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A Global Health Perspective in Fighting Diabetes


The worldwide epidemic of type-2 diabetes jeopardizes the health and economics of every nation, but especially those in poorer countries. According to the WHO, nutritional changes, increased urbanization, and an increase in sedentary lifestyles all contribute to this pandemic. Obesity is a major contributor to the worldwide pandemic of diabetes, which has reached epidemic proportions. As a result, people’s eating patterns have shifted, resulting in an increase in caloric intake, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Additionally, enormous quantities of sugar-sweetened drinks are consumed, contributing to an individual’s total weight increase and raising their chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes. Since global trade liberalization increased the availability and affordability of food commodities such as sugar and edible oils, they have become more affordable and accessible to a broader number of people. Globalization of dietary trends has been attributed to an increase in animal fat consumption, an increase in fast food consumption, and a decrease in fiber consumption, among other factors.

China has the biggest population of diabetics (114 million) in a single nation, with the majority of them having type 2 diabetes. This is a big challenge for China’s authorities, who have dramatically expanded the number of people covered by health insurance over the previous decade. In China, the medical care of diabetes, excluding complications, is expected to spend 8.5 percent of the country’s total health expenditure (Xue et al., 2020). Their Clinical Implications in Personalized Medicine T2D is diagnosed in Chinese patients at a younger age and with a lower BMI than in European patients. T2D is more common in Chinese patients than in European patients (Hu C, 2018) Diabetes prevalence was less than 1 percent in 1980 (2), 5.5 percent in 2001, 9.7 percent in 2008, and 10.9 percent in 2013. Diabetes prevalence has increased steadily since 1980. As reported by the American Diabetes Association’s 2010 criteria, which were 0.5 percent higher than the World Health Organization’s 1997 criteria, which did not include a HbA1c level of less than 6.5 percent as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes, 4.5% of adults had previously been diagnosed with diabetes, with 6.9% of adults being diagnosed for the first time based on these 2010 criteria. Obesity, ageing, and eating habits are all influenced by environmental variables such as nutrition. Stagnant lifestyles, increased intake of processed foods and fats, hereditary variables and epigenetic alterations are all factors that lead to the development of diseases (Weker, 2006).

The increasing diabetes pandemic in China has been related to the population’s increased risk of developing diabetes. A relationship has been shown between hypertriglyceridemia, one of the most common types of dyslipidemia, and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (Yuan et al., 2007). Additionally, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes, affects around 15 percent of China’s general population, according to official figures. An examination of 20 studies found that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease substantially elevated the risk of incident type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome during a 5-year follow-up period, according to the findings of a new meta-analysis (Mantovani, 2018). T2D, on the other hand, has a bidirectional link with metabolic illnesses, since it strongly predicts the start of metabolic disorders. Compared to the general population, diabetes patients had a 3.6-fold greater risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study conducted in 2007 and 2008. Diabetes type 2 affects people all across the world, not only in China. A reduction in the consumption of roots and pulses has been seen in the majority of nations.

Chinese authorities have set a long-term goal of eradicating diabetes in the country (Tabish, 2007). This objective is part of the Chinese government’s Healthy China 2030 initiative, which aims to cure all chronic diseases throughout the duration of a person’s life (Ginsberg, 1994). When it comes to digital health solutions, China has risen to become the world’s leading innovator. Taking advantage of their success in areas such as mobile payments, Chinese internet businesses are rushing to reshape the country’s overcrowded healthcare system. Technology is being used to improve healthcare access in rural locations. One-minute clinics, such as those found in picture booths, and smart ambulances equipped with artificial intelligence are two examples of how technology is being used to improve healthcare access in remote areas.

Type 2 diabetics are more prone than other diabetics to suffer heart disease, stroke, and other serious complications. According to the World Health Organization, 382 million individuals globally have the condition, however only 175 million of those cases were diagnosed in 2013. These incidents were more prevalent in low- and middle-income nations than in higher-income ones, according to the findings. In recent years, worldwide incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically, and this trend is projected to continue.

