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Comparing Approaches to Experiential Language Learning


The article “Classroom Management for Teaching English to Young Learners” focuses on effective classroom management as a crucial component for optimal learning. Classroom management theory discusses the history of the development of management approaches used over time to achieve high student participation, great learning satisfaction, low dropout rates, and less disruption. This paper reviews different strategies, such as process-product, ecological, and behavioral strategies, that are significant for EYL.

In contrast, the article “Challenges in Teaching English to Young Learners: Global Perspectives and Local Realities” explores the widespread introduction of English in primary schools and the challenges associated with this trend. That reaffirms the world trend that aims at children learning English since childhood based on economic globalization and parents’ aspirations. This article explores the current problems experienced by teachers at various levels in different parts of the world and within the nation, such as teacher education, pedagogical techniques, resources, huge classes, discipline, and inspiration.

Overview of the Issue

Each article offers a broad understanding of the complications many ESL programs face worldwide, as well as what it takes to teach English to children. The overview examines the various issues around these challenges, including teaching techniques, teacher training, managing schools, cultural considerations, and resources.

Global Trend of Early English Education

This is an important global policy development that sees English’s widespread use in primary education. Factors behind this trend include belief in the advantage of early language learning, the impact of English on economic globalization, and the burden of early English education by parents. This global shift towards early English language learning presents opportunities and challenges for educators and policymakers (Kim & Asbury, 2020, p.90).

Pedagogical Challenges

A major problem in teaching English to young learners is a choice of teaching methods that contradict native educational cultures. This has resulted in an emphasis on communicative competence rather than memorizing grammar and vocabulary to speak English as a lingua franca. Nonetheless, this move toward communication language teaching (CLT) or other Western pedagogy in most non-Western contexts contradicts the traditional teaching approach. This dissonance raises questions about the appropriateness and effectiveness of these imported methodologies in diverse educational settings (KC Smith, 2019, p.48).

Teacher Training and Professional Development

The need for well-trained teachers for EYL is a primary problem in ESL and English. However, many EFL teachers need more training in either general pedagogy or young learners’ needs. This issue worsens in underserved areas with minimal professional development and activity access. This implies that teachers need help implementing new teaching approaches for various groups of learners.

Resource Allocation and Accessibility

There is a significant difference in the provision and application of appropriate teaching resources, such as textbooks and technology, between countries. The government prescribes some resources, while others rely on the teacher’s choice. This problem worsens because appropriate instructional materials for youngsters learning English are mostly nonexistent or hardly used in many countries. The problem with insufficient resources on English education also hinders a learner-centered approach to learning.

Classroom Management and Student Behavior

Creating an appropriate learning environment requires effective classroom management. Zein’s article emphasizes the historical genesis of classroom management theories from an authoritarian to a more student-centered and democratic approach. Modern classroom management has shifted to promoting self-discipline or emotional intelligence in students, which is important. Nonetheless, applying such strategies in practice, particularly in EYL environments, is complex. Discipline is one of the most common challenges teachers face in classrooms.

Large Class Sizes and Diverse Learning Needs

In various corners of the globe, one of the recurrent problems confronting practitioners is how to practice active teaching models in big classes. Discipline challenges, speech regulations, and an individualized approach to a student in large classes are very difficult. Differentiated instruction presents a difficult situation for teachers, requiring tailor-made learning strategies considering individual students’ differing abilities and home backgrounds.

Cultural and Contextual Considerations

The two articles point out the need to consider educational cultures and contexts while applying strategies for teaching English. A noteworthy concern involves adapting Western imported methodologies like CLT and TBLT for local classroom environments. In many Eastern and non-Western classrooms, the emphasis on teacher authority and classroom discipline contrasts with the Western focus on student autonomy and self-regulation (JM Aldridge, 2022, p.167).

Teacher Attitudes and Language Proficiency

Quality of education is affected by the teachers’ attitudes towards the English teacher and their proficiency level in their language. This is especially true when innovative language teaching techniques require that teachers have greater language competence. Teachers’ low level of English proficiency is often a challenge.

Motivation and Engagement

It isn’t easy to convince these young learners to read and write English, especially when it is not their mother tongue. Teachers sometimes find it difficult to explain to students why they should learn English, while many parents harbor indifferent views towards the topic.

