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Respiratory Tract Infections, Neoplasms and Childhood Disorders


Respiratory tract infections, neoplasms, and childhood disorders have become a major concern in today’s healthcare organizations. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are illnesses of sections of the body engaged in inhalation, such as sinuses mainly caused by viruses or bacteria. On the other hand, neoplasms refer to abnormal masses of tissues that form when cells grow and divide more than they should or not die when they should. However, neoplasms may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Additionally, childhood disorders refer mostly to mental and emotional problems that are often diagnosed in individuals in their childhood ages, and the disorders may even develop throughout adolescents.

Moreover, the challenges of RTIs, neoplasms, and childhood disorders are more likely to occur to individuals who trace their ancestry to certain geographical areas and ethnicity since certain versions of their genes share genes containing disease-causing variants. According to Jabal and others (2021), age, gender, and ethnicity major impact diseases, infections, and disorders all in the human health system. Inherited genetic variations contribute to individual risks for many complex diseases. In contrast, compared to the young, most of the aged in society are prone to disease. Furthermore, gender also contributes to the risks of diseases since males and females undergo related kinds of ailments. Still, males tend to experience more serious sicknesses than women since non-life-endangering incapacities show women. It is therefore important to establish a body of knowledge that investigates the research of presence and effects of gender, genetic and ethnic impacts on diseases and ailments.

1. Influenza Infection

The presentation that could have led to suspicion of influenza but not cold:

The following presentation of Marshall’s case could have led to suspicion of influenza but not cold in the given child since Rapid onset of symptoms- Influenza usually worsens rapidly with an incubation period of 1 to 3 days while cold progresses with mild symptoms and delayed incubation period. Rapid onset of symptoms in the given case can also indicate influenza while in contrast severity of the symptoms- Cold usually presents with symptoms like fever, irritability, sneezing, general malaise, but worsening of the signs such as fever, chills, a sore throat, runny nose, dry cough are suggestive of influenza rather than cold.

According to Pagnini and others (2020), cold indicators comprise a more regular start, rhinitis, postnasal drip leading to tonsils, pains, and unease. Only acute issues will end in shivers or fever. However, influenza has a sudden start of fever, body pains, headaches, non-positive cough, sore throat, and nasal secretion. The fast commencement of Marshall’s indications and his fever, body aches, sore throat, runny nose, and dry cough could be confused for influenza. Generally, children with the general cold tend to remain lively, and the fact that Marshall did not want to participate in fun directed to influenza or rather a more extreme case of an ailment.

Importance of medical evaluation and diagnosis of potential influenza infection:

It is crucial to medically assess and analyze a possible influenza virus due to the threat of influenza impediments. Maignan and others (2019) state that influenza is generally caused by diverse types of orthomyxoviruses with unlike antigenic modifications like Type A, B, and C, of which Type A can result in fatal complications, especially in young children hence the importance of medical evaluation. Additionally, other variants such as pneumonia and other bacterial infections can lead to complications. Hence, timely finding of influenza permits the patient with antiviral treatment though for an individual to be qualified for the antiviral therapy, influenza must have been recognized in 48hrs of the commencement of the symptoms.

2. Pathophysiology of the influenza virus and the Properties of Infuenza A Antigens

Influenza begins as a superior airway illness. The infection kills the mucus-generating, ciliated epithelial cells of the superior airways, creating openings for extracellular fluid to break out—antigens of influenza surface proteins like Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidase (Broecker et al.,2018). Hemagglutinins are glycoproteins that help in attachment to the glycan receptors that appear on the respiratory epithelium of the individual. In contrast, Neuraminidase helps in breaking the cell membranes and releasing the replicated virions to other cells or other hosts. The virus then transfers to the lower respiratory tract, where it causes detaching of bronchial and alveolar cells until they are down to a single basal coat. After entering the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, they destroy the epithelium and lead to edema metaplastic hyperplasia. This concedes the body’s biological guards and stimulates bacterial linkage.

