improvement and increases their control over their health
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