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Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

Description of Outbreak

Respiratory syndrome coronavirus is the disease I have chosen for this assignment. SARS coronavirus 2 is likely a unique recombinant virus, according to our findings. SARS-related coronaviruses from horseshoe bats and pangolin viruses have a similar genome and receptor-binding structure, respectively. Wuhan, China, was the site of the first known outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The origin of infectious transmission to humans remains a mystery, as does whether the virus acquired pathogenic prior to or during the spillover episode. It has been hypothesized that the virus came from the Huanan Seafood Market, where several of the initial infected worked. Other studies, on the other hand, suggest that visitors may have brought the virus into the market, allowing it to spread quickly. The Huanan Seafood Market and the food supply chain were both evaluated as plausible, although less probable, explanations for the outbreak (Li et al., 2020). Even though the first known case had been mistaken, a review in November 2021 found that the predominance of earliest cases related to the Huanan Market supported for it to be the source. The disease affected the whole world and reached different countries in different dates. For example, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, officials notified the World Health Organization on December 31 of instances of pneumonia with an unknown cause. The illness, which was first called 2019-nCoV, was later renamed COVID-19. On January 20, a 35-year-old American citizen flying from Wuhan, China, to his residence in Washington state became the first known case of the new disease in the United States.

Epidemiological Determinants and Risk Factors

The symptoms of COVID-19 may range from minor to serious, and the condition can impact anybody. Individuals with certain features or medical problems may be more susceptible to respiratory viruses than others, increasing their risk of severe disease. These are known as “risk factors” in the industry. An older age or specific fundamental medical issues are two instances. COVID-19 is more prone to cause severe illness in the elderly (Weinstein et al., 2021). Patients with COVID-19 who become critically ill may be placed on a ventilator, requiring hospitalization, or potentially pass away if their condition worsens. Individuals in their 50s and 60s have an increased risk, which rises even more in their 70s, 80s, and beyond. It is not uncommon for individuals over the age of 85 to get ill.

Other variables, such as pre-existing medical disorders, might increase your risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19. COVID-19 is more likely to cause severe illness in people with cancer. Numerous forms of cancer may now be treated. The correlations study showed a connection between the prevalence of COVID-19 in men and diabetes. Education and the age of the populace are favorably associated with recuperation, but various metabolic and respiratory disorders are adversely associated with it (Hassan et al., 2020). People over the age of 60, those with hypertension, and those with asthma have been shown to have a favorable link with the case-fatality ratio. Has the potential to impair your body’s defenses against sickness. Possessing a background of cancer may raise your risk, according to current research.

Route of Transmission

Questions have arisen concerning how SARS-CoV-2 might spread because of its high dissemination rate. The infection control plans encountered increased difficulties due to the ambiguity of the primary transmission channels. There is speculation that close touch and respiratory secretions may be the primary means of transmission of the disease. Human-to-human dissemination has been the primary mechanism of transmission for 2019-nCoV. The spread of disease from animals to humans has not been shown as of now. Some Republican leaders in the South are speculating that the rise in coronavirus illnesses is due to the influx of migrants. individuals with high COVID risk being allowed unfettered entry into the United States and then dispersing the disease across our society. No one in the United States, including migrants, is at more risk of contracting the coronavirus than anybody else who travels over the border or lives in a COVID-19 high-risk area.

Impact on Community

An unparalleled pandemic has resulted in an enormous loss of human life throughout the globe, as well as an unparalleled threat to public health, food networks and employment. By year’s end, the number of people who are suffering from malnutrition is expected to rise by up to 132 million, putting millions of individuals at danger of sliding into severe poverty. The financial and psychological impact is catastrophic. The pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of the whole food supply chain. Agriculture workers have been prevented from crop harvesting by border restrictions, trade limitations and imprisonment measures. This has disrupted the domestic and international food supply chains, resulting in a reduction in availability of healthy, safe and diversified meals. As a result of the epidemic, millions of people face losing their jobs and their lives. In the COVID-19 crisis, food production, population health, and employment and labor concerns, in especially the health and safety of employees, all come together in one disaster of epic proportions (Koster et al.,2021). Adherence to occupational health and safety standards and the preservation of workers’ rights in all sectors are essential if the crisis’ human impact is to be alleviated. We need urgent action to preserve families and livelihood by expanding social welfare approaching comprehensive health care and economic assistance for those who are most vulnerable.

