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Enhancing Communication and Negotiation in Meetings

Barriers to Communication

Several potential roadblocks to clear communication arose throughout the business proposal meeting. Better communication can be achieved in future gatherings if these obstacles are recognized and removed. It was found that the following obstacles existed:

We cannot communicate due to language barriers: Participants from various linguistic backgrounds may need help communicating effectively. Improving language skills or offering interpretation services can help break down this barrier.

Problems with technology: Rubinger et al. (2020) pointed out that a common problem with virtual meetings is shaky audio or visuals. Participants should be urged to use tried-and-true communication channels and to keep various backup plans ready to overcome these obstacles.

Dissimilar cultural backgrounds among participants can increase the likelihood of misunderstandings and miscommunications. Overcoming this obstacle can be accomplished by the promotion of cultural sensitivity, the creation of an inclusive atmosphere, and the provision of cross-cultural training.

Some people may not participate in the conversation because they are uninterested, distracted, or unprepared. The promotion of active involvement can overcome this obstacle, the establishment of transparent expectations and the distribution of pertinent pre-meeting information.

Differences between time zones: Having people in different time zones might cause scheduling conflicts and make coordinating meetings easier, as Hunter pointed out (2019, p.47435). This obstacle can be lessened by the use of scheduling systems that take into account time zone differences.

Challenges Faced and Strategies for Overcoming Them

Various challenges can arise before or during meetings. Identifying these challenges and implementing appropriate strategies can significantly enhance the meeting outcomes. The following challenges were observed in the Rooftop Café business proposal meeting:

Information overload:

Meeting attendees often need help with information overload when there is a lot of complicated material to be given or addressed. Overwhelmed participants cannot make sound judgments because they need to make sense of more data. This difficulty may result from lengthy presentations, too much information on each slide, or a lack of pre-meeting preparations. Presenters can help attendees deal with information overload by sending out clear and well-organized materials in advance. Before a meeting, attendees can prepare questions and topics of discussion by reading relevant documents, reports, or summaries at their leisure. By doing their homework before the meeting, attendees will be better able to contribute to the discussion.

Here’s an example: the project manager is pitching a new advertising campaign to the group. The project manager might spare the team members a boring in-person presentation by handing out a comprehensive proposal document before the meeting. An executive overview, major goals, analysis of the target audience, cost breakdown, and suggested marketing methods are all included. By sending the plan ahead of time, team members can read it, get a feel for the gist of it, and come to the meeting prepared to discuss and clarify specific points. By doing so, attendees can avoid feeling overwhelmed by the meeting’s content and provide pertinent questions or observations instead.

The presenter might summarize the proposal and highlight the most important topics during the meeting. This synopsis will act as a quick review and will assist in making sure everyone is on the same page. Most of the meeting time can be devoted to in-depth discussions of designated topics, questions, and group creativity. Participants who have had time to consider the material before the conversation are more likely to contribute thoughtfully. As a result, meeting time can be better allocated since attendees can focus on topics most interesting to them.

Lack of preparation:

A typical problem that might reduce a meeting’s efficiency and effectiveness is a need for more preparation. Inadequate preparation might result in participants having inane conversations, asking the same questions, and contributing little value. This difficulty may result from limited time, conflicting goals, or ignorance of the value of planning. Providing pre-meeting materials and making clear expectations for attendees can ensure that everyone who needs to be there is there. Participants might be more prepared to contribute to the meeting and ask insightful questions if they have had time to read important documents, reports, agendas, and discussion topics in advance. Participants can be encouraged to invest time and energy into preparation if the meeting’s goals, outcomes, and roles are made clear ahead of time.

Take, for instance, a project review meeting, at which all team members are expected to report on the status of their assignments and the overall project (Rubinger et al., 2020, pp.1461-1466). The project manager can send out an agenda before the meeting so that everyone knows what to do to get ready. This schedule might serve as a framework or outline for the updates, outlining the most important metrics, difficulties, and next steps. Team members are more prepared for meetings when they have time to review the agenda and any accompanying templates in advance. In preparation for the meeting, they assess their current state, pinpoint any problems or roadblocks, and think about possible ideas to present to the group.

The project manager can direct the meeting’s flow by requesting status reports from each team member at appropriate points in the schedule. Instead of wasting valuable meeting time on basic information exchange, this method guarantees that everyone has prepared their inputs and concentrates the discussion on actionable items and problem-solving. Participants’ contributions, discussions, and insights will all improve if they are encouraged to put in more time and effort in advance. Because everyone on the team knows they must come to the meeting ready to contribute, it fosters a culture of responsibility and professionalism.

Power imbalances: Power dynamics within the meeting can hinder effective communication and decision-making. Implementing strategies such as rotating the facilitator role, promoting equal participation, and encouraging diverse perspectives can address power imbalances and promote inclusive discussions.

Conflicting agendas: Participants with different priorities or interests may have conflicting agendas, leading to difficulty in reaching a consensus. Openly acknowledging and addressing conflicting agendas, facilitating open discussions, and focusing on common goals can help overcome this challenge.

Resistance to change: Resistance to new ideas or proposals can impede progress. Creating a supportive environment that encourages constructive feedback, providing evidence-based justifications, and involving stakeholders in decision-making can help overcome resistance to change.

Strategies and Tactics Employed During Negotiation

During the Rooftop Café business proposal negotiation process, participants likely employed various strategies and tactics to achieve their objectives. Although the specific strategies employed in this scenario are not outlined in the provided information, a general analysis of negotiation strategies can be conducted based on academic sources.

