1. Effective Intervention Techniques On Youth Affected By Family Violence
As an international social challenge, family violence builds up to dangerous consequences engulfing parents, victims of violence as well as children. Due to family violence, a significant number of children undergo negative consequences distinguished by the social issue. These consequences include but are not limited to injury engrossment, mental as well as psychological abuse, hunger strikes, and displacement from their homes. Nevertheless, there has been the establishment of intervention techniques in order to address family violence. The effectiveness of these intervention techniques has been manifested.
1.1 Child Placement Intervention Programs
Child placement intervention programs work by ensuring that the youths involved in family violence are transferred from the area of conflict to a mortgaged location. According to Graham (2000, p. 194), the activities involved within child placement intervention programs bounds arrangements for suitable as well as alternative lifestyles for the affected children. Moreover, the program recommends the physical well-being of the youths affected by family conflicts. Even though various practices under this intervention program may lead to the detachment of children from their biological parents in cases where violence was severe, this program portrays prolific effectiveness in mediating between youths and domestic violence. Apart from unusual living circumstances, child placement also includes the construction of shelters for afflicted children and the allocation of protective guardians. Children’s safety and well-being are significantly improved following placement intervention. Children who have experienced domestic problems are assigned a guardian who ensures that they understand a sustainable lifestyle characterized by social ideals.
1.2 Universal Intervention Programs
Apart from child placement plans, universal entities display substantial-effectiveness on youths undergoing detrimental impacts of family violence. Through various platforms, universal initiatives include public education and campaigning efforts. These programs educate people about family violence and conflict, gender equality and respect, the impacts domestic violence have on children, and general disparities, such as poverty. The effectiveness of universal intervention strategies has been demonstrated by their ability to reduce the number of family violence cases (Graham, 2000, p. 208). Youth engagement in family violence and its repercussions is decreased significantly when domestic conflicts are reduced. Various caregiving groups have performed universal campaigning and teaching programs using multiple platforms, including social media realms, broadcasting media, and communal and international conference institutions.
Moreover, the fundamental causes of family conflicts and areas of high occurrence are explicitly addressed through these campaigns and education campaigns. The origins of family violence, elements that make it more likely to occur, the long-term repercussions on youths, and strategies for reducing family conflict and juvenile engagement have all been revealed. Family conflict decencies and their implications for youths have significantly been reduced as a result of these comprehensive campaigns as well as education programs. As a result, the overall effectiveness of youths from families with domestic violence grows significantly.
1.3 Parenting Intervention Techniques
Parenting intervention programs have shown to be quite successful in resolving family problems and helping children from these situations. Parenting interventions include going to households where there has been family violence and providing parenting education. Examining the origin of violence, variables contributing to family conflict, the path to juvenile engagement, and the combined effects of disputes on parents and youths are all part of parenting education. These parenting classes help resolve conflicts, promote harmony, and prevent future incidents (Graham, 2000, p. 209).
Moreover, parenting intervention also includes the improvement of parental and child relationships as one of its goals. The relationship between parents and children develops and improves as a result of parenting initiatives. Enhancing parental ties has been shown to improve the well-being of children who have experienced domestic violence. Furthermore, the program’s methodology entails visiting homes with a high incidence rate of acquiring domestic violence.
1.4 Counseling and Advocacy Intervention Techniques for Youths
In addition, Graham (2000, p. 203) asserts that the consequences of family violence can be severe and mentally draining for children. Emotional and psychological intervention through counseling programs becomes critical in such situations. Besides, local non-profits and grassroots organizations are involved in youth counseling initiatives. These organizations help children with psychological as well as mental health issues who come from a home with a history of conflict. Children who are subjected to torture, such as physical injuries as well as psychological suffering as a result of parental violence, are contained by advocacy intervention approaches. The majority of advocacy programs take place in community-based settings. Advocacy interventions provide shelter and long-term well-being for victims of family abuse; the advocacy intervention program’s effectiveness relies on its representation of afflicted adolescents in juvenile justice systems.
1.5 Individual Intervention Programs
Individual intervention is a practice that entails visiting youths at their placement sites and homes (Graham, 2000, p. 211). Affected youths are informed, supported, and counseled through personal visits. At the individual level, the implications engrossing youths following family conflict encounters, that is, mental, psychological, and physical effects, are usually addressed. The answer to these ramifications encompassing youths afflicted by family violence is presented and ultimately improves the well-being of youths. Furthermore, response and recovery programs have been shown to be helpful in providing significant assistance to children who have been victims of domestic abuse. Response intervention has entailed integral caregiving support from local voluntary individuals.
2. Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) and its Consequences.
According to Fix (2018), Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) is a situation in which the rate of the juvenile justice system of contact with youth from a specific ethnic minority is unequally compared to whites’ contact with non-Hispanic juveniles. According to past studies, youths of color have higher chances compared to white youths to be arrested and ultimately end up in the juvenile justice system wthin the United States (Fix, 2018). In 2012, the Census of Juveniles in Suburban Placement, for example, found that 520 African American adolescent offenders were in detention while evaluating placement within residential facilities among juvenile delinquents. Only 112 offenders were detected in the juvenile court systems compared to white juveniles (Fix, 2018). When compared to the overall population of juveniles within the U.S., other minority groups such as American Indian youths as well as Hispanic teenagers showed comparable patterns.
According to research, there are no precise causes that effectively explain the situation of disproportionate minority interaction. However, there are various reasons that lead to the uequal representation of minorities within juvenile justice systems. Several criminological research has examined the underlying components and identified several critical reasons for the unequal juvenile contact (Fix, 2018). Family concerns, socioeconomic situations, geographic fairness, and unequal chances are just a few contributing elements.
The family is the most contentious and sensitive subject that is thought to contribute to DMC, with family functioning, as well as makeup, being significant contributors. Because justice is disproportionately distributed among low-income households and single-parent families, single-parent families have higher chances to confront high poverty instances, resulting in higher DMC levels. Lack of dependable family support, on the other hand, can significantly contribute to young involvement in immoral activities, which can lead to an increase in criminal cases.
Many people believe that socio-economic variables play a role in DMC. Fix (2018) states that insufficient work prospects, a high incidence of low income, as well as ethnic group urban density, are all believed to be critical economic issues. Similarly, the causal social repercussions include a reduction in social as well as supportive services within ethnic groups, a lack of cultural knowledge among dominant populations, and a lack of good opportunities and role models for minorities.
According to Fix (2018), the most understandable factor that contributes to the disproportionate contact of the minority is “differential selection.” This refers to the idea that decision-makers in the juvenile justice system, including professionals like police officers, judges as well as juvenile probation officers, usually treat African American juveniles harshly compared to their European American counterparts. Unequal treatment of juveniles on the basis of race or ethnicity and other attributes such as age or gender may either be intentional or unintentional. However, the consequences are similar. A good example of differential selection could be African American juveniles being stopped by officers more frequently compared to white juveniles despite having a similar criminal record or engaging in a simillar behavior (Fix, 2018).
Justice by geography is another crucial subject in DMC. During their contacts, juveniles are subjected to varying judicial treatments depending on where they live. Fix (2018) highlighted that location examples include Suburb vs. city, low vs. wealthy neighborhoods, and other places, such as Hispanic vs. Asian-American neighborhoods. Furthermore, racial stereotyping can exist in some circumstances, which may increase DMC.
Several members of the local community believe that the school system is a significant contributor to DMC. The main contributing factors were minority youths’ failure to participate in education and schools’ inability to fulfill their obligations in supporting minority juveniles. Insufficient early childhood education and programs to reduce school dropouts are two specific examples within educational systems.
Due to their increased involvement in juvenile detention services, the youths are more likely to face harsh punishment. Detained youths, for example, are at risk of developing severe mental health problems (Fix, 2018). Most teenagers in correctional facilities experience stress as a result of environmental changes, which leads to the development of psychological issues. Minority juveniles are still subjected to discrimination, which exposes them to hostile situations and hardships that might lead to mental illness.
Corrections for juvenile offenders linked with the juvenile justice system generally provide a substantial problem to society. When juveniles are incarcerated, for example, they risk having their occupational and educational options limited. It suggests that such adolescents will have lower economic productivity and a higher risk of passing on illegal practices to their peers. Therefore, there is a need to raise awareness about the disproportionate nature of minority interaction and explore potential measures to effect change and reduce the likelihood of such incidents.
3. Key Race-Based Policies and Practices that Have Influenced the Treatment of Children and Have Led To Disparities.
3.1 Race-Based Policies and Practices
The involvement of youths in deviant behavior is linked to several risk factors, which are divided into three categories: individual characteristics, background factors, and community-level factors (Sherman & Jacobs, 2011). These risk variables solely determine the likelihood of a juvenile engaging in delinquent behavior. Protective factors, on the other hand, significantly reduce the possibility of children participating in delinquent behavior. Teenagers who engage in delinquent or violent behavior must be treated. Rehabilitation programs, therapy interventions, and juvenile delinquent criminal justice systems are part of these children’s treatment plans. Furthermore, the majority of practices and regulations related to juvenile delinquent justice have a significant impact on how children are treated. Following the transmission of character transformation within involved youngsters, the influence manifests. However, some race-based laws and practices have an impact on how children are treated, resulting in evident discrepancies.
