African American kids are less likely to be adopted when compared with kids from other races. Statistics show that kids of African descent often await twice as long as other kids to be adopted. In addition, Black kids are overrepresented in foster homes. Hence, it is evident that African American children are less likely to be adopted when compared to kids of other races. This research will ascertain why Black children have low chances of getting adopted compared to other races. The study will use simple random sampling to select a sample of adopters. These adopters will be issued with a questionnaire asking why they do not fancy adopting Black kids. The questionnaire will have open-end questions, and hence, the participants are free to detail why they do not fancy adopting African American children. Some of the common reasons African American kids have lower chances of being adopted are a complicated path to adoption, cessation of whites adopting African American children, racism, negative racial stereotypes, insufficient number of intra-race homes, and restricted transracial adoption. Lastly, this research will give recommendations on how to increase the likelihood of Black kids for adoption. To boost the possibility of African American kids being adopted, transracial adoptions should be endorsed. The adoption process should be simplified. African American families should dismiss the thought that kids growing up in White homes will lose their culture and heritage. Funding requirements include statistical analysis.
Admittedly, adoption is ever-present, even though people do not see it. Each day, kids are being adopted into loving homes all across the United States. In America, adoption refers to the process of establishing a legal child-parent relationship between a kid and a guardian who is not the kid’s birth parent. In the United States, most adoptions are carried out by stepparents, and adoption is the second commonest foster care in this nation. Since a child cannot live with its birth family, the government oversees the adoption and care of the child in another family. In America, International Adoption is also possible whereby one adopts a child outside this nation. Typically, the adoption process must not involve the government. Private adoptions can occur whereby the adoption process is independently arranged between the birth parents and the foster guardians. Annually, about 140,000 kids are adopted by US families. Most of these kids come from foster systems, and others come from voluntarily relinquished American babies or other nations. Also, about 1.5 million kids are adopted in the United States. Families are open to adoption in the United States. However, guardians pursuing adoption in America have strong preferences for the types of children they will adopt, tending to select non-African American kids.
Statistics show that African American kids are less likely to get adopted. According to a certain study, the findings revealed that kids of African descent often await twice as long as other kids to be adopted (Griffith & Bergeron, 2006). Hence, this statement indicates that Black kids are less likely to find an adoptive home. In addition, the overrepresentation of Black kids in foster care shows that this group is less likely to be adopted. According to 2018 statistics, White children represented half (50 percent) of the country’s kids’ population. However, Whites represented only 44 percent of the kids in foster homes (Casey, 2018). African American kids represented 14 percent of the country’s child population. However, the foster population is comprised of 23 percent Black kids (Casey, 2018). Thus, it is evident that kids of African descent witness an overrepresentation in foster care. Therefore, this group is adopted at a slower rate than other children. This paper will aim to prove that Black kids have lower chances of being adopted
- Are African American Children Less Likely to Become Adopted?
- Why do Black kids have a hard time finding adoptive homes?
- What obstacles are present when adopting kids of African descent?
This proposed study will use simple random sampling and select a sample of adopters to fill a questionnaire. The participants will answer questions on why they do not fancy adopting Black kids and their obstacles when adopting kids of African descent. Equally, secondary sources will be used. The internet and various online libraries will be critical in collecting the information.
This section will hold information on why Black kids have lower chances of being adopted.
Complicated Path to Adoption
Generally, the path to adoption for African American kids is not simple. It is filled with numerous obstacles and barriers and hence, black kids are less likely to be adopted (Kapp et al., 2001). In most instances, kids of African ancestry take longer to navigate through the various stages of adoption, including the finalization of the adoption procedure. Stephen Kapp and his peers researched to assess the path to adoption for African American kids. This study included 1,550 kids who have adoption as a goal (Kapp et al., 2001). According to the results, the investigators found out that kids of African American descent consistently took longer to reach significant milestones such as adoption finalization and adoption placement (Kapp et al., 2001).
