The terms theoretical and conceptual are interchangeably used in research, and both of the utilized papers seem to agree, according to my analysis of the two articles. According to Green (2014), some research methodologies do not incorporate a theoretical or conceptual framework into their design. However, when a single theory supports research, he points out that a theoretical framework must be applied. Additionally, quantitative and outcomes studies frequently use a theoretical framework to direct research and enable the researcher to connect their findings to existing knowledge. Connelly (2014), on the other hand, noted that neither of them is as formal or as developed as formal research. As I examined the data from my collected planned study, I concluded that I had both theoretical and conceptual frameworks, though mostly conceptual.
Moreover, formal and informal theories are the two types employed in the research. While an informal theory comprises a conceptual framework and appears less developed, a formal theory encompasses a well-developed line of thought applicable to outcome prediction. According to Green (2014), the conceptual framework incorporates ideas from numerous theories and discoveries to direct research studies by developing them into a diagram or a conceptual model. However, the models are characterized by a narrow focus compared to theories since they lack the conceptual connection that theories have.
Furthermore, Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory is applicable in fall prevention. The theory factors three components of self-care, self-care agency, and self-care demand which point out an individual’s acts meant to maintain well-being (Gligor & DOMNARI, 2020). The application of this theory assists in the planning and structuring of information, therapy, and care into a useful conceptual framework. Using the concepts of this theory, a study was conducted to analyze falls among older adults and their relation to their health problems and surrounding environmental factors (Alshammari et al., 2018). The theory is employed in this study to denote that an individual is a self-care agent with the ability to undertake self-care activities.
In addition, behavioral change theory is another theory employed in preventing falls. Individuals are educated on change prevention strategies s that they can develop changed behaviors and attitudes, such as walking carefully. The modifiable risk factors, including diet and exercises, are key in enhancing gait and balance (Sulat et al., 2018). A study was done to determine the fear of falling among older adults (Lavedán et al., 2018). According to research, combining evidence-based fall preventive approaches strategies into a multifaceted intervention strategy can reduce the rate of falls.
In conclusion, even though the research articles highlighted that the participants believed they could reduce their risk of falling and had a high degree of knowledge about falls. However, the subjects and their carers never discussed fall prevention. Thus, the proposed plan is to enroll older adults aged 65 and above in long-term care facilities in routine exercise programs with the help of a champion nurse to reduce the risk and incidence of falls among the cohort. The articles I reviewed showed an increasingly high number of older adults experiencing falls and a rising cost of medical care.
Connelly, L. M. (2014). Use of theoretical frameworks in research. MEDSURG Nursing, 23(3), 187-188.
Gligor, L., & DOMNARI, C. D. (2020). Patient care approach using nursing theories-comparative analysis of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory and Henderson’s Model.
Green, H. E. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Nurse Researcher, 21(6), 34-38.
Lavedán, A., Viladrosa, M., Jürschik, P., Botigué, T., Nuín, C., Masot, O., & Lavedán, R. (2018).
Fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults: a cause of falls, a consequence, or both? PLoS One, 13(3). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194967.
Sulat, J. S., Prabandari, Y. S., Sanusi, R., Hapsari, E. D., & Santoso, B. (2018). The validity of health belief model variables in predicting behavioral change: A scoping review. Health Education.