Over the next 20–40 years, it is projected that the present pace of growth will be maintained. Several factors, including a shift in the epidemiological landscape in which communicable diseases have fallen out of the top 10 causes of death, as well as an accompanying nutritional shift characterized by increasingly unhealthy eating patterns and lower levels of physical activity, have been proposed as major contributors to the rapid increase in diabetes worldwide at the population level:

Diabetes-related disease patterns are evolving at a high speed. Nowadays, people suffering from Type 2 diabetes can now be found in almost every nation on the world. It was formerly assumed to be a sickness that only affected the wealthy, but it is increasingly growing more prevalent among the working class. Since childhood obesity was formerly almost unheard of in children, it has grown increasingly prevalent among specific ethnic groups of youngsters, particularly in the United States.

Diabetic complications were predicted to account for 12 percent of global health expenditures in 2010, amounting to $376 billion, with this number estimated to climb to $490 billion by 2030. Sun and colleagues, 2021 the increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS, as well as the health difficulties that accompany it, endangers the economic benefits that emerging nations enjoy. Because of a lack of diabetes-care infrastructure in many nations, many people are unprepared to cope with the pandemic. The year 2018 is a year of transition (Ide, 2018). Asia is home to 60 percent of the world’s diabetics, according to the International Diabetes Federation. Asian economies have had rapid growth in recent decades, cities have grown densely inhabited, and food supplies have undergone significant transformation.

A variety of variables have been identified as contributing to the worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes, according to the research. Obesity and excess weight are two of the most important contributing factors to the worldwide diabetes pandemic. Adults in the wealthiest countries are impacted, and their incidence is rapidly increasing in the poorest countries. The incidence of overweight and obesity in Asian countries is lower than in Western countries, despite an increase that has coincided with economic development and fast urbanization.

Another factor that contributes to the worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics is the nutritional value of the meals that people eat on a daily basis. Increasing the intakes of carbohydrates with a high glycemic load (GL) and trans fats is connected with an increased risk of diabetes, but increasing the intakes of cereal fiber and polyunsaturated fats is associated with a decreased risk of diabetes (Liversay et al., 2018). This is the third risk factor to take into account. According to various epidemiological studies, increasing physical activity decreases the chance of developing diabetes, but sedentary behavior increases the risk (Chastin, et al., 2019). Furthermore, research has shown that drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes (Yuan, 2020).

Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS), which were recently introduced, have resulted in significant breakthroughs in the detection of common genetic variants that are connected to the risk of developing diabetes. GWAS Despite the fact that several genes have been related to type 2 diabetes, their effect is minimal and they do not aid in clinical prediction beyond recognised risk factors such as obesity and lack of physical activity, poor diet, and a family history of type 2 diabetes (Duncan, 2019). According to a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in Asian countries, there are considerable interethnic differences in the position and frequency of diabetes risk alleles found in Caucasian populations, notably in Asian ethnicities.

Globalization has also been associated with an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Many developing nations are experiencing rapid economic and social development, which has resulted in changes in food habits and way of life for citizens (Ferdiko et al., 2019). Increased consumption and a good energy balance are encouraged by these adjustments. As individuals in Asia get more used to industrialized and urban food environments, they are abandoning their traditional eating practices. The built environment, on the other hand, has become increasingly sedentary in recent years. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes is associated with an increase in body weight and central adiposity that occurs in combination with an increase in physical activity. Since nutrition is changing so quickly, many countries are coping with both over- and under nutrition at the same time. This has resulted in the spread of infectious as well as long-term disorders.

People are more inclined to consume food goods such as edible oil and sugar now that international trade regulations have been loosened. People in India and China, particularly in urban areas, are consuming less cereal than in the past. They have been consuming more refined grains such as rice and wheat, as well as more fat, at all income levels, with the poor eating the most of these foods in particular (Ferniko et al., 2019).

