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Role of Nanotechnology in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease


Nanotechnology has been explored as an effective mean of explosive progress after the contemporary progresses in the medical field. Current medications, prostheses, diagnostic reagents, prostheses, and patient monitoring are all the aspects that can benefit from improvements made possible by medical applications of nanotechnology (Gupta et al., 2019).

In order to state the effectiveness of nanotechnology, at first it is critical to highlight its width in treating major illnesses. “Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)”, atherosclerosis, hypertensive, stroke, and heart failure, among others, are some of the most dangerous and deadly illnesses in the world, resulting in enormous health and economic costs. In treating cardiovascular diseases nano-materails deliver drugs after intravascular nanotechnologies (Mohamed et al., 2022). In the present study, the effectiveness of nanotechnology in treating cardiovascular diseases is aimed to take into consideration so that the current state and future scope of this particular emerged treatment process can be identified.


The key method of using nanotechnology in cardiovascular treatment has been mainly evaluated in increasing the effectiveness of drug delivery with nanoparticles on the body. One of such several approaches has been stated as; an electric current is generated when photons are hit with electrons in silicon (Pala et al., 2020). Through the use of nanotechnology, medications may be made more effective, atherosclerotic plaques can be delivered more effectively, and following “intravascular intervention” can be less inflammatory or angiogenic. Additionally, developments have already been started regarding nanocarriers that can be used to deliver imaging and diagnostic compounds to specific locations with high precision.

Nano-particle mediated drug delivery

Figure 1: Nano-particle mediated drug delivery

(Source: Pala et al., 2020)

Hence cardiovascular biomedical implantation have seen as an effective area of improvement in this case. With the aid of nanogels, it is possible to create an even more favourable environment in which to transport and navigate therapies to their intended destinations. Heart cell sheets provide a new platform for cell-based treatment. Cardiac cell sheets Mechanical support can be added to the heart patch by combining it with nanofibrous materials (Pala et al., 2020). A key advance in stem cell treatment would be the development of a nanopatch that might help in the electromechanical connection of transplanted CMs with the host heart.

In terms of fundamental principles in the working process of nanotechnology in cardiovascular treatment it can be stated that mainly diagnostics, treatment, or prevention of illness by the use of nanotechnology are all included in the area of nanomedicine. The control and manipulation of “biomacromolecular and molecules entities” essential to human health, such as DNA, RNA, cellular membranes and lipid bilayers, are some examples of nanomedicine applications. On the other hand, “Physicochemical features” of nanoparticles, in particular, have been generally regarded as having beneficial effects on biological function, such as their reactivity, high surface energy, wettability, and roughness. In this case, through the information of Wang et al., (2021), particles that have all three dimensions at the nanoscale and range in size from one to one hundred nanometers (nm) are known as “nanoparticles”.

Nanopraticles-based treatment for CVDs

Figure 2: Nanopraticles-based treatment for CVDs

(Source: Wang et al., 2021)

Contemporary adoption of nanomedicine in the research area has led to new techniques to lower toxicity, extend medication half-life, and lessen side effects by altering the characteristics of nanoparticles while keeping their biocompatibility. As per Kandaswamy, and Zuo, (2018), “active targeting” being one of the key methods of implementing nanotechnology requires the conjugation of the treatment modality to tissue- or fibroblast ligand, while passive targeting involves the coupling of the treatment modality to a high polymer which has enhanced permeation as well as retention to the vascular system.

Both active and passive targeting methods can be used to deliver targeted drugs in the treatment of disease. Each nanotechnology produced for biomedicine has its own distinct qualities and benefits. In this case, apart from making a wide place in the cardiovascular treatment, Salehi et al., (2020),stated that, cancer therapy and diagnostics is now the primary emphasis of nanotechnology in medicine. At the same time, Li et al., (2018), stated that, this focus is changing to other therapeutic areas, such as cardiology and antibiotic resistance.

The advantages of nonmaterial in cardiovascular treatment devices

Figure 3: The advantages of nonmaterial in cardiovascular treatment devices

(Source: Prajnamitra et al., 2019)

In order to enlighten the applications of nanotechnology it is to state that working with materials at the nanoscale is the focus of nanotechnology. An atom of hydrogen has “an atomic diameter” of one billionth of a nanometer or 1/80,000 of the width of a human hair on a scaled scale (Salehi et al., 2020). Physical, chemical, and biological sciences may all benefit from its use. The development of nanotechnology has taken place exponentially, and its uses in medicine were a significant spin-off. It was found that, “the re-endothelialization process” is aided by the increased adherence and multiplication of endothelial cells on a metallic stent surface due to the inclusion of nanotechnology in the design of the surface. This is where in the array of cardiovascular treatment, “stent-induced thrombosis” may also be lessened, and the treated arteries’ activity can be improved, using this technique. “Nanometer-sized structures” are seen in many biological systems. “Nanomedicine” is the new term for medical applications of nanotechnology, such as therapy, diagnosis, monitoring, or control for biological systems (NIH) (Prajnamitra et al., 2019).

