The concert of Europe succeeded in establishing unity among Prussia, Austria, Russia and Britain in rebelling against Napoleon and enabled them to witness the benefits of collaboration. The four countries discovered their objectives were related and could quickly achieve them by working together. They learned that their union threatened other nations that aimed at disturbing peace. Their collaboration compelled the neighbouring nations to embrace peace and maintain the power balance. These countries held regular conventions to deliberate on specific policies and ideals, popularly called the Concert of Europe.
The leader of the collaboration was Klemens von Metternich, who also served as the principal advocate of legitimacy. The concept of conservatism was meant to keep the Monarch in charge in what Joseph de Maistre believed to be the maintenance of order in the community. People and the state were perceived as a partnership that could accommodate all generations and that none of them should ever attempt to interfere with the system. The ages could realize the past luxurious lifestyles and comprehend that the countries relied heavily on the working class. From some inclination, the main aim of clinging to the old world was because people feared losing relevance in the new world. The conservatives unified the powerful, widespread territories and maintained peace for some time. However, conservatism should have addressed the primary source of support for the four countries since it ignored the plight of the middle and working class.
David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus were the masterminds of liberalism meant to fix reasonable salaries for workers. Liberalism aimed to provide alternatives to workers regarding health, food, poor wages and other basic requirements. Proponents of liberalism attempted to establish that all people are equal before the Constitution, have freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, freedom from unwarranted arrest and the right to belong to a particular church and state. Champions of liberalism encouraged the proposed laws to be documented and set to apply to all people throughout their lives. Therefore, liberalists were more concerned with maintaining order through written directions that were not biased but applicable to all people regardless of their background. Holding the Monarch accountable was the best solution for the problems experienced in administrative organs such as the legislature.
John Mill was among the few leaders who advocated for women’s rights since they had been ignored for an extended time. Although the majority of the champions of liberalism supported freedom, they were not convinced that women also needed to enjoy the same rights as those enjoyed by men. Most felt women should only be granted a little space since they were perceived as inferior to men. However, John Stuart Mill took a different path and advocated for women’s rights. His idea birthed the women’s rights movement.
The achievements of the concerts and congresses were essentially about peace. They just united the states with the same background and discriminated against those who opposed their ideologies. Those who felt alienated from the unity pacts were compelled to seek alternative ways of airing their voices, primarily through uprisings. Giving the nationalist and liberal loyalists freedom to champion fundamental rights and perceiving them as superior to the current leaders did not achieve the targeted peacebuilding but led to unrest and rampant rebellions. The countries considered minor in the region were not allowed to participate in the agreements. The super superior nations did not think that those little countries could be of any benefit to the treaties. This alienation caused more rebellions between the powerhouse nations and the others that ranked low in the pyramid.
“Western Civilization” by Jackson J. Spielvogel
Elrod RB. The Concert of Europe: A Fresh Look at an International System. World Politics. 1976;28(2):159-174. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/2009888