Globalization and economic advancement are altering the nutritional landscape in many developing nations. Intake of high-fat, high-calorie meals has increased, while fiber consumption has decreased, and a preference for fast food has developed. A range of traditional diets from a variety of cultures are now being investigated (Von, 2020).

In order to combat type 2 diabetes, people and organizations from all around the globe are working together. Individuals who participate in one of these support groups learn how to incorporate medical advice into their regular routines. Health results may be improved by providing knowledge and emotional support to others via mutual identification, similar experiences, and a better feeling of belonging to the community (Arney et al., 2020). Multiple studies have shown that social support may help diabetics improve their physical activity, self-monitor their blood glucose levels, eat a more balanced diet, and begin insulin therapy earlier in their disease. People’s ability to control their blood sugar, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and weight has been found to improve with peer support. A number of studies conducted in China have showed that peer support is effective in the treatment of diabetic patients (Von, 2020).

Diabetes education is recommended by programmers such as the American Diabetes Association’s and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence’s (NICE) Guidelines, both of which are located in the United Kingdom. Patients’ ability to self-manage their diabetes is hampered by a lack of knowledge and empowerment in this area (Arney et al., 2020). Educating diabetes patients who are under informed about their condition or who have limited access to diabetes education may be beneficial for those who are struggling to manage their condition successfully. Several systematic evaluations revealed that combining self-management education with comprehensive lifestyle interventions improved control of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. A patient’s ability to think critically and act independently is strengthened through information transmission and patient empowerment. Having the information, resources, and expertise to put their choices into action, as well as the ability to assess and evaluate the outcomes of their actions, gives people the ability to be more self-sufficient. In order to effectively implement no communicable disease prevention programmers, it is critical to keep in mind that health system and governments play a role (Duncan, 2019).

A number of difficulties confront agents aiming to manage and control type 2 diabetes on the other hand (Pamumkas et al., 2019). This group of agents faces a number of similar issues, according to research, such as the type, size and character of the affected region; these issues have all been documented in the literature. Because of the long duration of the disaster, it may be difficult to manage this type of diabetic condition. These are the people who have been affected by this disease. Additionally, local infrastructural and socioeconomic factors have contributed to the difficulty of combating diabetes. The vast majority of the developing world is lacking in preparation measures that could aid in managing, controlling, and combating the situation. The results of a more in-depth investigation revealed that the amount of humanitarian assistance available locally, regionally, and globally was insufficient to manage the illness.

The great majority of the country’s 114 million diabetics have type 2 diabetes. Diabetes medical care is estimated to account for 8.5 percent of China’s total national health expenditures, according to government estimates. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in China who have a lower BMI and are diagnosed at a younger age have a lower risk of developing complications. Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common, expensive, and deadly chronic diseases in the United States, and it affects approximately 30 million people. People with type 2 diabetes accounted for 382 million people in the United States in 2013, but it is estimated that an additional 175 million people are unaware that they have the disease.


As of now, it is predicted that diabetes treatment would account for $490 billion in expenditures by 2030. Obesity and overweight are contributing to the worldwide diabetes epidemic’s rapid progression. Asia, on the other hand, has a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity when compared to Western countries. Due to the changes in dietary patterns and lifestyles brought about by globalization, type 2 diabetes is becoming more prevalent in emerging nations as a result of the spread of the disease. With the fast changes in food intake brought about by globalization, there has been an increase in the incidence of both infectious and chronic illnesses.

Since trade liberalization has increased the availability and affordability of food commodities, such as palatable oil and sugar, more people have access to them. Multiple studies have shown that peer support may be helpful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors may be treated more successfully if patients are educated on how to manage their conditions and make lifestyle changes. It is difficult to achieve optimal Type 2 diabetes treatment due to the presence of several roadblocks. In many impoverished nations, for example, there are no policies or procedures in place to monitor, control, or treat Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Infrastructure and socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding area have also made it difficult to monitor and treat diabetic patients.


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