Globally, we are seeing a shift from orthodox conservative regimes to modern colonial ones and from the multilateral superiority of diverse imperial goals to the bipolar double domination of western capitalist and eastern central-controlled economies bolstered by advances in modern technology. Since the conclusion of the Cold War in the early 1990s, this pattern has drastically altered the international scene, ushering in the contemporary after the conclusion of the cold war, new global agenda arose, emphasizing concepts like “modern progress,” “transformation in communications, transport, and technology,” “internationalization,” “privatization of the economy,” “democratization,” and “the democratization movement.” The methodology used for this study was content analysis. According to the available data, all aspects of African society, including government, economy, education, religion, and psychology, have been negatively impacted by globalization and modernity. The essay says that Africans should establish national borders and sovereignty while preserving culture, tradition, and value to tackle the challenges of globalization.
Keywords: African culture, colonialism, politics, globalization, impact.
As a continent, Africa has had enough experience with the effects of globalization. There have been three significant stages of globalization: the 1870-1914 era, the 1945-1980 era, and the 1980s-present era. The first stage of globalization between 1870 and 1914 was the colonization and colonial rule over growing republics in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It popularized western values and seized economic power from colonies to build Europe’s economic superpower status(Al-Ajaji, 1990). The second period, 1945 to 1980, included the years of decolonization that followed World War II. This ushered in neocolonialism in underdeveloped nations and the postcolonial period. This was because the “black skin, white mask” white man system of leadership that had been imported from the West was imposed on new administrations. Huntington concludes that the era between 1980 and the current day is the second wave of democracy.
Most countries adopted liberal democracy. Throughout history, globalization has always been there. The saying has been around since the dof t the dispersion of nationalities has sped up the process. War, imperial expansion, and religious revivalists form the basis of international relations. Modernization and westernization are the results of this movement, which later colonial explorers accelerated. Effects of Globalization on Africa’s Culture and Politics Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the medium through which the globe is transformed into a global village. Institutionalization of Global Governance(Cooper, 2001). This transition, brought on by modernity and the instability of western capitalism, has affected the pAfrican colonies’tical, societal, cultural, academic, and mental milieu of Acans adopted Western fashion, drills, and language but did not adopt Western time. The cultural foundation of African society has suffered as a result of this syndrome’s effects on the spread of Western culture and civilization into indigenous communities.
Problem statement and formulation of research questions
Despite this, every African culture has its own set of holidays, beliefs, and rituals, as well as a unique economic structure that relies on agriculture, mining, and trading. A large number of palaces, mosques, and other historical landmarks in northern Nigeria may trace their origins back to Babangoni Muhammadu Durugu(Holton, 2000). Many diverse African cultures have developed quite advanced levels of civilization. The liberation of globalization has wreaked havoc on the African cultural structure, causing widespread disruption, devastation, and distortion. Let’s examine globalization in light of the move from Africa’s traditional framework to the western culture that now dominates the continent and works in tandem with the globalization slogan to raise Africa’s profile. This research answers the following questions; are there any effect of globalization on Africa? What areas have been affected and what remedies can curb the impacts?
The Imposition of Foreign Cultures Upon Subjugated People
The nations of Africa are now fully engaged in the contemporary era of colonial plunder, modernism, and empire. The term “globalization,” which refers to the contemporary international cultural system, is often used to explain the profound impact that Western culture has had on the age-old cultural practice of African countries. A foreign minority with more advanced technology may exert its influence on a host nation by imposing its political, economic, and cultural standards on that nation. On the other hand, as a direct consequence of colonial conquest, new cultural movements were introduced to the previously conquered people of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This led to a growing rejection of their own cultural norms. Conventional cultural frameworks all around the globe are falling apart at a frighteningly rapid pace. Colonialism, the Western political and economic system, and international culture all had an impact on this phenomenon.
It was incredible to witness how effectively the Africans adapted to Western rules of conduct, attire, and even imagination. It was amazing to observe how well the Africans conformed to Western conventions. Unfortuitously, this fallacy has already taken hold in the African psyche, and its ramifications may be observed in the inability of some Africans to find a healthy middle ground between African and Western ideals within the context of their own socio-psychological cultural framework. [Citation needed] Because so many people in Africa believed that the West was superior to their own civilization, the continent’s tradition is swiftly disappearing (Arowolo, 2010). Globalization has resulted not only in the dismantling of traditional cultural barriers but also in the disappearance of a great deal of less acceptable cultural characteristics. Since globalization is growing, it has invaded African societies and transformed Africans’ cultural thinking to be more Western. The majority of women in Africa only wear a partial covering of clothing, in contrast to the majority of men in Africa who braid their hair, pierce their noses, and wear tattered clothing or frayed in the to signify western culture.
Diplomatic efforts based on cultural similarities
Cultural diplomacy may be defined as “the interchange of knowledge, artistry, and other components of culture among countries and their citizens in order to establish effective communication.” It clarifies cultural diplomacy by demonstrating how a nation’s identity is best communicated via cultural pursuits, allowing it to encourage people globally despite political diversity and geographical barriers. Some countries might learn from the traditions and ideals of others, demonstrating the usefulness of cultural interchange on a global scale(Ritzer & Dean, 2019). It may also be harmful to other cultures, notably in Africa, where it has driven many people to abandon their own traditions in favor of adopting the customs of others. Multicultural celebrations, art exhibits, and festivals from across the world are all great In the mid-1970s, cultural diplomacy helped achieve harmony in diversity in African culture with the support of FESTAC in Nigeria, which encouraged all Africans to attend their cultural gatherings. This has resulted in a newfound level of tolerance and appreciation among Africa’s many culturally distinct communities.
Forced Adoption of Democracy in Africa
Even if each African nation or area has had its own political structure since prior to the arrival of the colonial imperialists, the latter inevitably reshaped those systems after their conquest to better serve their own egotistical purpose and exploitative tendencies. Africans are granted political freedom, but this is undermined by the fact that their economic independence was not offered until much later. This occurrence has afflicted the continent as it works to develop a political structure that works with its culture and society. Almost all of Africa’s republics are now experiencing what is, in Huntington’s words, the “third wave” of democratic reform. (Sklar, 1983). As a result of democratic globalization, unqualified politicians have been able to rise to power in Africa. It’s ironic that the West used to back dictators who weren’t elected by the people, so long as they did what they wanted. Egyptian President Abdul Fatah Assisi serves as a prime example.
Extinction of Language
Each person uses the language of his or her culture to communicate with others around them,therefore there is room for variation in the ways in which various languages categorize things and thoughts. With the advent of globalization, many Africans have embraced the Anglophone, Francophone, and Lexiphone languages. It prompted them to switch to English, French, or Portuguese. The domestic indigenous languages of Africa have been pushed to the background by the dreadful domination of western languages, to the point that some Africans are embarrassed to speak their mother tongue yet are at ease while speaking European languages(Amano et al., 2014). As a result of this Eurocentric campaign, several African languages, including the most important one, are in danger of extinction. Recent studies conducted by the BBC have led to the conclusion that the Igbo language, which is spoken by the Igbo people in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa, is in danger of becoming extinct or disappearing entirely. At the present time, Western languages are spoken all over the globe by a greater number of people than any African language.
Evidence from the study of the effects of globalization on African culture suggests that the continent’s democratic form of government, its culture, and its economic and educational institutions have all been compromised by the continent’s integration with the rest of the world via globalization. This is a major setback for Africans trying to establish independent republics in accordance with their own cultural norms and religious beliefs.
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