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Aggressive Behaviour: Bullying


Bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour that involves intentionally causing harm, humiliation, or distress to another person, often repeatedly and over a prolonged period. It can take many forms, including physical violence, verbal abuse, social exclusion, and cyberbullying. Bullying can occur in various settings, such as schools, neighbourhoods, and online platforms. Children under 14 years old are particularly vulnerable to bullying due to their developmental stage and lack of experience handling such situations. Bullying is a serious issue that affects children under 14 years old and significantly impacts their mental health, social development, and academic performance (Armitage, 2021). The hypothesis is that bullying can have long-lasting effects on children’s well-being and that effective prevention and intervention strategies are necessary to address this issue. This essay aims to raise awareness of the detrimental effects of bullying on children and provide insights into how to prevent and address it.

Types of Bullying

Bullying is an imbalanced power dynamic where one person or group has power over the other, and they use it to intimidate or harm the other person. Bullying can take many forms, including physical violence, verbal abuse, social exclusion, and cyberbullying (Ke et al., 2022). Physical bullying involves physically hurting or threatening to hurt someone, such as hitting, kicking, or pushing. Verbal bullying involves using words to hurt or humiliate someone, such as name-calling, insulting, or spreading rumours. Social exclusion is a form of bullying that involves intentionally excluding someone from a group or activity, which can cause the person to feel isolated and lonely. Cyberbullying involves using technology, such as social media, text messages, or email, to harass, threaten, or humiliate someone.

Prevalence and Statistics of Bullying in Children Under 14 Years

Bullying is a pervasive problem that affects children under 14 years old globally. According to research studies, the prevalence of bullying in this age group is concerning, with approximately one in three children reporting that they have experienced some form of bullying. A study conducted in the United States found that around 20% of students between the ages of 12-18 reported being bullied at school, and 15% reported being cyberbullied (Yosep et al., 2023). Another European study found that approximately 40% of students reported experiencing bullying at school, with verbal bullying being the most common form reported.

The prevalence of bullying can also vary depending on the demographic characteristics of the children. Research suggests that children of marginalized or minority groups, such as those from low-income families, racial and ethnic minorities, and those with disabilities, are at higher risk of being bullied than their peers (Cooke et al., 2022). Additionally, the prevalence of bullying can differ based on gender, with boys more likely to be physically bullied while girls are more likely to be verbal and social bullying victims. Studies also show that the frequency and severity of bullying tend to increase as children progress through their school years, with the highest rates reported among middle school-aged children.

These statistics highlight the alarming prevalence of bullying among children under 14 years old and the need for effective prevention and intervention strategies. Educators, parents, and community leaders must work together to create safe and supportive environments that promote positive relationships and behaviours among children. By addressing the root causes of bullying and empowering children with the skills and tools to stand up to it, we can help create a healthier and more inclusive society for all children.

Effects of Bullying on Children, Including Mental Health Issues, Social Problems, and Academic Performance

Impact on mental health

Bullying can profoundly impact a child’s mental health, leading to emotional and psychological problems. Bullied children may experience anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders, which can have long-lasting effects on their mental health (Armitage, 2021). Anxiety is a common reaction to bullying, with children experiencing nervousness, fear, and worry. They may feel on edge, have difficulty sleeping, and avoid social situations where they may encounter the bully or their peers. Over time, chronic anxiety can lead to physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, and muscle tension.

Depression is another common mental health consequence of bullying, with children experiencing sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. They may withdraw from social activities, lose interest in hobbies or activities they previously enjoyed, and experience changes in appetite and sleep patterns. If left untreated, depression can lead to self-harm, suicidal ideation, or attempts. In addition to anxiety and depression, bullying can lead to other mood disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children who have experienced bullying may have flashbacks or nightmares, feel on edge or hypervigilant, and avoid situations that remind them of the traumatic experience.

Social relationships

One of the most significant consequences of bullying is its impact on a child’s social relationships. Bullied children may feel isolated, lonely, and excluded from social activities, making friends and maintaining social relationships difficult. Bullying can cause children to withdraw from social activities and feel uncomfortable in group settings, leading to social anxiety and fear of rejection (Armitage, 2021). Bullied children may feel ashamed or embarrassed about their experiences, leading to further isolation and social difficulties.