3.2 Disproportional Representation Policy
The mandatory execution of juvenile delinquency impediment mechanisms, systemic reform, as well as enactment of the systems’ principles and standards are all part of children’s treatment in juvenile delinquency justice institutions. Furthermore, with the juvenile justice system, the complete set of obligations necessitates majority and minority representation. According to Hawkins and Kempf (2010), minority disproportionate representation has some distinguishing traits. Minority individuals, that is, black representation, constitute a large number of people in juvenile justice organizations. In contrast, the majority of individuals include a small number of people, and treatment institutes are filled with black people. Currently, the majority of individuals in leadership principalities may be found at various children’s treatment institutes. Generally, black youths make up a higher percentage of those involved in juvenile justice systems than the general population. Although proportionality helps combat racism and prejudice among students and reduces involvement in juvenile delinquency, disproportionate representation creates racial inequality. Besides, even though the strategy improves children’s treatment without racial prejudice, the delivery of minority representation in juvenile courts outperforms the majority.
3.3 Differential Enforcement Policy
Various race-based policies used in children’s treatment exacerbate racism, ethnicity, as well as color discrimination; that is, discriminatory enforcement policies such as disproportionate representation have an impact on children’s treatment by imposing juvenile delinquency prevention approaches. Furthermore, differing policies compel the growth of sending young offenders to different juvenile justice institutions when they commit a crime. Rehabilitation centers, juvenile courts and jails, and medical intervention facilities are among these establishments (Hawkins & Kempf, 2010). On the other hand, the availability of unequal enforcement policies certainly encourages racist and discriminatory impressions. In juvenile justice, the race-based strategy expresses majority preference and operates against minority juveniles. Notably, the effectiveness of a differential enforcement policy is influenced by criteria such as age, race, ethnicity, and social class. Invisible to the naked eye, the bulk of black people, the minority group, surround the disadvantaged socio-economic property. Minority youths suffer disproportionately as a result of disparate enforcement policies in juvenile justice. Instances of minority adolescents committing inferior crimes and offenses, and as a result, ending up in juvenile courts and eventually being imprisoned, are very common. When youths from the majority group participate in delinquent and aggressive behaviors, crimes, or offensive activities, they are frequently released or transferred to psychological medical examinations or rehabilitation institutes under differential enforcement policies. In order to promote racial disparity, the justifications for this manifestation connect with racial grouping, color discrimination, and socioeconomic discrepancies.
3.4 Feeding Polices
The engagement of individuals who serve as juvenile justice schematic feeds aids in the treatment of children. School disciplinary protocols, juvenile welfare groups, psychological health methods, and the policing department are all examples of system feeders. These feeders provide information about juvenile delinquency, juvenile offenders, and juvenile criminal commission to the juvenile justice system. The system feeders, in particular, have a positive impact on children’s treatment. Significant cases of child abuse and violence are reported through the policy.
Nevertheless, the policy is racially motivated and encourages racial disparities in juvenile care and society. Racial prejudice is manifested through meaningful information originating from the system feeders. Children within the minority group, that is, black juveniles, are highly likely to be reported by system feeders. The result strongly implies that most institutions involved in juvenile evaluation have a racial discrimination element. In terms of proportionality, the ratio of black juveniles engaging in delinquent behaviors and offensive actions is higher than that of white youth. Significantly, the racial discrimination availability in juvenile system feeding policy promotes racial, discriminative, and ethnic disparities within children’s treatment programs.
4. Relationship between Delinquents’ Profiles Based On Official Statistics and the Actual Extent of Delinquency
Practically, in every state, youths of various races and ethnic groups are significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Besides, the federal government and municipal governments are both concerned about un-proportionality (Van et al., 2019). As a result of the large numbers, state legislators have made steps to investigate the reasons for such misrepresentation and determine the best measures for decreasing it and improving the whole justice system.
Minority juveniles have high chances than white juveniles to be involved with the juvenile justice system. Ethnic minorities are overrepresented in all situations, and they are more likely to be incarcerated, imprisoned, or detained. Every system detects an expansion in the proportion of ethnic groupings (Van et al., 2019). According to findings from studies conducted by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency and the Centre for Children’s Law and Policy, minority children are treated harshly by white youths. Minority youths have high possibility to be incarcerated and suffer a lengthy prison sentence, as well as being less likely to face a more probability of being confined and facing a long jail sentence and are less likely to obtain probation or alternate sentences.
