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Controversial Topics in Psychology

Special Needs Education in The Prevention of Criminal Behavior

Special needs is a broad term for a wide range of disabilities. Students with special needs often have difficulty communicating, processing information, or controlling their emotions and behavior. According to the Mental Health Foundation (2022), 75% of mental health disorders start before age 14 and 50% of those manifests themselves before age 7. As a result, they may require specialized instruction and accommodations to learn effectively. This section of the paper focuses on discussing special needs education in the prevention of criminal behavior.

Education can have an enormous effect on the development of children, especially those with special needs. Special needs education can not only improve academic performance and lead to more lucrative job opportunities, but it can also help people develop empathy and social skills that prevent them from committing crimes in the future. In order to deter criminal behavior, it is essential to focus on special needs education as early as possible in a child’s life—and stay involved throughout their schooling years so they can avoid falling victim to peer pressure or involvement in a gang.

Special needs education can help prevent criminal behavior in several ways. First, it provides a stable and nurturing environment for children who may be at risk of getting involved in illegal activity. Moreover, special needs education can give children the skills they need to avoid getting involved in crime (Fusar‐Poli et al., 2021). Furthermore, children or students can be taught how to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence. Lastly, special needs education can help children develop a sense of empathy and compassion for others.

Abortion: Pro-Choice or Pro Life

The abortion debate has been raging on in the United States, and around the world, for many years now. Many people are still undecided on where they stand regarding this controversial topic, but there are two clear sides that you can fall into—the pro-choice camp and the pro-life camp. The debate over whether to legalize abortion has been hotly contested for decades in the United States. The two main camps in this debate are pro-choice and pro-life. Each side has strong arguments in support of its position. The pro-choice camp argues that a woman has a right to control her own body and that the decision to have an abortion should be left up to the woman and her doctor (Becker, 2021). The pro-life camp believes that life begins at conception, and so abortion is murder.

Abortion being pro-choice means that a woman has the right to choose whether or not to have an abortion. This can be seen as a positive because it gives the woman control over her body. However, some people see it as a negative because it means life could end. There are many different reasons why someone may want to have an abortion, and they should be respected. Focusing on the cons of Being Pro-Life, it is argued that being pro-life is like being anti-abortion, implying a bias in one’s views (Becker, 2021). Another con is that even if people believe abortion is wrong, it does not mean that they should enforce their beliefs on others who do not share their opinion about abortion being Pro-Choice or Pro-Life.

Prison System and Rehabilitation

Prisons are intended to be places of rehabilitation and atonement for the incarcerated, but this isn’t always the case. The hope that criminals will change their ways when they are behind bars is rarely panning out; in fact, it may be more likely that they become worse offenders while in prison due to the lack of structure and access to education or treatment programs. Statistics show that nearly half of inmates are arrested again within three years of their release from prison (Sawyer & Wagner, 2019).

In the United States, prisoners are typically rehabilitated through therapy, educational programming, and job training. The goal is to help them reintegrate into society and lead productive, law-abiding lives. Some programs offer vocational or basic adult education in high school equivalency classes. On any given day, more than two million people are incarcerated in jails or prisons in the U.S., most of whom will be released back into society at some point (The Sentencing Project, 2021). And for many, prison is just one stop on a lifelong journey that began when they were children. Early exposure to violence and abuse can create life-long patterns of behavior that can result in incarceration as an adult. Furthermore, it has been noted that male offenders are more likely to report childhood victimization than female offenders, suggesting that males may be more sensitive to external factors such as adverse childhood experiences.

Perception of Motherhood in Various Cultures

Each culture has its own set of beliefs and expectations regarding motherhood. Although some approaches may seem outdated or sexist by Western standards, they serve a purpose in their own right—from instilling community values to preserving family lines (Valiquette-Tessier et al., 2019). As the world has grown increasingly globalized, an unprecedented increase in interaction between cultures is seen, including how they view motherhood. This can be a great thing, as diverse perspectives on motherhood can help all moms feel less alone in their struggles and more appreciated for their contributions to society. Unfortunately, not all of these views are positive or helpful, as some may reinforce negative stereotypes or cause moms to feel like outsiders. Here are just a few different cultural views of motherhood.

From nurturing and caregiving to selflessness and strength, there are many ways to describe what it means to be a mother. While mothers share some commonalities, there is also a lot of variation in how motherhood is perceived across cultures. In some cultures, motherhood is revered as a sacred role (Valiquette-Tessier et al., 2019). In others, it is seen as a more mundane task that is simply a part of life. In some cultures, mothers are expected to be loving, while in others, they are seen as harsher and stricter. In some cultures, mothers are expected to be married, while in others, they are more acceptable to be single. And in some cultures, mothers are expected to have many children, while in others, it is more acceptable for them to have only one or two.

Stress Management and Relaxation

Stress can incredibly affect people’s mental and physical health, including their overall happiness. Luckily, there are plenty of ways to manage stress and reduce its adverse effects on livelihood; people need to know which techniques work best. This section of this paper explores stress management and relaxation, discussing the best ways of managing stress.