The articles by Zein, Copland, Garton, and Burns demonstrate the subtlety and complexity surrounding teaching English to young learners. These highlight the importance of contextualized and culturally sensitive educational approaches and effective classroom management in this connection. This necessitates a thorough knowledge of worldwide trends in English language teaching, indigenous academic culture, resource availability, and teacher training. (Parkhouse et al., 2019, p.89). As the field of EYL continues to evolve, these insights provide valuable guidance for educators, policymakers, and researchers in creating more effective and inclusive English language learning environments for young learners worldwide.

Essential Questions

  1. How are current pedagogical approaches to teaching English to young learners adapted to diverse cultural and educational contexts?
  2. What innovative strategies are being developed for effective classroom management in large and diverse classrooms?
  3. How is teacher training evolving to prepare educators for the specific challenges of teaching English to young learners?
  4. What role does technology play in modern EYL classrooms, and how is it impacting teaching methods and student engagement?
  5. How are educational policies and resources aligned to support effective English language teaching in varied global contexts?
  6. What are the emerging trends in addressing young English learners’ motivation and engagement challenges?


Article 1

  1. In the article by Copland, Garton, and Burns, there is a dilemma about pedagogy. The paper discusses the tension between CLT /TBLT and common practices among non-Western cultures in the basic education sector. Firstly, the authors must include the significance of considering local educational cultures and note that there is no guarantee that a single pedagogical model could work under all conditions. Instead, they promote synergy between global teaching trends and their cultural sensitivity to improve teaching methods.
  2. The article acknowledges that teaching large and mixed-up classes is difficult. Though it does not dive much further into creative classroom management techniques, it recognizes the power of appropriate classroom management in supporting the best possible learning. Despite being a difficult feat in larger classes, adopting a learner-centered approach is a goal for many educators (Zhou et al., 2019, p.11). Key challenges in big, multicultural classrooms include providing discipline and ensuring participation.
  3. It also highlights the teacher training and the shortage of well-equipped English education teachers, especially in the primary stage. Such focus stresses the need to provide training facilities to teachers to help them better equip themselves to impart English language education to teenagers. Nonetheless, it needs to get into the nuts and bolts of how teacher training transforms, paving the way for other studies.
  4. Although the essay discusses the problem of resource scarcity, it needs to focus on how IT affects EYL classes. However, it implies the probable effects of technology on learners’ centered teaching in some parts lacking sufficient resources like technological ones. This means that technology can be used greatly to mitigate the shortfall of resources and improve teaching techniques and student involvement. However, the article needs to give further insights on this front.
  5. It addresses a situation of inequality in textbooks and other education materials in different countries. This states that it recognizes the difficulty of providing quality English learnerships in poor districts due to the need for more financial resources to match their education policies. The authors argue that resource development has to be adjusted to the requirements concerning the quality of English teaching and improve them. However, it does not direct the discussion to real policies developed for addressing such issues in various countries.
  6. The essay recognizes that encouraging small students is hard, but it hardly goes deeper into revealing contemporary tendencies in this area. It underscores the significance of examining students’ motivation and parental beliefs about English education without offering specific ways in which these can be encouraged amongst young learners of English. However, further research will be required in this regard to establish new trends along with efficient strategies.

Article 2

  1. Zein writes about the historical developments of classroom management theories for the need to adapt teaching processes and styles to fit into local traditions and culture. The transition toward student-centered pedagogies and flexibility in choosing among them best suited by local conditions are discussed.
  2. This paper examines different innovative methods of discipline and control, process-product theory, ecological approach, and behavioral techniques. The curriculum is based on developing emotional intelligence among students and teachers and creating a positive class atmosphere. Although it is not specific to large classrooms, the effective classroom management principles it portrays could be customized to accommodate various adverse classroom setups.
  3. Concerning teaching EYL, Zein’s paper highlights the importance of teacher training and how it equips teachers with relevant strategies to help them effectively manage their students. Continuous professional learning is required to keep up-to-date with modern developments in classroom management strategies and ELY methods.
  4. Technology is integrated into the EYL classroom, promoting learning and interaction. Although it does not explore this, it considers the possibility that educational technology tools might enhance student teaching and learning participation.
  5. Though the article concerns itself with teaching and learning processes, it suggests that all educational policies must be aligned to fit the classroom teaching approach. Classroom management is important for maximizing the effectiveness of ELT, and the policies should promote the use of these techniques. However, this needs to dive deeper into education policies and budgeting concerns.
  6. Zein’s article speaks to encouraging emotional competencies and facilitating a positive learning climate for improved student motivation and active involvement. It addresses these major concerns indirectly without touching on emerging trends but advocates for emotional and social development to deal with them.