It is also found that, medical research at the cellular level will be made possible because of advancements in nanotechnology. An array of illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, is therefore nowadays can be treated effectively using new methods provided by this technology.

Following an ischemic event or cardiovascular issues, a wide variety of therapeutic options are available. The myocardium is required to be directly injected with these medicines, or intracoronary catheterization may be necessary as per van der Wall, (2014). “IGF-1-carrying nanoparticles” administered to the myocardium through intramyocardial injection have previously been described as providing success in some areas to the heart. In spite of encouraging findings, “intramyocardial injection” remains a risky procedure that might cause additional heart injury. The reasons in this case stated that various treatments may not be suited for intracoronary catheterization, which may lead to “embolism”.

On the other hand, as per Martín Giménez, Kassuha, and Manucha, (2017), passive targeting allows nanoparticles in active targeting molecules to reach sick tissues. With the use of nanotechnology, the effectiveness of detecting inflammation have increased non-invasively using “cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)” scans.

Passive and active targeting in nanotechnology application in CVDs

Figure 4: Passive and active targeting in nanotechnology application in CVDs

(Source: Pala et al., 2020)

For coronary heart disease patients, inflammation is a key consequence of the condition, and early diagnosis by using these measures may help improve prognosis. According to Chandarana et al., (2018), long-lasting EPR effects have been used for tumour targeting. Several molecules that promote permeability, such as nitrite, peroxyl, and bradykinin, as well as the synthesis of vasodilatory factor, have been related to the increase in permeability of the sick vasculature. In this case, Mohamed et al., (2020), have highlighted the fact that the applications of micro and nanotechnology in medical diagnostics can be divided into two different groups, invitro indicating biosensors and integrated devices, and in-vivo indicating implantable devices and medical imaging.

As per Lakshmanan, and Maulik, (2018), the presence of “atherosclerotic plaque” can act as a catalyst for the development of various cardiovascular illnesses. Plasma levels of an acute phase protein marker associated with cardiovascular disease were elevated after treatment with “multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)”. When studying nanoparticles in-vivo, a similar pattern among a number of research papers have been found in the area of bioavailability study that aimed to explore where the particles end up in the body and which organs they end up in. When nanoparticles include active targeting moieties, biodistribution research is much more critical to demonstrate the targeting capabilities of the nanoparticles.

Applying nanotechnology to treat heart issues

Figure 5: Applying nanotechnology to treat heart issues

(Source: Wang et al., 2021)

However in terms of sensitivity, scaling and costs of applying nanotechnologies in cardiovascular treatment, Liu et al., (2022), stated that, comparatively to liposomes with extended stability profiles, polymer-based solutions are more expensive and easy to produce and scale-up. The manufacturing process in the medical field is greatly improved by nanotechnology at the same time expenses also increased. However, in a number of areas reduced manufacturing costs are witnessed as a result of the increased effectiveness. Nanotechnology is predicted to create items as cheaply as duplicating files on a computer, which can generate endless duplicates of data files for little or no cost. To ensure cost-efficient manufacture, successful usage, and degradability over time without detrimental consequences, each cardiovascular device must have a unique mix of nanomaterial’s properties.

In terms of limitations in applying nanotechnologies, it was found that, disruption to the economy and potential dangers to safety, privacy, health, and the environment are a few of the probable drawbacks. Nanotechnology is projected to have a significant impact on a wide range of economic sectors. While nanotechnology’s first products can be costly, luxurious or specialized goods, as the technology becomes more widely available, ever more markets will benefit (Park et al., 2020). Companies that specialize in particular technology and materials might go out of business if they become outdated. Nanotechnology’s impact on industrial processes might lead to job losses.

Toxicology of nanoparticles may be more relevant than that of other kinds of materials, due to their mobility inside the human body. Following “the application of zerovalent iron nanoparticles”, respiratory and cardiovascular damage have also been reported.


Overall it can be concluded that, the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), nanomaterials have made an enormous difference. Cardioprotective medications can be delivered to the diseased hearts more effectively and with fewer adverse effects using modified nanoparticles containing active targeting moieties. However, it is to state that, more research should be done employing active rather than passive targeting of order to improve the delivery of treatments. Although there are certain drawbacks, the role that nanotechnology plays in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has indeed made major differences and increased the effectiveness significantly, both in terms of medication delivery and as a substrate for cell-based therapy. Aside from being an option to stem cell therapy in terms of its efficacy, it can be stated that nanotechnology, particularly nanomedicine, is a beneficial addition to both professions.


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