Reporting Protocol

Global biosecurity network is being strengthened as a reaction to the COVID-19 epidemic and its subsequent effects while diplomatic leadership is being exercised by the United States. Data collection for identifying COVID-19 cases has been established by the CDC in the United States. These statistics are critical to assessing the effect of the epidemic and determining the best course of action for public health officials. When reporting cases to CDC, the authority should use the authority nCoV ID unless alternate procedures have been authorized by CDC to send data. In certain cases, a single corporate office may serve as the reporting hub for all of a health system’s institutions (Orkin et al., 2021). Several states already collect this data from hospitals, as well, as we are aware. It is also possible that, if a state certifies that it would gather data from institutions and assume the hospital’s reporting duties for the national authorities, hospitals may be exempt from reporting straight to federal authorities.

Prevention Strategies

Protecting yourself with a mask alone is not enough; you need a complete plan of measures in place to prevent COVID-19 from spreading and saving lives. Take simple action to protect yourself safe if COVID-19 is going to spread in someone neighborhood. These include staying away from sick people, using a mask or other respiratory protection, opening windows and doors to allow fresh air into the room, avoiding large crowds, washing hands frequently, and coughing into one’s elbow or tissue (Guner et al.,2020). As soon as possible after coughing or sneezing, remove your mask and wash your hands. If you do not have a mask, use a tissue or the inside of your elbow to cover your mouth and nose. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth after using tissues; instead, sterilize them with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer for at least duration of 20 seconds.

Vaccinations may also be used to stop the development of Covid-19. An outbreak of COVID-19 is sweeping the globe. WHO and partners are rushing to create and implement secure and reliable vaccinations as they cooperate together to monitor and advise on essential actions and provide important medical supplies to individuals who need them. The sooner you are vaccinated, the better, so do not put it off. Vaccines authorized for use against COVID-19 give a significant degree of prevention against severe illness and death, but no vaccination is completely safe. Hand cleanliness, social distance, and quarantine are the most effective means of limiting the spread of disease in society. Stricter quarantine measures will be possible to discover more COVID-19-positive patients in the population because to improved testing capabilities.


GÜNER, H. R., Hasanoğlu, İ., & Aktaş, F. (2020). COVID-19: Prevention and control measures in community. Turkish Journal of medical sciences50(SI-1), 571-577.

Orkin, A. M., Gill, P. J., Ghersi, D., Campbell, L., Sugarman, J., Emsley, R., … & CONSERVE Group. (2021). Guidelines for reporting trial protocols and completed trials modified due to the COVID-19 pandemic and other extenuating circumstances: The CONSERVE 2021 statement. JAMA, 326(3), 257-265.

Koster, E. S., Philbert, D., & Bouvy, M. L. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the provision of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy17(1), 2002-2004.

Weinstein, B., da Silva, A. R., Kouzoukas, D. E., Bose, T., Kim, G. J., Correa, P. A., … & Carpenter, D. O. (2021). Precision mapping of COVID-19 vulnerable locales by epidemiological and socioeconomic risk factors, developed using South Korean data. International journal of environmental research and public health18(2), 604.

Hassan, M. M., Kalam, M., Shano, S., Nayem, M., Khan, R., Rahman, M., … & Islam, A. (2020). Assessment of epidemiological determinants of COVID-19 pandemic related to social and economic factors globally. Journal of Risk and Financial Management13(9), 194.

Li, M., Chen, P., Yuan, Q., Song, B., & Ma, J. (2020). Transmission characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a study driven by data


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