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Quantitative Research Exercise


Individuals with more outstanding education typically earn higher salaries. As well as encouraging entrepreneurship and technological advancements, education increases productivity and creativity. Each of these causes increased productivity and economic expansion. In today’s labor marketplaces, education is crucial. Numerous studies from dozens of nations and eras have shown that those with higher levels of education had better earnings, lower unemployment rates, and more prestigious jobs than those with lower levels of education. High-quality education is highly associated with increased incomes, lowered unemployment risk, better health, and decreased crime. Additionally, it raises worker productivity, and aids improve the economy’s ability to compete globally.

Deeply ingrained Racial injustices lead to unequal chances for academic success. Children and young people of color are negatively impacted by systemic policies, practices, and attitudes that limit their chances of succeeding in school. Income and education have a good relationship. A correlation between two parameters that move in unison—that is, in a similar direction—is said to have a positive correlation. When income rises when education rises or when income falls as education falls, a positive correlation is present. However, studies suggest that black children have a higher likelihood of being expelled or suspended than white students to be compared to them. Additionally, black pupils have lower instructor expectations and are less likely to be enrolled in gifted programs.


The authors’ research question inquires if America is falling apart. The authors, Mijs and Roe, have elaborated on the factors responsible for the split, such as socioeconomic segregation in social networks, schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces. Sociologically, their research question is relevant as it explores the dynamics of social life, which sociology is all about. Mijs and Roe have used both random and stratified data research and collection methods. Both of these research methods build up on the existing research and provide a clear explanation of the expected trends in this sociological study area. The authors have found that the socioeconomic gap between the rich and poor continually widens.

Mijs and Roe have concluded that America is indeed coming apart. The divide is because of differences in the lives of the poor and the rich; they both lead different lives. Rich and poor Americans are increasingly unlikely to know one another or share the same spaces. The joint growth of income inequality and segregation turns material divisions into social divisions. The authors’ findings are convincing because the observations made are evident and are currently happening in today’s society. Due to this fact, the conclusion by Mijs and Roe is justified. My study will help shed light on the existing research as it expounds on the factors that have made society evolve into what it is today.


The more educated one is, the more income one is bound to earn. The dependent variable in this study is the level of education, and the independent variable is the income earned. The relationship between education and income is shown clearly when those with higher education consistently earn more than those below. The reason for this phenomenon is that those who are more educated are perceived as more skillful and productive than those less educated. Those more educated are also seen as more creative and able to steer businesses and the economy to tremendous success. The race is a control variable in this study. Racial prejudices and differences significantly affect the relationship between education and income. For example, African Americans are less likely to get more chances to excel at their education than their white counterparts. These prejudices have also manifested in the income sector, where white people earn more than other races because of frequent racial discrimination.

Black and white Americans’ wealth differs significantly from one another. Black Americans now live at substantially lower income levels than white Americans due to centuries of prejudice and exploitation. The average white household is ten times wealthier than the average black household. However, the educational segregation of Black and Latino children increased during the 1990s. Asian and white students are more likely to be put in advanced classes than students of color with similar test results. According to sociologists, prejudice impacts people’s prospects, well-being, and sense of agency. Individuals subjected to discrimination regularly may internalize the stigma or prejudice held against them, which can lead to poor health, low self-esteem, fear, stress, and humiliation. Thus, the race is crucial in influencing the relationship between income and education.

I intend to test my hypothesis by examining other racial groups’ different income and education levels. The data for this research will be acquired from the research done by Mijs and Roe. Mijs and Roe have utilized the data collected by previous sociologists regarding the correlation between education and income. By using samples from other sociologists, the authors have shown the hidden trends among Americans and predicted how society will evolve in the future. These variables best represent the social phenomenon under research, as they are both critical aspects of culture. Race may affect the relationship between education and income, as racial discrimination in some states is heavily punishable. Deeply ingrained racial injustices lead to unequal chances for academic success. Systematic laws, customs, and prejudice operate against children and young people of color, limiting their chances of succeeding in school. An example of a limitation I have encountered is the limited samples to choose from, as the selections reflect only the lives of a selected few.


Table 1: The effect of education on income disparity.

Educational level Average weekly earnings ($) Unemployment rate (%)
Doctoral 1,835 1.6
Professional 1,884 1.5
Master’s 1,434 2.1
Bachelor’s 1,198 2.2
Associate 862 2.8
College 802 3.7
High school dropout 730 4.1
No formal education 553 5.6

Data source: U.S Bureau of labor statistics, current population survey.

Table 2: The effect of race on income disparity.

Income category Black

Number Percent


Number Percent

Less than $14,999 48,466 26.2 270,153 13.0
$15,000-$30,999 31,952 17.3 272,231 13.1
$31,000-$54,999 26,507 14.3 282,622 13.6
$55,000-$75,999 20,294 10.9 261,841 12.6
$76,000-$149,999 20,966 11.4 330,418 15.9
More than $150,000 36,777 19.9 660,836 31.8

Source: U.S Census Bureau.

*Figures maybe be subject to rounding off.

Table 3: The effect of race on educational attainment.

Educational attainment levels Percent
Whites 61.8
Blacks 18.8
Latino 19.4

Source: U.S Census Bureau.

The total number of black respondents was 184,806, and the total number of their white counterparts was 2,078,102. The more significant number of white respondents are in more formal occupations than their black counterparts. The results show how society has evolved, with the white people having more opportunities and wealth than the other racial groups. The results above support my hypothesis that education affects the income earned. These results also show the effects of race on educational attainment and the revenue made. As the income earned is the independent variable, the educational attainment levels of the individual play a considerable role in the income the individual will ultimately gain. The number of years spent in institutions of higher learning provides a direct ratio of the payment earned by that individual. Schools with significant minority and low-income student populations are given fewer resources for teaching than are schools with pupils from wealthy families. A decent education can significantly improve racial equality and wealth and poverty disparities. A good education can aid in the fight against political power, poverty, reproductive autonomy, and pay inequality.

The race has a significant impact on both wealth and education. White people have greater chances and possibilities to succeed than members of other racial groups. Separate schools were used for whites and blacks. Additionally, white pupils had superior educational prospects since they had access to the best resources and teachers thanks to their wealth. Most African Americans were not allowed to attend public secondary schools. The fact that socioeconomic differences exist between white, Hispanic, and black families is one hypothesis that could be used to explain why there are racial success inequalities. The average income and level of education of parents of Hispanic and black children are lower than that of parents of white children. Because it gives the wealthy more power, income disparity is a concern because it keeps a substantial percentage of the population from moving up the social or economic ladder. It may lead to increasing hardship, rising crime rates, psychiatric disorders, social instability, and the cost of living for many.


The wealthy and the poor cannot recognize the true nature of their unequal society because of their separate existence. Comprehending why Americans consistently overestimate the meritocratic nature of their community and underestimate the level of inequality may lie in understanding the segmented nature of inequality. The amount of money a person makes depends heavily on their education. The race also significantly impacts income and prospects for success; better median earnings are linked to higher educational attainment. As a result, the adage “the more you learn, the more you make” is correct. More than treble the amount is earned by individuals with the highest education level, lower than a high school diploma, including those with doctorates and master’s degrees. Regardless of ethnic variations, achieving greater education levels raises income levels.


Mijs, J. J., & Roe, E. L. (2021). Is America coming apart? Socioeconomic segregation in neighborhoods, schools, workplaces, and social networks, 1970–2020. Sociology Compass, 15(6), e12884.


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