The long term consequences of medical missions in colonial India
Due to the colonialism of India, the country’s medical health has significantly been affected by colonialism. For instance, in the southern parts of India, the health performance has been doing well, while the northern part of India has been performing poorly. According to Calvi & Mantovanelli, 2018) they identified that these differences in health care levels could have been impacted by the 19th-century missionaries who brought up modern medical care and spread it across the various parts of India. The apostles used medicine to transform most of the Indians to Christianity, and thus they increased the number of doctors and nurses to give services in India. This expanded and improved the health care services in India even after India got its independence. However, most of the colonial doctors and catholic missionaries, where the protestant medical missionaries were active within non-European social and institutional backgrounds, contributed to Western medicine’s integration among the Indians.
The effects of colonialism of forest on forest and the local people in the Garhwal Himalaya, India
This article reveals no evidence to propose any significant change in the land use patterns in agriculture and forestry over the last 100 years despite the ever-increasing population (Negi et al., 1997). According to the article, the period between 1920 and 1970 was when a rapid decline occurred in the forested area. This era accorded extensive changes in government administration. The local people were changed due to colonialism through the agricultural expansion at the cost of loss of forest cover was the most notable change in the forest managed by the people. In some Garhwal Himalaya, India changed to farmers due to colonialism introduced them to modern farming methods. In recent years, the Himalaya areas have continued to be agricultural due to the impact of colonialism.
Direct versus indirect colonial rule in India: Long term consequences
This article examines the economic results across areas in India under direct British colonial rule with areas under indirect colonial control. According to this article, the areas under the direct law in India have continued to experience significantly lower school access. This has increased the illiteracy levels in those areas. Also, the health facilities are limited, which results in poor health services in these areas (Iyer, 2010). Most residents of areas under direct rule suffer from chronic diseases and face significant challenges in health services.
Similarly, the infrastructure in the Indian areas that experienced direct rule has poor road connections, which negatively impacted the development of these areas. On the other hand, the areas under indirect rule have better access to schools which increases and improves the education levels in those areas where most residents are literate. Also, the regions have access to better health facilities, resulting in better health services for the residents. Finally, the areas under indirect rule have better infrastructure that means better road connection and access to most social facilities.
The British art of colonialism in India: subjugation and division
This article examines the long-term effects of British colonialism and India’s socio-economic and political consequences. These significant aspects that have affected India are the divide and rule, colonial education, and British laws (Rahman et al., 2018). The British took the reformative incentive in the legal system’s investment in development and education in the colonial period in India. The British introduced the English education system and abolished the Indian education system for their interest. Also, the British administration developed laws that were predictable and biased. These reforms were against the Indian culture, policies, and way of life, which the British admiration continued to implement despite it being against the will of the Indian people. This legacy of the British administration has continued to be instigated in educational policies, legal framework, and religious cultural diversity, which has led to structural biasness, cultural biasness, and direct violence among some Indians as an impact of colonialism by the British admiration.
The endless nexus between ethnic diversity, social exclusion, and institutional quality of Pakistan
According to this article, the main reason for the study was to examine the connection between ethnic diversity, social exclusion, and the institutional quality of Pakistan. Pakistan has been named among the countries suffering from band institutional quality, which resulted from nominal economic growth and various ethnic problems higher poverty levels in social exclusion, which were adopted from British colonialism (Amin, 2019). The British administration set biased laws and instigated ethnicity among the Pakistan residents to rule them quickly. The race established from the colonial era and social exclusion introduced by the British admiration has been a significant obstacle in the institutional quality of Pakistan. Ethnic diversity has had an adverse effect on institutional quality, which obstructs economic prosperity; the introduced social classes by the British administration excluded people socially. This made poor Pakistan citizens adopt, making the socially excluded people more involved in breaking the institutional rules as they feel they are not treated equally in all aspects of the society.
A study of division and communal conflict in Africa and South Asia
According to these articles, the British colonizers adopted the policy of divide and rule to secure most of their colonies’ supremacy in Africa and South Asia by identifying the existing communal division, which helped the British colonizers to rule at ease. The British admiration used the mistrust and communal conflicts among the people of South Asia to subvert the social harmony, allowing the colonial rulers to have opportunities to enhance their authority. In Pakistan, they used the different ethical groups to divide the people to weaken them and rule them easily (Morrock, 1973). Also, they used the different social statuses to weaken the people. The poor were made to believe that they had been taken advantage of, which led to social wars among the Pakistan citizens, which provided a better opportunity for the British administration. British colonies in Africa and South Asia used conflicts to pave their dominance. This dived and rule has continued to affect those nations even after their independence, where social exclusion and ethnicity, conflicts, and disunity have continued to thrive.
Pakistan colonial legacy
This article examines the effect of colonialism to investigate the problems in countries colonized by the British in Africa and South Asia in terms of culture, social life, and the rule of law. In Pakistan, one of the colonies, the post-colonial narratives such as the frontier crimes regulations has led to Pakistan’s conflicts and instability (Yousaf, 2019). The British colonizers developed the Federally Administered Tribal Areas as a legal framework used to divide the Pashtun tribes based on their ethnicity, which has continued to be used in Pakistan. These colonial legacies have affected the Pashtun culture and native conflict resolution structures of tribal councils, which were eliminated during colonial rule. The divide and rule aspect of the British administration has led to significant conflicts in Pakistan as disputes are based on ethnicity and social class. These harsh British colonial legacies were meant to control and rule the Pakistan citizens easily. However, despite the attainment of independence, Pakistan has continued to suffer from these harsh divide and rule policies in society.
Amin, S. (2019). The endless nexus between ethnic diversity, social exclusion, and institutional quality of Pakistan. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy.
Calvi, R., & Mantovanelli, F. G. (2018). Long-term effects of access to health care: Medical missions in colonial India. Journal of Development Economics, 135, 285-303.
Iyer, L. (2010). Direct versus indirect colonial rule in India: Long-term consequences. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(4), 693-713
Morrock, R. (1973). Heritage of strife: The effects of colonialist” divide and rule” strategy upon the colonized peoples. Science & Society, 129-151.
Negi, A. K., Bhatt, B. P., Todaria, N. P., & Saklani, A. (1997). The effects of colonialism on forests and the local people in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Mountain Research and Development, 159-168.
Rahman, A., Ali, M., & Kahn, S. (2018). The British art of colonialism in India: Subjugation and division. Peace and Conflict Studies, 25(1), 5.
Yousaf, F. (2019). Pakistan’s colonial legacy: FCR and post-colonial governance in the Pashtun tribal frontier. Interventions, 21(2), 172-187.