Cessation of Whites Adopting African American Children
During the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, Blacks requested changes to certain institutional policies. Termination of Whites adopting kids of African descent was one of the most significant policy changes African Americans demanded (Curtis, 1996). The argument behind this statement is that Whites raising Black kids will lead to cultural genocide. Thus, African Americans believed that Whites would raise the kids according to Whites’ cultural values, norms, and practices. Thus, the Black kids would lose grip on their African American heritage (Curtis, 1996). Since the mid-20th century, Whites have been adopting kids of African descent. In 1975, the NABSW (National Association of Black Social Workers) was critical of organizations and groups that endorsed transracial adoption (Hermann, 1993). The NABSW believed that transracial adoption deprives African American kids of their heritage and culture and necessary survival skills to survive in a racist region (Hermann, 1993).
Regarding race, the commonest reason why people do not fancy adopting kids of African descent (African Americans) is that the adopters “do not think it is in the kid’s best interest” (Khanna & Killian, 2015). The first issue revolves around racism. Some parents raise concerns about how an African American kid will be treated by the extended family and their community (Khanna & Killian, 2015). Thus, some families will not adopt Black kids since they fear that their immediate family members and their community will subject them to racism and discrimination. The second issue revolves around the issue of socialization. Generally, the parents feel like they are not competent enough to teach the African American kids about their culture and how they will deal with racism (Khanna & Killian, 2015). Because of this, they will choose not to adopt African American kids.
Negative Racial Stereotypes
Negative racial stereotypes are another reason why Black kids have lower chances of being adopted. rican Americans, particularly Black males, are portrayed as unruly and out of control (Khanna & Killian, 2015). On the other hand, other kids, such as Asians, are perceived as more passive, docile, and obedient when compared to African Americans (Khanna & Killian, 2015). These negative racial stereotypes make people not want to have African American children in their homes. Because of these racial stereotypes, families are less likely to adopt Black kids and instead concentrate on adopting kids from other races.
Scholars have conducted numerous studies to assess the negative racial stereotypes associated with African American kids. The findings reveal that Black teens are at risk of being termed lazy (Priest et al., 2018). What is more, kids of African descent are also perceived as violent prone (Priest et al., 2018). Moreover, children of African descent are deemed unintelligent (Priest et al., 2018). Above all, Black children have a high chance of having unhealthy habits compared to Hispanic or White kids. Thus, these negative racial stereotypes make African American kids less likely to be adopted.
Insufficient Number of Intra-Race Homes
When it comes to adoption, families tend to adopt kids that look like them. Even though transracial adoptions are present, most families tend to adopt kids that look like them. Therefore, Whites are more likely to adopt White kids while African American families are more likely to adopt Black children. However, studies show that there is an insufficient number of intra-race families for intra-racial adoption.
Restricted Transracial Adoption
Children of African descent are less likely to be adopted due to restrictions in transracial adoption. Opponents of policies that seek to uphold same-race adoption believe that African American children are still in foster homes since policies tend to restrict them from entering transracial adoption engagement (Hollingsworth, 1998). As earlier highlighted, African Americans believe that Whites are not well equipped to adopt and raise kids of African descent. Blacks assert that the African American children will renounce their heritage and culture, and the
It is evident that a complicated adoption process makes kids of African descent spend more time in foster homes. Generally, such barriers will frustrate people who are trying to adopt African American kids. Adopters want a relatively easy process when adopting a child. They do not want a process where finalization does not take a lot of effort and time. Therefore, if the path to adoption of kids of African descent is complicated and lengthy, people will forgo the adoption of Black children. Moreover, adopters want milestones such as finalization to take little of their time. Because of this, adopters are willing to leave out African American kids and adopt kids from other races, such as Whites and Hispanics. Thus, it is evident that children of African descent have lower chances of being adopted due to the complicated path to adoption.