The two articles bring forth useful ideas concerning problems associated with teaching children English as a second language, such as classroom management, didactics, and the preparation of teachers for such an assignment. The article by Copland, Garton, and Burns on “Global challenges and culturally sensitive pedagogies” provided a broad perspective on the problem. However, Zein’s article was narrower in scope as it focused on “Teaching with a global mindset. These articles contribute to our understanding of the complexities and nuances of teaching English to young learners, highlighting the importance (Coiro, 2020, p.15).

Comparison and Contrast of the Two Articles


  1. Focus on Challenges in Teaching English to Young Learners: Both articles deal with the problems of teaching English to youngsters. They understand it constitutes a sophisticated undertaking considering pedagogics, teacher preparation, class control, resource distribution, and ethnic issues.
  2. Acknowledgment of Global Trends: The two articles recognize the prevalent tendency worldwide to have English as a language of instruction in primary school institutions. This is because the trend points to economic globalization and parental aspirations that make a majority of individuals migrate in search of greener pastures. The notion that we have made a worldwide contribution to society is one that we all recognize as significant.
  3. Importance of Cultural Sensitivity: These two articles state that cultural sensitivity is important when it comes to teaching English as a second language to learners who are still young. This is because they believe that their instructional approaches must be modified to suit the host national education systems or risk conflicting with the existing indigenous practices among their students.
  4. Discussion of Resource Challenges: The two papers address resource access and distribution issues. These include the differences in accessing teachers’ materials such as textbooks and technology and their effect on the quality of English education. Shared concern reflects an issue of proper resource utilization in educational situations.


  1. Scope and Depth of Classroom Management Discussion: The discussion on the issue of classroom management forms one notable distinction among the two articles. In this article titled “Zein (2018) Classroom Management for Teaching English to Young Learners”, the author delves into various classroom management techniques and their implication in teaching young learners to speak English. However, the article by Copland, Garton, and Burns has a more explicit approach regarding broader global issues and cultural aspects, although they generally address classroom management.
  2. Teacher Training Emphasis: Regarding teaching English to young learners, Zein’s article focuses mainly on the essentiality of teacher training and staff development programs for effective learning outcomes. This elaborates on how teacher training has evolved, especially in attaining specific skills crucial for teaching and class management (Franklin & Harrington, 2019, p.12). This article by Copland et al. considers fewer matters relating to training but more on the challenges the teachers face other than the details of the evolutions in teacher training.
  3. Mixed-Methods Research vs. Classroom Management Theories: The other major distinction is the research process used. The article written by Copland, Garton, and Burns uses mixed research methods whereby they combine both numerical and qualitative data to give their readers information about global and local problems. On the contrary, Zein only looks at classroom management theories and needs to provide more empirical evidence for his article.
  4. Motivation and Engagement Discussion: Both authors recognize the difficulties in motivating young students but, as Zein writes, building emotional competencies and creating an atmosphere wherein students feel valued and respected is essential for increasing and sustaining their engagement and thus motivation (Chubenko, 2023, p.40). On the other hand, Copland, Garton, & Burns must address the issue in detail.

Finally, both articles agree that teaching English to young learners is not a bed of roses. It includes global aspects like early English education and sensitivity to culture aspect. Both of them also admit that resource problems require proper handling. Nonetheless, they are distinctive in terms of their size and detail, whereby Zein’s article concentrates mostly on class management tactics and pedagogy, while the paper by Copland, Garton, and Burnes is more comprehensive, dealing with world issues as well as cultural aspects instead of the differences among these are complimentary providing a balanced view of the complexity of teaching English young learners is various international settings.

Implications and Value of Each Article

Article 1

This article offers several valuable insights and implications for the issue of teaching English to young learners:

  1. Cultural Sensitivity and Adaptation: It underscores the need to adjust didactic methods according to distinct ethnic backgrounds and teaching environments. This enlightenment plays a key role in educationists introducing such ideas worldwide because they must look at the individual educational culture of each country. This notion complements the concept of contextualized and effective teaching of the English language.
  2. Resource Allocation: One of the major problems in English language teaching is the issue of resource allocation. This is a practical suggestion for policymakers because it highlights the necessity of such policies considering local needs and conditions. This insight further helps us understand the challenges associated with the resource management process.
  3. Mixed-Methods Research: Mixed-Methods research was applied, giving a broad picture of the problems of teaching EYL. By including quantitative and qualitative data in its analysis, this approach offers a comprehensive insight into the problem that informs the recommendations and proposes policy changes.
  4. Parental Aspirations: The above acknowledges that parental dreams affect early English learning. This realization emphasizes the need to consider how parents feel about and expect language programs as they guide children’s learning process. This leaves a question as to what extent parents’ aspirations should be aligned with effective teaching methods.

