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Critique on Spirituality and Mental Health


The study “Assessing Spirituality: This paper “The Relationship Between Spirituality and Mental Health” investigates a possible link between spirituality variables, religious coping styles and spiritual well-being with mental health. Researchers, including David R. Browne et al., from different institutions in the US, carried out this study.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The study does not directly point out the research questions and hypotheses. Nevertheless, it is possible to infer the general objectives and the focus areas. This study seeks to examine the correlation between religious coping style, spiritual well-being, and mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. The study will also consider whether there are differences between those who do and those who do not disclose a spiritual/religious identity.

Purpose of the Study

This research aims to support the knowledge-making endeavours concerning Spirituality’s involvement in mental disease. This study aims to find out if there is some linkage between anxiety, symptoms of depression, and spiritual components, including religious coping styles and spiritual well-being. This study examines the implications of such relationships on matters concerning mental and emotional health. Primarily, they seek to offer significant data for mental health and counselling to acknowledge the advantages of integrating Spirituality into the therapy procedure.


It utilized a holistic data collection method through a packet with a demography survey and the four evaluative instruments. The demographic questionnaire included basic information on participants, such as their age, race, gender, religion, and nuanced meanings behind the word “god” in their spiritual or religious identification.

The key assessment instruments used in this research were the religious problem-solving scale (RPSS) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS). The RPSS measures religious coping and problem-solving styles and encompasses three subscales: Self-Directing, Collaborative, and Deferring. Consisting of 36 items, respondents rate each item on a 1-to-5-point Likert scale. The RPSS shows strong internal consistency and good construct validity, providing additional trustworthiness to the findings collected in this tool (Tay et al., 2020).

Therefore, the SWBS functions internationally in assessing personal happiness and spiritual satisfaction. Spiritual well-being has three components: religious wellness, an existential domain and a total score for spiritual well-being. The respondents answered the twenty-item SWBS on a six-point Likert-type scale (Nooripour et al., 2022). The quantitative measures in the study are strong as they are supported by the high reported reliability and validity of the SWBS.

Although the particular statistical methods applied in the study do not emerge clearly in the current context, references are made regarding their rigorous utilization using already proven assessment tools of high reliability and validity. To better appreciate the analytical model used in the study, further information on the statistical methods employed would be required.


This research has pointed out that people living in the Midwestern region had better spiritual health than those in the Southern part of the country. In particular, the Midwestern participants scored higher on Collaborative and Deferring scales, suggesting a higher tendency for a collaborative relationship with God for addressing problems and dealing with adverse experiences. The Midwestern subjects reported higher scores on the Existential and Religious subscales, supporting that they felt they had meaning in their lives and identified themselves with their spiritual or religious practices. In general, most items of depression and anxiety were not endorsed by the sample of participants from this study (Schafer et al., 2021). Multiple regression revealed that the relationship with the mental health measures was accounted for by each of the five spirituality subscales, with existential well-being having the largest effect size as it reduced both anxiety and depression. The other differences existed between the two participant groups whereby Midwestern scored better on Collaborative and Religious subscales.


In terms of methodological approach, the study demonstrates remarkable strength. However, using several assessment measures increases the thickness and width of this research on Spirituality and religiosity because it involves RPSS and SWBS approaches. This multi-dimensional approach enables an in-depth examination of various facets present in these concepts. A demographic questionnaire is also included in this study and supplements data about the participants, thus further enriching the study.

Although the discussion does not provide a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and limitations associated with the study, this point deserves mentioning. Understanding these limitations will be important in helping to understand what can be said about such understanding and the possible consequences, which also include the generalization of the study’s findings (Yarkoni, 2020). Nevertheless, future studies are needed to rectify this gap in addressing limitations with an end towards enhancing the transparency and reliability of this work.” listed, “Developing a Learning Strategy for M-Changa”.” “Developing a Learning

Interesting ideas on what to carry out in further research are provided, such as creating assessment tools which surpass the Judeo-Christian angle. ` To make things inclusive and more encompassing within different cultures and religions. Furthermore, suggesting a qualitative approach may enhance the project since the various individual spiritual experiences could have greater insights from a qualitative approach than purely numerical ones without a sentence converter. On this note, qualitative approaches may shed light on complex and sensitive issues in Spirituality, further enhancing our understanding of the concept.


To sum up, the context presented here could be clearer to properly judge the study or make other interpretations of the results. The study did not provide a statistical test or relevant statistics. Consequently, it becomes impossible to talk about them in the context of what is expected in the future career and provide examples accordingly. Quantitative research evaluation will affect future careers, enabling one to examine current research works critically. This may aid decision-making processes on an evidence-based basis and move towards scientific progress.


Nooripour, R., Ghanbari, N., Hosseinian, S., Ronzani, T. M., Hussain, A. J., Ilanloo, H., Majd, M. A., Soleimani, E., Saffarieh, M., & Yaghoob, V. (2022). Validation of the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWBS) and its Role in Predicting Hope among Iranian Elderly. Ageing International.

Schafer, K. M., Lieberman, A., Sever, A. C., & Joiner, T. (2021). Prevalence Rates of Anxiety, Depressive, and Eating Pathology Symptoms between the Pre- and Peri-COVID-19 Eras: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Tay, C., Yuh, A. S., Sheau Lan, E. L., Ong, C. E., Aloweni, F., & Lopez, V. (2020). Development and validation of the incontinence-associated dermatitis knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Journal of Tissue Viability29(4), 244–251.

Yarkoni, T. (2020). The generalizability crisis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences45, 1–37.


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