Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness that roots brain atrophy and shrinking (Mayo clinic, 2022). AD is the most common type of Dementia, defined as a gradual loss of cognitive, behavioural, and social functioning that limits a person’s ability to function independently. Dementia, on the other hand, is a broad word for a loss of mental capacity that interferes with everyday living. The most prevalent etiology of Dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. AD is a distinct illness. Dementia is not.
Dementia is a systemic disease associated with a loss of memory, reasoning, or other cognitive functions. There are many different types of Dementia, and various disorders can cause it. Mixed Dementia is a condition in which many forms of Dementia appear in the brain simultaneously. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of Dementia, accounting for 60 to 80 % of cases (Alzheimer’s Association, 2022). Dementia is not a part of the natural ageing process. Brain cells that have been destroyed lose their ability to coordinate, altering thinking, behaviour, and emotions.
Intricate brain modifications characterise AD as a brain task illness after cell destructions. AD causes signs and symptoms of Dementia which with time gets worse. Learning and cognitive reasoning are usually affected by the disease, and thus memory loss is often linked to AD. The disease progression causes behavioural anomalies, disorientation and confusion, becoming severe with time. Growing, talking, moving and swallowing get more challenging with time. Alzheimer’s disease is not a common condition, despite increasing age being the most well-known potential risk factor. Despite the fact that the bulk of people living with Alzheimer’s are 65 and older, the disease affects about 200,000 Americans below 65 (Alzheimer’s Association, 2022).
The study on AD and Dementia illustrates the link between brain atrophy and cell degeneration. Therefore, this research aims to determine the brain alterations and the development of AD and Dementia using the Montreal Cognitive assessment and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). The two methods will assess behavioural activities in the brain while eating or moving and further assess the severity and frequency of the symptoms on a different measure. In this study, we included Dementia and AD in the database keyword searching and linked them to cognitive impairment, memory loss, irritability, and the severity of the disease symptoms. We included all forms of searching for relevant information from published and unpublished literature. Databases such as PubMed, CINAHL and AMED were functional in identifying the key searches. We included searches for populations above the ages of 45 and excluded those in long-term care. Other studies published in languages other than English were excluded leaving us with a wide range of representative materials that could be well understood.
Results and Analysis
The two studies on Dementia and Ad using the two methods illustrates a series of data according to scientific investigation. Studies were categorised into the following groups; quality care, prevalence, health service organization, delivery, and views and experiences for patient carers.
The NPI is a brief test used to evaluate behavioural and cognitive abnormalities in dementia patients. NPI will be functional in assessing the following symptoms; Hallucinations, delusions, agitation, dysphoria, Euphoria, aberrant motor activity, irritability and nighttime behavioural disorders. Symptom intensity and recurrence are assessed independently.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was created to assist in detecting moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). It is simple to use and administer and has been extensively interpreted. Concentration, executive skills, reasoning, memory, language, computation, and direction are evaluated. The highest possible score is 30. A rating of 25 or less indicates significant cognitive impairment. It is especially beneficial for persons with vascular dysfunction, such as vascular Dementia, as per Roalf et al. (2012).
The tests gave us a target condition on brain activity based on multiple study designs under different categories such as age, gender and prevalence. The prevalence rates are estimated to be 95% confidence intervals. Volunteers in the cognitive task were made to read five words loudly. After the MCI assessment, the person is asked to say the words they remember or even hint at their category. Questionnaires were also given to the patients. The NIPI-Q contained survey questions that reflected specific symptoms and wanted yes or no answers.
During memory recall, increased brain function in regions of interest inside the hippocampus and amygdala, the hippocampus, and the entorhinal cortex was significantly related to elevated dementia incidence (McDonough et al., 2019). Prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortices showed further positive relationships in whole-brain analysis. Hypertensive conditions, obesity, diabetes, and cholesterol were the main contributors to these higher levels of brain functioning (McDonough et al., 2019). Confounds owing to in-scanner behaviour and premorbid abilities were also ruled out. The recurrent risk might indicate burnout in the brain areas that control episodic recall.
From a logical viewpoint, it can be stated that the progression of Dementia among the elderly follows a similar pattern. In other words, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex diminish as people age, and this process may be accelerated by specific situations, resulting in decreased cognitive function. For example, Topiwala & Ebmeier, (2019) state that drinking alcohol can cause brain shrinkage. As a result, as a person grows older, their brain volume decreases, contributing to the emergence of Dementia. As a result, the results of this study can help guide future investigation into the relationship between diminished cognitive performance and shrunk brain with an increase in age.
Alzheimer’s Association. (2022). Dementia vs Alzheimer’s disease: What is the difference? Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/difference-between-dementia-and-alzheimer-s
Mayo clinic. (2022, February 19). Alzheimer’s disease. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350447#:~:text=Alzheimer’s%20disease%20is%20a%20progressive,person’s%20ability%20to%20function%20independently.
McDonough, I. M., Letang, S. K., & Stinson, E. A. (2019). Dementia risk elevates brain activity during memory retrieval: a functional MRI analysis of middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 70(4), 1005-1023.
Roalf, D. R., Moore, T. M., Wolk, D. A., Arnold, S. E., Mechanic-Hamilton, D., Rick, J., … & Moberg, P. J. (2016). Defining and validating a short form Montreal Cognitive Assessment (s-MoCA) for use in neurodegenerative disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 87(12), 1303-1310.
Topiwala, A., & Ebmeier, K. P. (2018). Effects of drinking on late-life brain and cognition. Evidence-based mental health, 21(1), 12-15.