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PICO(T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

Nursing is centered on the principle of evidence-based practice. By using the PICO(T) approach, it is possible to get an early competitive edge in the development of the most optimal consideration practices. With the help of this approach, you may be able to create a more detailed and effective arrangement of care. The PICO (T) inquiry demonstrates discipline and concentration, and it helps to guarantee that the patient receives the most appropriate therapy possible. In the United States, more than 36 million individuals have diabetes, which is a kind of elevated glucose level in the blood (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). Type 2 diabetes affects 90-95 percent of these individuals, with the vast majority of cases occurring after the age of 45 years.

Use of the PICO(T) Approach when Caring for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type

Type 2 diabetes is exceedingly common, yet it is also controllable. Various interventions have been integrated to manage and control diabetes type II effectively. The PICOT question: Among patients suffering from diabetes Mellitus (P), is the integration of non-pharmacological interventions a better approach (I) compared to pharmacological interventions (C) to effectively improve control and management of diabetes by 30% through reduced symptoms (O) in a span of 12 months (T)? In this case, type 2 diabetes patients are targeted for this inquiry, and the therapies are either exercise and diet modifications or pharmacological interventions.

Identification of Sources of Evidence

With internet databases, it is simple to get reliable information from reputable sources in order to expand research on certain issues that are already being pursued. To be knowledgeable and successful, best practice responses for PICO research should be obtained from diverse sources. Instead of focusing on a single source, which might severely limit the scope of your investigation, it is preferable to observe the most important sources extensively to have a deeper understanding of the subject. Medical professionals will get reliable information by searching for it on PubMed, an excellent internet medical database. Every single reference from MEDLINE, as well as those from life science journals and online publications, is found on PubMed’s website. Peer-evaluated distributions are suited for ensuring that the data is current and that the methodologies used are current. The publications selected need to have been authored during the last five years and are likely to have been written by well-renown researchers to ensure they are legitimate and current.

Findings from Articles

Sources of evidence integrated into this research are informative of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that aid in improving the management and control of diabetes. This analysis examines the contribution of each intervention to improving health outcomes for these patients remarkably. A study was conducted that included 98 participants who had not been insulin-dependent despite being diagnosed with diabetes one decade ago. The purpose of the study was to determine if comprehensive lifestyle modifications might enhance blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes when used as standard therapy (Uusitupa, et al., 2019). Throughout the evaluation, each of the patients expressed a desire for the same regular care and received recommended guidance and education. The participants changed their way of life, which included participating in weekly active exercise programs. These were to undertake 2 hours of active exercise in 3 weekly sessions. There were threefold improvements in management and control of diabetes which were consisted as a result of life medications as compared to regular considerations.

Researchers looked at changes in the way of life propensities between patients who had just been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and persons who had never been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before becoming interested in the topic. The information obtained by the creators was gathered via self-disclosure and follow-up assessment. According to Chong et al. (2017), changes in body weight, the efficiency of walking and participation in physical, levels of diet intake, and staying away from substance abuse such as excessive smoking and drinking are factors underpinning effective control of diabetes.

In pharmacological intervention, studies have also affirmed a notable effect in controlling ad managing diabetes. It is crucial for patients with type 2 diabetes to maintain strict control over their blood glucose levels. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a link between blood sugar levels and adherence to diabetic medications (Lipscombe et al., 2018). The levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were estimated to determine whether or not the over-the-counter diabetes drugs were effective. Patients with poor glycemic control were the majority of those who attended the event. Further developed education, a more mature age, and a high level of treatment adherence are all characteristics of a patient who might benefit from diabetes control interventions.

Identifying the elements that contributed to patients having more evident control over their glucose allows medical care professionals to incorporate treatments that help the patient in achieving better glucose control. Everyone who participated in the program saw an improvement in their glycemic control, with the A1C of the vast majority of participants decreasing below the standard A1C threshold (Lipscombe et al., 2018). The use of drug regimens had a positive impact in controlling hypertension, but the effect is better and desired with lifestyle modifications.

Relevance of Findings from Articles

The information obtained from these sources is reliable and significant. On the basis of this information, it is still impossible to determine if one method is superior to another in terms of glycemic control in the executives. According to all available evidence, improvements in glycemic control were attributed to changes in the way of life and prescription consistency rather than to medication. Taking into consideration the two distributions reported above underway of life mediations, it seems to be the case that way of life alterations is easier to achieve than pharmacological consistency. This is attributed to costs of obtaining medication to keep blood glucose under considerable pressure. However, in general, there is no significant difference exists in glycemic control between the two studies. Both indicate that the participants have decided not to continue making adjustments to their lifestyles and habits. Pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes is discussed in detail in each of the studies listed above, with the goal of lowering A1C over time. It is possible that the PICO(T) topic will be addressed in the agreed-upon solution since medication therapies, in reality, do aid in improving glycemic control in particular people.


For each person who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the first step is to decide whether or not to adjust their way of life or take drugs. Whenever diabetes is suspected, doctors will analyze A1C values and counsel patients to undertake lifestyle changes to regulate their glucose levels better, hence avoiding the need for prescription medication. Depending on the severity of diabetes, oral medications and insulin may be used in conjunction with other therapies to manage the condition effectively. The PICO(T) approach was used to determine which kind of mediation was most effective on diabetic patients. It is necessary to do research on the two unique therapies to have a better understanding of these two distinct mediations. The focus of one gathering will be mostly on drug mediations, while the focus of the other will be primarily on intercessions for a better way of life.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). National Diabetes Statistics Report. Retrieved from

Chong, S., Ding, D., Byun, R., Comino, E., Bauman, A., & Jalaludin, B. (2017). Lifestyle Changes After a Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes spectrum : a publication of the American Diabetes Association, 30(1), 43–50.

Lipscombe, L., Booth, G., Butalia, S., Dasgupta, K., Eurich, D. T., Goldenberg, R., … & Simpson, S. (2018). Pharmacologic glycemic management of type 2 diabetes in adults. Canadian journal of diabetes42, S88-S103.

Uusitupa, M., Khan, T. A., Viguiliouk, E., Kahleova, H., Rivellese, A. A., Hermansen, K., … & Sievenpiper, J. L. (2019). Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle changes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients11(11), 2611.


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