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Performance Contractors: Safety Training Program


As worksites and job tasks build in complexity, a greater need for more in-depth safety training prevails. Safety training utilizing superior engagement methods increases knowledge retention and improves employee outlook. Equated to the manufacturing field, this sphere of operation has 4-5 times the frequency of fatal accidents. Accidents at construction sites have the potential to be fatal. Nevertheless, it is impossible to exaggerate the importance of keeping a building site secure. In an industry where millions of people are employed, creating a safety culture is essential for both the bottom line and the welfare of the workforce. Making precise and legal safety training programs is one approach to fulfilling this obligation. The paper has established that some significant approaches to training employees on safety concerns are Virtual Reality (VR) and training videos made in-house. Moreover, the employer and employees must comply with OSHA training regulations and foster an environment that promotes the safety and health of workers.


Infrastructure improvement significantly boosts the nation’s economy as it depends on the construction sector. Globally, the construction sector has grown dramatically in the past few years. Even though other industries see tremendous technological advancement, construction is still labor-intensive. Due to the significant OSHA risks they face, such as confined spaces, electrical safety, ergonomic hazards, fall prevention, and industrial hygiene problems, construction employees are among the most susceptible groups of “inexperienced and disorganized” laborers. It is important that constructors take “health and safety” meticulously, and a component of this necessitates for ensuring workers gain relevant and efficient safety training. Over decades, initiatives have been placed to improve the safety quality at construction sites as preventive measures to reduce OSHA hazards. A significant step that has been recognized is the enforced safety training that introduces the significant OSHE hazards to workers, according to Yoo et al. (2023). To ensure that workers are safe as the construction site’s complexity and sophistication of work progresses, performance contractors have outlined some of the safety training programs and the techniques for training that will facilitate the program’s effectiveness as required by OSHA.

Construction Safety Training Programs

Workers must do more than pop up at a construction site and commence working. Some of the introductory programs and apprenticeship initiatives should be prioritized for engaging in particular types of tasks at the construction site, according to Hill (2014). Since safety education aims to enable all workers to identify hazardous situations and take appropriate action to eliminate them, the training’s primary objective is to provide a job atmosphere free from hazards. These steps create a workplace that is secure for all employees. Simply put, a safety training initiative aims to shield participants against disease, injury, and even death. The risk of dying should be enough to persuade a professional of the value of an official safety training course (Hill, 2014). Some of the training programs for ensuring safety in the field of construction include the following;

Orientation Training Program

Provide new laborers with an intensive orientation that includes a top-level view of the enterprise’s safety policies, emergency processes, and expectancies for safe behavior on the development site. For example, if a person is a new miner at a mining site, they should be given an excursion to the site and be informed of the general regulations. They should be provided with an overview of the workplace, which may involve a tour and touring of the minitour or specific areas indicative of the whole operation (walk-around training) (Hill, 2014). The extraction or operating technique that is used needs to be described and followed.

Hazard Recognition Program

Training people to determine possible signs of danger, including those associated with heavy machinery, electric work, working at heights, excavation, and other unique risks related to the construction industry, must be the first training for any construction worker. It takes continuous practice to recognize hazards. Encouraging employees to assess every assignment and circumstance during construction can significantly improve their performance and understanding of safety. Encouraging employees to become accustomed to posing and responding to queries such as “Am I prepared to complete this work both psychologically and physically?” Such an approach will help workers to stay alert during construction and secure their health and safety. Each employee will receive training from the company on how to identify and steer clear of hazardous situations and those that apply to his workplace to eradicate any risks of disease or injury.

Equipment and Machinery Safety Program

The training program should facilitate the provision of awareness on the secure operation of construction machinery and gadgets. This includes proper usage, renovation, and understanding caution signs, symptoms, and labels. Employees should receive training on safe mounting and dismounting techniques and how to turn on every equipment component. They ought to be well-versed in the hoisting and weight-bearing capacities of the machinery they plan on using. Retraining and refresher courses should be offered when necessary, mainly when an employee is seen using equipment improperly or dangerously. Machinery must only be operated by qualified personnel for all purposes.

Fall Protection Training Program

It is the responsibility of the employer at the construction site to concentrate on preventing falls by training workers on the proper use of fall safety procedures, guardrails, protection nets, and personal fall arrest framework. Companies must first inspect the workspace to see if its walkways or workplace surfaces are strong enough and structurally sound enough to sustain employees safely. After confirming that the work surfaces are capable of supporting the work being performed safely, the employer needs to decide if fall prevention is necessary (based on the guidelines in 29 CFR 1926.501) and choose and supply fall protection mechanisms that meet the standards in 29 CFR 1926.502 (OSHA, 2019). Along with providing protection, the employer should provide a fall protection program to the employees as a positive gesture.

Electrical Safety Training Program

Educate people about electrical dangers and safe work practices while managing power tools, wiring, and other electric additives. For instance, employees working in a mine should be instructed on identifying and avoiding electrical dangers and other mine-related risks, such as traffic flow and controls, mobile equipment, and loosened or insecure terrain (Hill, 2014). According to Mazlan et al. (2019), employers must inform the workers at the construction site of the hazards related to electric safety, especially when welding, and ensure they are secure regarding insulation, grounding and cutting wires. They should be attentive to the protective devices to ensure their safety.