Negotiation strategies can include both competitive and collaborative approaches. Competitive strategies involve asserting one’s interests, using leverage, and aiming for a win-lose outcome. Collaborative strategies, on the other hand, emphasize cooperation, active listening, and finding mutually beneficial solutions.

Rubinger et al. (2020, pp.1461-1466) suggest that effective virtual meetings require a collaborative approach, where participants actively engage in discussions, share perspectives, and seek common ground. They emphasize the importance of using facilitation techniques, such as establishing clear meeting objectives, setting ground rules, and encouraging equal participation.

Miller et al. (2021) examined software development teams working remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. They found that teams employing collaboration tools, regular check-ins, and open communication channels were more successful in achieving project goals. These strategies facilitated effective coordination, problem-solving, and decision-making.

While the specific negotiation strategies employed in the Rooftop Café business proposal meeting are unknown, participants might have used techniques such as active listening, asking probing questions, summarizing key points, and finding common interests to promote constructive dialogue and reach mutually beneficial agreements.

Persuasive Rhetorical Arguments Used During Negotiation

In persuasive negotiations, participants often use rhetorical arguments to persuade others and achieve their objectives. Rhetorical arguments appeal to logic, emotions, or credibility to influence decision-making. The specific persuasive rhetorical arguments used in the Rooftop Café business proposal meeting are not provided, but an understanding of common persuasive strategies can be drawn from the literature.

Toniolo-Barrios and Pitt (2021, pp.189-197) explored the challenges of working from home during a crisis. They emphasized the importance of emotional appeals and mindful communication in maintaining employee well-being and productivity. Participants in the Rooftop Café meeting might have used emotional appeals to highlight the unique dining experience, the elegant ambiance, and the breathtaking view of the city skyline to evoke positive emotions and create a desire to visit the café.

Furthermore, participants could have used logical arguments to present evidence-based justifications for their proposals. They may have emphasized market research data, customer preferences, and the potential economic benefits of the café’s unique features to convince others of the viability and profitability of the business.

Lessons Learned and Future Improvement

The business proposal meeting for Rooftop Café provides valuable lessons that can inform future meetings and communication strategies. Based on the analysis of the academic sources and the specific context of the meeting, the following lessons can be learned:

Preparation is key: Thorough preparation, including providing pre-meeting materials, helps ensure active participation and meaningful discussions. Future meetings should focus on setting clear expectations, distributing relevant materials in advance, and encouraging participants to come prepared.

Foster effective communication: Overcoming language differences, technical issues, and cultural nuances is crucial for successful meetings. Promoting language proficiency, addressing technical challenges, and providing cross-cultural training can enhance communication effectiveness.

Embrace collaboration: Employing collaborative negotiation strategies fosters a positive and inclusive environment. Encouraging active participation, equalizing power dynamics, and seeking win-win outcomes can lead to better decision-making and stakeholder satisfaction.

Utilize persuasive techniques: Understanding and employing persuasive rhetorical arguments, such as emotional appeals and logical justifications, can enhance the effectiveness of business proposals. Presenters should focus on conveying their offerings’ unique features and benefits while addressing the needs and preferences of the target audience.

Emphasize adaptability in virtual meetings: In an increasingly virtual and remote work environment, adapting and utilizing best practices for virtual meetings is essential. As highlighted by Rubinger et al. (2020), understanding the technical aspects, ensuring reliable communication platforms, and being adaptable to different time zones can contribute to the success of virtual meetings.

Address conflicting agendas: Recognizing and addressing conflicting agendas during meetings is crucial to maintaining productive discussions. Participants should be encouraged to openly express their viewpoints and concerns while seeking common ground and compromise. Facilitating open and respectful dialogue can help overcome resistance to change and promote collaboration.

Continuous learning and improvement: Reflecting on the business proposal meeting, participants should identify areas for improvement and implement changes accordingly. Regular feedback, evaluation, and reflection can enhance future meetings and communication strategies.


In conclusion, effective communication and negotiation are integral to successful meetings and business interactions. The Rooftop Café business proposal meeting provides insights into identified barriers, challenges, strategies, and persuasive rhetorical arguments. Lessons from this process emphasize the importance of preparation, fostering effective communication, embracing collaboration, utilizing persuasive techniques, adapting to virtual environments, addressing conflicting agendas, and continuously learning and improving. By implementing these recommendations, future meetings and communication in the context of Rooftop Café can be enhanced, leading to better outcomes and increased success in achieving business goals.


Rubinger, L., Gazendam, A., Ekhtiari, S., Nucci, N., Payne, A., Johal, H., Khanduja, V. and Bhandari, M., 2020. Maximizing virtual meetings and conferences: a review of best practices. International orthopedics, 44, pp.1461-1466.

Forsetlund, L., O’Brien, M.A., Forsen, L., Mwai, L., Reiner, L.M., Okwen, M.P., Horsley, T. and Rose, C.J., 2021. Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of systematic reviews, (9).

Miller, C., Rodeghero, P., Storey, M.A., Ford, D. and Zimmermann, T., 2021, May. ” how was your weekend?” software development teams working from home during covid-19. In 2021 IEEE/ACM 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (pp. 624-636). IEEE.

Toniolo-Barrios, M. and Pitt, L., 2021. Mindfulness and the challenges of working from home in times of crisis. Business Horizons, 64(2), pp.189-197.

Hunter, P., 2019. Remote working in research: An increasing usage of flexible work arrangements can improve productivity and creativity. EMBO reports, 20(1), p.e47435.


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