When feeling stressed, one of the best things one can do is to take a few deep breaths. Deep breathing helps to slow the heart rate and calm the nervous system (Georga et al., 2019). It is also a great way to get more oxygen to the brain, which can help one to think more clearly. This is the most appropriate stress management approach because it is free and easy to practice.

Other popular stress management and relaxation methods include meditation, listening to music, and getting a massage (Rateau, 2019). For some people, these methods might work well. However, it might be too difficult for others to find the time or money for these things in their busy schedules. For those who have difficulty managing their stress levels with more traditional methods, other alternatives might be worth trying, such as writing in a journal or going on walks outside, including talking to friends and therapists about stressing issues.

Cognitive Impairment and Iron Deficiency

It is common knowledge that iron deficiency can be life-threatening, especially in babies and children. The fact that the brain contains more iron than any other organ makes sense since the brain requires so much energy to operate. Still, it is also why cognitive impairment and anemia are so closely related. Without enough iron to power the brain, people struggle with learning and memory, and they may also have trouble with concentration.

A growing body of evidence suggests that low iron levels may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (Daglas & Adlard, 2018). Studies have found that iron deficiency is linked to an increased risk of cognitive impairment and that iron supplementation can improve cognitive function. Low iron levels can also lead to anemia, which has been linked to cognitive decline. The exact mechanism by which low iron contributes to neurodegenerative diseases is not yet known, but it is clear that iron plays a vital role in brain health.

Low iron stores can lead to cognitive impairment for a few reasons. First, iron is essential for producing myelin, which insulates nerve cells and helps them send signals efficiently (Möller et al., 2019). Second, iron is necessary for synthesizing neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in mood and cognition. Third, iron plays a role in energy metabolism, so low levels can lead to fatigue and brain fog. Fourth, iron is an important antioxidant, so that deficiency can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation.

What Causes Low Self-Esteem in Teens?

Teenagers are dealing with an enormous amount of social, mental, and physical changes, so it’s no wonder their self-esteem takes a bit of a hit during this time. Low self-esteem in teens is more than just normal; it’s actually pretty common, especially in girls. Parents are often the last to know when their teen is struggling. However, some signs may indicate your teen is suffering from low self-esteem. These include acting out, staying in bed all day long, not eating or sleeping and withdrawing from friends and family. Below are some of the causes of low self-esteem in teens.

There are many possible causes of low self-esteem in teens. Low self-esteem in teenagers or teens may result from their not being praised or appreciated as a child, or they were constantly put down whenever they tried to air out their ideas (Masselink, Van Roekel & Oldehinkel, 2018). Additionally, bullying is a potential cause of low self-esteem in teens, making them feel like they do not fit in the school, which may account for their poor performance. Whatever the reason, low self-esteem can be debilitating and make it hard for teens to succeed in life. It’s important that parents and teachers alike help build up their self-esteem to give them the confidence they need.

Emotions And Personality Traits in Sports

Emotions and personality traits are among the many complex facets of the human experience, and just like in life, they can affect performance in sports (Mamurov et al., 2020). Emotions and personality traits play a big role in sports. A great deal of success in sports comes from the emotional health of the individual athletes and how their personalities mesh with those of their teammates and coaches, and opponents.

Emotions play an important role in sports. Emotions are an important part of sports, whether positive or negative, and they can impact both the athletes playing and the audience watching the game (Trinh, Brown & Mulcahey, 2020). From aggression and focus to positivity and empathy, each emotion comes with its perks and drawbacks in sports—and even the same emotion can have varying effects depending on how it is used. They can affect how well athletes perform, interact with teammates, and respond to competition. Positive emotions can lead to better performance, while negative emotions can lead to poorer performance because they impair good decision-making.

In the world of football (soccer), one of the most important things is managing emotions. Players need to be able to keep a cool head, no matter what the situation is on the field. They also need to have a certain level of aggression to succeed. But too much aggression can lead to problems, as the Zinedine Zidane in the 2006 World Cup final (Burston, 2019). He was given a red card for head-butting Marco Materazzi, and Italy won the game 5-3. Too little aggression, however, can cause issues, too: it’s hard to motivate players if they’re not emotional enough or don’t care about winning enough. In tennis, players need to be calm and collected on the court to play well and win matches; they also need a lot of self-confidence in their abilities.

The Impact of Rewards, Recognition and Motivation on Student Performance

The quality of education continues to be hotly debated on both the national and local levels, with parents and educators having different ideas about how to motivate students and what the role of learning, in general, should be. Should schools focus on structure, rules, and grades? Or should they focus on building self-esteem through rewards and recognition? The answer to this question may lie somewhere in between. This section discusses the impact of rewards, recognition, and motivation on student performance.

Rewards, recognition, and motivation are important factors in student performance. They can impact a student’s grades, attendance, and behavior. When used correctly, rewards, recognition, and motivation can help students succeed in school because they boost their confidence and self-esteem (Wu et al., 2020). However, if used incorrectly, they can have the opposite effect. Students may not want to work hard if they feel like their teacher is always praising them or rewarding them for doing well. Students may feel that they don’t need to do anything because no matter what they do, the teacher will be happy with them. If a student sees that it is easy to get rewards or recognition from their teacher without working hard, then that student may give up working hard at some point during the year.


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