Additionally, the cessation of whites adopting black kids makes African American kids less likely to be adopted. In society, the developmental needs of African American kids differ considerably from those of White kids. Kids of African descent are taught racism coping techniques (Forde-Mazrui, 1993). Generally, only African American families can offer sensitive and emotional intricacies to help these kids navigate a racist society (Forde-Mazrui, 1993). Society is divided between Blacks and Whites, and it features racism at all levels. Thus, the NABSW renounces arguments that White families will bestow African American kids with knowledge and skills to navigate a racist society (Forde-Mazrui, 1993). Child advocates considered this practice as discriminatory and imprudent. However, a law was passed that made it illegal for organizations or states receiving federal funding to consider race during a kid’s adoption (Curtis, 1996). This law angered Blacks who did not fancy transracial adoption. Generally, there are Whites and Hispanics who would love to adopt kids of African descent. However, African Americans would want Black kids to be adopted and raised in Black families. As a result, Whites, Hispanics, and other races might respect the wishes of the African American community and not adopt and raise Black kids. In addition, some families have bought into the idea that by adopting black kids, they will deprive these children of their culture and heritage (Hermann, 1993). Moreover, they will deprive Black youths of the survival skills necessary in a racist nation. As a result, other kids get adopted from families of various races, kids of African descent have to wait for African American families before getting adopted. Hence, African American kids are less likely to become adopted.
Negative stereotypes towards African American kids make families stay away from adopting this group. Generally, the adopters wish to have children with desirable traits. They want these kids to be hardworking and help around the house with chores. Moreover, the adopters want docile kids who will get along with their kids. Furthermore, these docile kids will not bully kids in school and will not be youth delinquents. In addition, the adopters want intelligent kids who will post good grades in school and act as role models for other kids in the neighborhood. Above all, the adopters do not fancy kids with undesirable habits/ traits such as drug abuse, delinquency, and bullying. As highlighted earlier, African American kids are associated with negative racial stereotypes, making adopters choose to adopt other races and leave out Black children. Hence, it is evident that negative racial stereotypes make African American kids less likely to be adopted. The mass incarceration of African Americans makes adopters uphold negative stereotypes that Blacks are criminals, dangerous and violent. Blacks are five times more likely to end up in prisons than Whites. What is more, African Americans are two times more likely to be stopped and searched by officers than Whites. Moreover, Blacks make up 12 percent of the American population. However, Blacks account for 34 percent of the US prison population. With these statistics, it is understandable why adopters uphold negative stereotypes concerning African Americans. The adopters think that this group is violent, dangerous, and they are criminals. Thus, people avoid adopting African Americans since they do not want to raise criminals and fear their dangerous and violent habits. Hence, African American kids are likely to be adopted since people uphold negative stereotypes towards this group.
An insufficient number of intra-race homes is another reason why African American kids are less likely to be adopted. The National Association of Black Social Workers and other opponents of transracial adoption proclaim that Black kids need intra-racial adoptions (Hermann, 1993). However, research shows an insufficient number of intra-race homes to place these African American kids (Hermann, 1993). Because of this, African American kids will remain in foster homes since there is an insufficient number of intra-race families. Consequently, as other kids find families, African Americans lack suitable families for placement. Thus, it is evident that African American families are less likely to become adopted because of an insufficient number of intra-race families.
Lastly, restricted transracial adoption is why kids of African descent have lower chances of being adopted. White families will not impart these kids with the knowledge and skills to navigate our racist society. Therefore, White families will stay clear of adopting kids of African descent. Because of this, Black kids are left with a limited number of options for adoption. If Whites cannot adopt black kids, then the African American kids will remain in foster homes. Hence, it is evident that Black kids have lower chances of being adopted due to restricted racial adoption.
To summarize, the above literature shows that African Americans are less likely to be adopted. This group witnesses an overrepresentation in foster care, and kids of African descent often await twice as long as other kids before being adopted. The group is less likely to become adopted because of restricted transracial adoption, insufficient intra-race homes, negative racial stereotypes towards Blacks, cessation of whites adopting African American children, racism, and complicated path to adoption. The adoption rate of African Americans can be increased by allowing transracial adoptions. As a result, more White families will draw Black kids from foster homes. Moreover, the adoption process should be simplified. As a result, more people will adopt Black kids at a fast pace. Furthermore, African American families should dismiss the thought that kids growing up in White homes will lose their culture and heritage. Above all, people should be culturally competent and dismiss negative racial stereotypes towards African Americans.
Casey, A. E. (2018). Black children continue to be disproportionately represented in foster care. KIDS COUNT Data Center. https://datacenter.kidscount.org/updates/show/264-us-foster-care-population-by-race-and-ethnicity
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