This article offers important observations about teaching English to young learners and related cultural problems surrounding it. It is an important contribution because of its focus on mixed designs and cultural adaptations.

Article 2:

This article also offers important insights and implications:

  1. Classroom Management Strategies: Zein’s report provides a detailed exploration of classroom management strategies, offering practical ideas for educators. It emphasizes the importance of creating a supportive learning environment, fostering emotional competence in students, and adapting classroom management theories to different contexts.
  2. Teacher Training: The article underscores the significance of teacher training and professional development, highlighting the evolving nature of teacher preparation. Equipping educators with classroom management and pedagogy skills is crucial for effective English language teaching.
  3. Balancing Authoritarian and Student-Centered Approaches: Zein’s discussion on the historical evolution of classroom management theories and the shift from authoritarian to student-centered approaches adds depth to the field’s understanding. It emphasizes the need for a balanced approach considering cultural and contextual factors.
  4. Motivation and Engagement: The article emphasizes addressing motivation and engagement challenges through emotional and social development strategies. This insight highlights the need to consider students’ emotional well-being in the classroom.

The article by Copland, Garton, and Burns offers a broader view of global challenges and cultural considerations, emphasizing resource allocation and cultural sensitivity (Sheokarah, 2022, p.189). On the other hand, Zein’s article delves deeply into classroom management strategies, teacher training, and the historical evolution of classroom management theories.

Regarding insightfulness, Zein’s article provides practical classroom management strategies that can directly benefit educators. However, both pieces contribute valuable ideas to the field. Copland, Garton, and Burns offer a comprehensive understanding of the global challenges, while Zein’s report provides specific guidance on classroom management. Therefore, they complement each other and contribute to a well-rounded knowledge of teaching English to young learners.


In conclusion, the analysis of the two articles, “Challenges in Teaching English to Young Learners: The Works “Global Perspectives and Local Realities” and “Classroom Management for Teaching English to Young Learners,” both by Fiona Copland, Sue Garton, and Anne Burns as well as Subhan Zein, have been very useful in providing some perspective about this topic Collectively, these articles offer a holistic comprehension of the issues, implications, and actions involved in this aspect of learning.

The articles underscore the need for cultural sensitivity, resource allocation, teacher training, and classroom management in teaching English to YLs. These suggestions revolve around changing pedagogical approaches towards different cultures, encouraging students’ emotional intelligence, and improving teacher training programs. This examination will immensely facilitate my dissertation on the difficulties and strategies in instructing English to young learners. These articles will guide my research by providing a sound base to analyze the complex dimensions of this critical area in education.


Chubenko, L. M. (2023, September 27). Schools As Community Resources: Recommendations for Supporting Ukrainian Elementary Refugee Students Through Community-Informed Approaches in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Coiro, J. (2020). Toward a Multifaceted Heuristic of Digital Reading to Inform Assessment, Research, Practice, and Policy. Reading Research Quarterly56(1), 9–31.

Franklin, H., & Harrington, I. (2019). A Review into Effective Classroom Management and Strategies for Student Engagement: Teacher and Student Roles in Today’s Classrooms. Journal of Education and Training Studies7(12).

JM Aldridge, (2022). Vrije Universiteit Brussel Analyzing the Classroom Learning Environment and Exploring How it Influences Students’ Motivation and Self-Regulation Cai, Juan.

KC Smith. (2019). Developing a Culturally Relevant Curriculum and Breaking the Barriers of Cognitive and Cultural Dissonance – ProQuest.

Kim, L. E., & Asbury, K. (2020). “Like a rug had been pulled from under you”: The impact of COVID‐19 on teachers in England during the first six weeks of the UK lockdown. British Journal of Educational Psychology90(4), 1062–1083.

Parkhouse, H., Lu, C. Y., & Massaro, V. R. (2019). Multicultural Education Professional Development: A Review of the Literature. Review of Educational Research89(3), 416–458.

Sheokarah, J. (2022). Using an English language club to enhance the learning of English at a high school in South Africa.

Zhou, X., Chen, L.-H., & Chen, C.-L. (2019). Collaborative Learning by Teaching: A Pedagogy between Learner-Centered and Learner-Driven. Sustainability11(4), 1174.


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