Additionally, bullying can affect a child’s ability to form healthy social relationships, which can have long-lasting effects on their social development. Bullied children may struggle with trust issues, have difficulty establishing boundaries, and have trouble communicating effectively with others. Furthermore, the social effects of bullying are not limited to the victim alone. Witnesses to bullying may also experience negative social consequences, such as feeling guilty or powerless to stop the bullying, which can affect their ability to form healthy relationships and maintain positive social connections.

Academic performance

Bullying can have a significant impact on a child’s academic performance. Bullied children may struggle to concentrate, experience anxiety or depression, and miss school or avoid social situations, negatively affecting their academic achievement. One way that bullying can impact academic performance is through a decrease in attendance. Children who are bullied may feel unsafe or uncomfortable at school, leading to absenteeism or truancy (Armitage, 2021). Additionally, parents may keep their children home from school due to concerns about their safety, which can result in missed instructional time and falling behind academically.

Bullying can also affect a child’s ability to concentrate and learn in the classroom. Children who are bullied may experience feelings of anxiety, depression, or fear while at school, making it difficult to focus on academic tasks. Furthermore, bullying can decrease self-esteem and self-efficacy, impacting a child’s motivation and willingness to engage in academic tasks. In some cases, bullying may also lead to a decline in academic performance. Bullied children may experience a decreased interest in school, struggle with homework assignments or studying, and perform poorly on exams. Over time, this can result in falling grades and lower academic achievement. Moreover, bullying can also impact a child’s long-term educational goals. Children who are bullied may feel discouraged from pursuing academic or career goals, leading to a lack of ambition and decreased motivation to succeed academically.

Theories of why bullying occurs

Various theories explain why bullying occurs, including psychological and sociological perspectives. Psychological perspectives suggest that bullying may result from individual characteristics and experiences. Sociological perspectives, on the other hand, suggest that bullying results from social structures and cultural norms.

Psychological theories

Social Learning Theory suggests that individuals learn behaviours by observing others and the consequences of those behaviours (Ahn et al., 2019). In the case of bullying, a child may learn to bully others by observing others engaging in similar behaviour. If they see that the behaviour is rewarded or goes unpunished, they are more likely to repeat it.

Attachment Theory suggests that a child’s early experiences with their caregivers can influence their relationships with others throughout their lives. Children who experience neglect, abuse, or inconsistent caregiving may develop insecure attachment styles, leading to difficulties forming healthy relationships with peers and an increased likelihood of engaging in bullying behaviours.

Social Cognitive Theory suggests that individuals learn and develop behaviours by observing and interpreting social cues in their environment. In the case of bullying, a child may learn to engage in aggressive behaviour if they perceive it as a successful strategy for achieving their goals, such as gaining power or attention.

The general Aggression Model suggests that a complex interplay between individual and situational factors, such as personality traits, social norms, and environmental stressors, influences aggression. The model proposes that exposure to violent media, experiences of frustration, and exposure to aggressive role models can increase the likelihood of engaging in bullying behaviours.

Sociological theories

Social Disorganization Theory suggests that bullying may be more prevalent in communities or schools where the social organization is weak and social control is lacking. In these settings, individuals may feel less connected to others and more likely to engage in disruptive or aggressive behaviour.

Social Learning Theory can also be considered a sociological theory, suggesting that individuals learn behaviour through observation and imitation (Ahn et al., 2019). In the context of bullying, children may learn aggressive behaviour from observing others in their environment, such as peers or adults who model such behaviour.

Strain Theory suggests that individuals engage in deviant behaviour, such as bullying when they experience strain or stress due to a lack of resources or opportunities. For example, bullying may be more prevalent in schools among students who feel socially or academically disadvantaged or lack social support.

Labelling Theory suggests that individuals may engage in bullying due to being labelled or stigmatized by others. For example, a student labelled as “weird” or “different” may be more likely to be targeted for bullying by others in their peer group.

Culture of Bullying Theory suggests that bullying may be more prevalent in societies or institutions that tolerate or encourage aggressive behaviour. In schools or workplaces with a culture of bullying, individuals may feel pressure to engage in such behaviour to fit in or gain social status.