Health and Wellness Program

The employer is responsible for training the employee on health and wellness awareness. These include facts on maintaining ordinary health and well-being. This can involve addressing issues that could impact safety at the activity, including hydration, strain control, fatigue, an explanation of the fire alarm indicators and fighting techniques, and an inspection of emergency medical protocols and the mining facility’s evacuation and survival plans. Knowledge concerning the physical and health risks of substances in the workers’ work region, the precautions that workers may employ to avoid these risks, as well as instructions on the safety and health implications of the assignments that will be allocated, like secure working conditions and essential safety and health regulations.

Methods of Safety Training Programs

Several technologies and training approaches are being implemented and evaluated with the present safety training to improve its efficacy and encourage safe work behaviors among construction employees. For instance, developments in the IT field have encouraged the adoption of electronic learning as a safety training instrument. When e-learning is used instead of traditional training methods, expenses drastically decrease, yet training quality increases.

Virtual Reality Training

Through VR safety training, building employees can use a controller and head-mounted displays to engage in a virtual world. This allows them to experiment with security procedures in a regulated and safe atmosphere while being exposed to various workplace dangers. Furthermore, Yoo et al. (2023) report that VR/AR technology improves learner satisfaction, fosters collaborative instruction, and augments engagement. In construction, employers might use VR to train employees on using cranes and their safety precautions.

Furthermore, telepresence in virtual reality is a multifaceted idea that includes realism and interaction. The consumer’s impression of both width and depth within the senses determines vividness, while VR technological advances in response time, spectrum, and mapping dictate interaction (Mohamad et al., 2023). In conclusion, increased telepresence levels suggest that consumers thought the online environment represented the actual world. Each telepresence parameter has been used in previous research to examine the impact of telepresence on the experience of flow and satisfaction.

Training Videos Made in House

A safety induction film is a video that guides workers through various workplace safety regulations and procedures. These movies are crucial because they prevent accidents, lessen the likelihood of injuries, and guarantee the health and well-being of workers in the workplace—in addition to being mandated by law. Creating a successful health and safety introduction film requires balance, much like many business videos. On the one hand, it is critical to convey the key ideas in the video without making it overly drawn out, dull, or technical. However, employers must also continue to provide proper safety policies with a certain amount of professionalism. They can witness the real-life procedure before attempting it, which is fantastic for simulating operations in a first-hand controlled setting. They are also extremely beneficial for highly specialized and hazardous occupations.

OSHA Training Requirements and Compliance

Because safety is of the highest priority on building premises, it is critical to assess the competency, training, and understanding of construction staff as well as their leadership abilities and supervising abilities regarding safety. Based on the OSHA compliance regulation; every business needs to have a written worksite hazardous communication program that is accessible to all workers. Workers need to know which dangerous chemicals are used in their place of employment, where to get a catalog of such substances, and how to find the material safety information sheets for every chemical they may come into contact with. Workers should be aware of the materials they are handling, where to obtain knowledge on the substance—at the workplace—and what safety measures to take in case of exposure or mishap. Additionally, the employee may be provided with security and training certification to prove their completion of the training program. The training program may accommodate the field leadership initiative program for those mentors who will facilitate a continuous training curve in the performance contractors.

Recommendations for Improvement to the Safety Training Program

The existing safety training has not reduced the number of accidents in the construction sector as anticipated, notwithstanding the courses and their subject matter. The most recommendable approach is to use the 3D safety training technology to improve the efficiency of the training and reduce the rate of accidents. According to Ahn et al. (2020), building information modeling is a multi-dimensional model idea that incorporates various data across project phases, including qualities of objects, planning, cost, and regulations. BIM has developed into a cutting-edge and indispensable management tool for integrating and overseeing building projects by gathering and displaying construction information. An additional recommendation is the extensive use of AV/VR and gaming in reducing accidents, depicting the workers as learning observers. Employees can control their risk situations directly using gaming engines and AR/VR technology.


In conclusion, the safety training program is essential for the sustainability of the employees. The safety training programs are devices from the OSHA risk hazards to inform employees of the potential occurrence and risks associated with each accident. Because traditional training approaches are lacking in the impact of driving change in the rate of accidents, other researchers have adapted advanced technology such as in-house training videos and VR. However, effectiveness still needs to be improved. The best recommendation for rectifying the deficit is making an extensive mix of AR/VR and gaming engines to offer a better experience for the employee. Moreover, the use of 3D advances the expertise of a worker into an observable learner. With such measures, the construction industry will thrive to secure a safe working environment.


Ahn, S., Kim, T., Park, Y.-J., & Kim, J.-M. (2020, February 29). Improving Effectiveness of Safety Training at Construction Worksite Using 3D BIM Simulation. Advances in Civil Engineering.

Hill, D. C. (2014). Construction Safety Management and Engineering. America Society of SafetyEngineers 1(2)

Mazlan, E. M., Osman, M. H., & Saud, M. S. (2019). The Level of Competency Knowledge in Safety Training among Construction Personnel. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries24(2), 157–172.

Mohamad Iyad Al‐Khiami, & Jaeger, M. (2023). Safer Working at Heights: Exploring the Usability of Virtual Reality for Construction Safety Training among Blue-Collar Workers in Kuwait. Safety9(3), 63–63.

OSHA. (2019). Fall Protection in Construction.

Yoo, J. W., Park, J. S., & Park, H. J. (2023). Understanding VR-Based Construction Safety Training Effectiveness: The Role of Telepresence, Risk Perception, and Training Satisfaction. Applied Sciences13(2), 1135.


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