According to Corbett and others (2019), Influenza A virus can infect various kinds as it has binary subtypes; Hemagglutinin (HA) which permits the virus to go into epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, and Neuraminidase (NA) which enables viral replications. Replications and transcriptions of the virions and their subsequent discharge into other units lead to manifestations. Influenza A is more contagious than Influenza B or C in that it can remain to grow new subtypes hence in the lead to epidemic and pandemic increases.

3. Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia and Cyanosis

Risk of contracting secondary bacterial pneumonia

The Influenza virus triggers the dropping of bronchial and alveolar cells in the respiratory tract until they are down to a single basal coat. This compromises the body’s biological guards and stimulates bacterial adhesions, thus placing Marshall at risk of contracting secondary bacterial viruses such as bacterium pneumonia. Liu and others (2020) state that the factors which increase the risk of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza include suppression of immune system by increased viral load, impaired integrity of respiratory epithelium and edema as well as alteration of immune response by the influenza virus.Additionally,other factors that increase the risk are poor immune system in children and increased susceptibility of acquired bacterial pneumonia due to the accumulation of hyaline substances by viral replications.

Often, a patient suffering from bacterial infections will begin to feel healthier but then have a prominent coming back of fever and chills. In the case of Bacterium pneumonia, the patient may also have pain and a practical cough, unlike the dry cough characterized by pneumonia. In this case, Marshall would start to exhibit symptoms of heightened work in inhalation, nasal burning, repudiations, and enhanced respiratory levels.

Association of cyanosis with pneumonia:

Concessions in the higher airways could cause coughing, symptoms of respiratory trouble, lethargy, and cyanosis. Cyanosis in pneumonia indicates poor oxygenation due to impairment of gas exchange at alveoli as the virus, or rather bacteria, disrupt the integrity of the epithelium. The bacteria infiltrate the airway epithelial cells and release inflammatory mediators, which damage the membranes of the alveocapillary. The damage to the alveoli results in hypoxemia which leads to Cyanosis in Pneumonia.


In a nutshell, it is important for healthcare organizations and the government to investigate the presence and effects of gender, ethnic, and genetic factors on diseases. Notably, there is a need for the body of knowledge to research influenza and other diseases to help provide solutions to such ailments on individuals.


Broecker, F., Liu, S. T., Sun, W., Krammer, F., Simon, V., & Palese, P. (2018). Immunodominance of antigenic site B in the hemagglutinin of the current H3N2 influenza virus in humans and mice. Journal of virology, 92(20), e01100-18.

Corbett, K. S., Moin, S. M., Yassine, H. M., Cagigi, A., Kaneko, M., Boyoglu-Barnum, S., … & Boyington, J. C. (2019). Design of nanoparticulate group 2 influenza virus hemagglutinin stem antigens that activate unmutated ancestor B cell receptors of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages. MBio, 10(1), e02810-18.

Jabal, K. A., Ben-Amram, H., Beiruti, K., Batheesh, Y., Sussan, C., Zarka, S., & Edelstein, M. (2021). Impact of age, gender, ethnicity, and prior disease status on immunogenicity following administration of a single dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine: real-world evidence from Israeli healthcare workers, December-January 2020. medRxiv.

Liu, W., Tao, Z. W., Wang, L., Yuan, M. L., Liu, K., Zhou, L., … & Hu, Y. (2020). Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease. Chinese medical journal, 133(9), 1032.

Macpherson, L., Ogero, M., Akech, S., Aluvaala, J., Gathara, D., Reimu, G., … & Agweyu, A. (2019). Risk factors for death among children aged 5–14 years hospitalized with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study in Kenya. BMJ global health, 4(5), e001715.

Maignan, M., Viglino, D., Hablot, M., Termoz Masson, N., Lebeugle, A., Collomb Muret, R., … & Larrat, S. (2019). Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid RT-PCR assay for point-of-care detection of influenza A/B virus at emergency department admission: A prospective evaluation during the 2017/2018 influenza season. PloS one, 14(5), e0216308.

Pagnini, F., Cavalera, C., Volpato, E., & Banfi, P. (2020). Illness expectations predict the development of influenza-like symptoms over the winter season. Complementary therapies in medicine, 50, 102396.


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