Strategies for Preventing and Addressing Bullying in Schools and Communities

One effective strategy for preventing bullying is to create a positive school climate that promotes inclusivity and respect. This can be achieved through programs and initiatives encouraging empathy, kindness, and understanding among students, such as anti-bullying campaigns and social-emotional learning programs. Schools can also implement policies and procedures that prohibit bullying and provide consequences for students who engage in such behaviour.

Another strategy is to provide support and resources for students affected by bullying. This can include counselling services, peer support groups, and mentorship programs, which can help students build resilience and develop coping strategies. It is also important for schools to establish clear channels of communication between students, teachers, and parents so that bullying incidents can be reported and addressed promptly.

Community-wide efforts can also be important in preventing and addressing bullying behaviour. For example, community leaders can work to raise awareness about the negative effects of bullying and promote positive social norms and values. Law enforcement agencies can also work with schools and community organizations to develop coordinated responses to bullying incidents and provide support for victims.

Another effective strategy is to involve students in preventing and responding to bullying. This can be achieved through student-led initiatives, such as peer mediation and restorative justice programs, encouraging students to take responsibility for their actions and resolve conflicts. Schools and communities can create a culture of respect and inclusivity that promotes positive social and emotional development by empowering students to be active change agents.

Role of Parents, Teachers, and Other Adults in Preventing and Addressing Bullying

Parents, teachers, and other adults are important in preventing and addressing bullying in schools and communities. By working together, they can create a safe and supportive environment for children, promote positive social norms and values, and support those affected by bullying.

Parents can help prevent bullying by teaching their children to respect and treat others with kindness and empathy (Rettew & Pawlowski, 2022). They can also monitor their children’s behaviour and promptly address bullying incidents. Parents can stay informed about their child’s school environment and work together to prevent bullying by communicating regularly with teachers and administrators.

Teachers also play a critical role in preventing and addressing bullying in schools. They can create a positive classroom environment that promotes respect and inclusivity and allows students to develop social and emotional skills. Teachers can also promptly identify and address bullying incidents and provide support and resources for students affected by bullying.

Other adults, such as school counsellors, social workers, and community leaders, can also play an important role in preventing and addressing bullying (Rettew & Pawlowski, 2022). They can provide counselling and support for students affected by bullying, develop and implement anti-bullying initiatives, and work with parents and teachers to promote positive social norms and values.

Adults need to work together and collaborate to prevent and address bullying. By creating a coordinated and comprehensive approach to bullying prevention, adults can provide children with the support and resources they need to develop healthy social and emotional skills and build positive relationships with others.


Bullying is a serious problem that can negatively affect children under 14. Understanding the definition and types of bullying, its prevalence and statistics are important. The effects of bullying on a child’s mental health, social relationships, and academic performance can be detrimental and long-lasting. Furthermore, psychological and sociological theories can help explain why bullying occurs in the first place. Prevention and addressing bullying in schools and communities require a multifaceted approach. Strategies like implementing school-wide anti-bullying programs, providing resources and support for those affected by bullying, and involving parents, teachers, and other adults in prevention efforts can be effective. Furthermore, the role of parents, teachers, and other adults is crucial in preventing and addressing bullying.

Individuals and communities must take steps to prevent and address bullying in children under 14. Bullying can have severe and long-lasting consequences, and it is up to all of us to create a safe and inclusive environment for all children. Working together to promote positive social norms and values and teach children empathy, respect, and kindness toward others is imperative. By taking action, we can make a difference and ensure that all children can thrive in a safe and supportive environment.


Ahn, J. N., Hu, D., & Vega, M. (2019). “do as I do, not as I say”: Using social learning theory to unpack the impact of role models on students’ outcomes in education. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 14(2).

Armitage, R. (2021). Bullying in children: Impact on child health. BMJ Paediatrics Open5(1), e000939.

Cooke, K., Ridgway, K., Westrupp, E., Hedley, D., Hooley, M., & Stokes, M. A. (2022). The prevalence and risk factors of autistic experiences of interpersonal violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ke, T., De Simoni, S., Barker, E., & Smith, P. (2022). The association between peer-victimization and structural and functional brain outcomes: A systematic review. JCPP Advances2(2).

Rettew, D. C., & Pawlowski, S. (2022). Bullying. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31(1), 1–9.

Yosep, I., Hikmat, R., & Mardhiyah, A. (2023). School-based nursing interventions for preventing bullying and reducing its incidence on students: A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(2), 1577.


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