In the United States, there are around 70.5 million youths aged 10 to 17. The white groupings account for 59% of the total figure, while ethnic minorities account for 41%. Surprisingly, whites account for 31% of those incarcerated in correctional facilities, while ethnic groups account for 69 percent (Van et al., 2019). For Hispanic and African-American kids, the discrepancy appears to be substantial. African-American youth constitute 13% of the entire juvenile population, but they make up 31% of those arrested (Van et al., 2019). According to Van et al. (2018), 42 percent are in custody, 39 percent are in residential facilities, and 58 percent are in prison for a long-term jail prison. In general, adolescents of African American heritage are four times compared to white youths to be arrested.
In the past few years, delinquency rates in the United States have followed a consistent pattern. According to figures from victim data, official arrest statistics, and self-reporting outcomes, male youths are more delinquent than females. While there is no explanation for the link between class and delinquency, government statistics show that youths from low-income homes have the most unprecedented delinquency rates (Van et al., 2019). According to self-reported data, delinquency is widely distributed across all social strata. Moreover, African-American juveniles are frequently arrested for disproportionately high numbers of criminal offenses such as assault and robbery. In contrast, white teens are commonly detained for disproportionately high numbers of criminal offenses such as drug addiction and other associated crimes.
Various criminological studies have found that institutional racism, such as police profiling, has a significant impact on racial differences within the criminal justice system. Some believe that the elevated African-American rates of delinquency are the result of people living within a racially divided society. Youths who commit the most severe types of criminal acts are more likely to come from low-income families (Van et al., 2019). Delinquency rates always decrease as people get older. The younger a person gets, the less likely they are to become involved in criminal activity.
Every year, the National Crime Victimization Survey takes the data of about 50,000 people to establish the total number of criminal cases, including those that are not reported to the police. Juveniles are more frequently targeted than the elderly on various occasions (Van et al., 2019). According to the findings, male juveniles have high chances compared females to engage in delinquent behavior. Youths with African-American goodness have a far higher rate of violent victimization than those with white supremacy. According to the results of self-reports, a significant number of young people are becoming criminal offenders.
According to Cox, Allen, and Hanser (2018), youth’s delinquent behavior may originate from two main factors: social factors and family. As teenagers grow, there are subjected to several social factors that significantly increase their risk for particular challenges such as abusing drugs. An increased number of risk factors increases the chances of youth being involved in delinquent or other risky behaviors. In addition, delinquency, as well as violence, usually cluster with other challenges like drug abuse. Moreover, family plays a significant role in youth’s delinquent behaviors. This is because, in a family, children can internalize fundamental beliefs, attitudes, values as well as the general pattern of behavior that directs subsequent behaviors (Cox, Allen & Hanser, 2018).
It is evident that the justice system is filled with discrimination and disproportionate treatment of minorities, whereby black representation constitutes a large number of people in juvenile justice organizations. In contrast, the majority of individuals include a small number of people, and treatment institutes are filled with black people. Even in the biblical view, discrimination has been highly condemned. Galatians 3:28 indicates that “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Besides, Luke 6:37-38 asserts that “Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven; give, and it will be given to you. Good measure pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be put into your lap. For with the measure you use, it will be measured back to you.” Therefore, it is high time we end discrimination as it perpetuates inequality. Moreover, every individual has the right to equal treatment regardless of race, nationality, sex, religion, class, ethnicity, or belief.
Cox, S., Allen M.J and Hanser R.D. (2018). Juvenile justice (9th ed., p. 93). Sage Publications, Inc (9/21/2017).
Fix, R. (2018, April 18). “Why Disproportionate Minority Contact Exists, What to Do.”Juvenile Justice Information Exchange. https://jjie.org/2018/04/16/why-disproportionate-minority-contact-exists-what-to-do/
Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2000). Evaluating interventions for children exposed to family violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 4(1), 191-215.
Hawkins, D. F., & Kempf-Leonard, K. (Eds.). (2010). Our children, their children: Confronting racial and ethnic differences in American juvenile justice. University of Chicago Press.
Sherman, F., & Jacobs, F. (2011). Juvenile justice Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice. 1st ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011. ISBN: 9780470497043.
Van Hazebroek, B. C., Blokland, A. A., Wermink, H. T., De Keijser, J. W., Popma, A., & Van Domburgh, L. (2019). Delinquent development among early-onset offenders: Identifying and characterizing trajectories based on frequency across types of offending. Criminal justice and behavior, 46(11), 1542-1565.