1870- the 15th amendment was written
After the new constitutional changes were passed, NWSA presented an original and radical interpretation. Women remained “persons” where their rights as state citizens remained established through the first language for the Fourteenth Amendment; another, the right towards voting remained inherent in national citizenship, which was also crucial to the case. That woman’s vote remained already recognized. They did not necessitate further legitimate amendments. Victoria Claflin Woodhull, one of the most remarkable women’s suffrage campaigners, rose to prominence due to this New Departure argument. Woodhull rose from poverty to the top of New York society, a wealthy woman who cultivated influential men. Her case for the New Departure was made before the House Judiciary Committee in 1871, with the help of a congressional friend and secretly other suffragists. Despite his outspoken criticism of middle-class sexual hypocrisy, Woodhull was soon embroiled in the era’s most infamous controversy. As a result of her knowledge of Henry Ward Beecher’s disloyalty with one of his parishioners.
1893- Colorado women win equal voting rights with men:
When Congress was struggling to approve the modification guaranteeing elective rights of the African-American males in 1869, it turned its back on converted calls towards including suffrage of women in the Components. According to Fifteenth Amendment, which was enacted through states during 1870, voting rights “shall not be denied or restricted by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or prior condition of servitude.” The year, both Hiram Revels of the Mississippi also Joseph Rainey of the South Carolina remained elected towards United States Senate, and both were re-voted towards House of the Representatives the following year. They remained the first nation African-American representatives in the legislature (Neuman 2019).
During the legislative discussion over the Fifteenth Amendment, Stanton and Anthony were the driving force behind a politicization push to guarantee that elective rights of women were included. With increasing frequency, Stanton expressed his displeasure with the postponement of elective rights towards African-American males while rights of women were curtailed (Neuman 2019). Despite her praise for “educated white women,” she expressed concern that original migrants also African Americans remained unwilling towards accepting their privileged positions. Terminology of Stanton estranged African-American females who were aggressive for suffrage of women, and alike ideas on race also gender persisted in suffrage of women movement fit into century of twentieth ( Louis-Jacques 2022).
1883- world woman’s Christian temperance union formed:
Her name was Hinook-Mahiwi-Kilinaka, and she was a Winnebago from Nevada who studied for three years at Hampton Institute in 1883. She later studied art at the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. In the early twentieth century, she became a well-known commercial illustrator, illustrating several books by and about Native Americans. Old Indian Legends, 1901, she illustrates Early in her career, De Cora’s writing and artwork appeared in Harper’s New Monthly. In “Grey Wolf’s Daughter,” one of her two published stories, the heroine compares “one who had gone to school, to another who had stayed at home and was a thorough Indian, comparing their lives.” “The white man’s ways” were her goal. La Veille de sa démission completed a purification ritual with her village girlfriends. A simple dress and one ornament were all she needed. But he knew she had “always had her way.”
1875- minor v. happersett:
One of the story’s most remarkable illustrations is De Cora’s robe and belt with intricate beading. The painted hides behind her add to a magnificent Plains women’s craft display. While the young woman’s pensive countenance and the celebration of the design work may convey a sense of loss, historian Jane Simonsen believes it emphasizes Grey Wolf’s daughter’s choice to develop a new identity in a new setting. The artist identity of DeCora developed as she introduced Native designs into mainstream literary medium, according to Simonsen, who believes otherwise. She took her beads off only to put them in Harper’s.
1942- the women employed into war businesses and Rationing rises in domestic women household tasks:
Each decade has its characteristics, but more significant patterns in American women’s history, particularly employment and politics, connect the differences. Following the 19th Amendment, women struggled to gain political power and influence. A growing number of working women who are both wives and moms continued to increase female involvement in the paid labor market. Finally, women’s societal expectations evolved in two key areas: consumerism and sexuality, respectively. Both changes impacted women’s family lives. While women’s lives have changed, a concept of continuity with the Past has emerged. Prejudice based on race and ethnicity impedes women’s employment and political participation. All women’s lives were filtered via traditional ideas regarding women’s principal roles in the home (Louis-Jacques 2022).
1963- equivalent pay performance which makes wage differences based uniquely on gender illegitimate:
Making NOW a political issue elevated women’s civil right. NOW’s goals grew over time, conceived as a lobbying and litigation organization for women’s political and economic rights. Women’s Right to Reproductive Freedom, 1967. The nationwide Women’s Strike aimed at Equality on August 1970, 26 exemplified the scope of NOW’s agenda. It centered on miscarriage rights, child upkeep, equal instructive and economic chance, and the 50th anniversary of the 19th Amendment providing women the right to vote. NOW had 700 chapters, 40,000 members, and a $300,000 annual budget by 1974. They turned it into a mass membership organization because NOW was the only organization they could locate outside major cities and college towns.
Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor made history as the Supreme Court’s first Hispanic and third female nominee. For Americans who feel excluded or underrepresented, Justice Sotomayor is an inspiration (Smith 2021).
2009- Lady by the name Sonia Sotomayor becomes first Hispanic also third lady highest court justice:
Her paternities were Juan Sotomayor also Celina Baez, and where her paternities met after WWII, married after Celina served in the Women’s Army Corps, and both paternities were born in Puerto Rico. In addition to her mother’s nursing, Sotomayor’s father operated as a tool worker. Sotomayor had a single earlier brother, Juan, who remained very close to her grandma. It was a flourishing communal of racially also ethnically diverse employed-class relatives in the Bronxdale Houses. Growing up Catholic, she graduated as valedictorian from Cardinal Spellman High School in 1972. Sotomayor, who grew up construing Nancy Drew records and observing Perry Mason on the TV, decided she wanted to be a lawyer early.
Sotomayor struggled to adjust to her new environment at Princeton, where there were few females and even fewer Latinos. She encouraged Puerto Rican students and fought for a more diverse Princeton faculty as a student activist. More Latinx personnel were employed, and Puerto Rican history classes were added to the curriculum due to Sotomayor’s involvement at UCLA. In 1976, she earned a summa cum laude in history from Princeton University. She spent seven years with her high school boyfriend, Kevin Noonan, before divorcing him amicably and returning to Yale Law School. This was the start of an excellent career for Sotomay (Smith 2021).
Louis-Jacques, Adetola F., et al. “Historical antecedents of breastfeeding for African American Women: from the pre-colonial period to the mid-twentieth century.” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 7.5 (2020): 1003-1012.
Neuman, Johanna. And Yet They Persisted: How American Women Won the Right to Vote. John Wiley & Sons, 2019.
Smith, C. A., Williams, E. L., Wadud, I. A., Pirtle, W. N., & Cite Black Women Collective. (2021). Cite black women: A critical praxis (a statement). Feminist Anthropology, 2(1), 10-17.
Noboa, Julio. Leaving Latinos out of history: Teaching US history in Texas. Routledge, 2021. https://u1lib.org/book/11273542/0b9749