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Obesity and Health Causes and Its Effects

Causes of obesity

Numerous studies have attested that genes significantly affect obesity. Agovino et al. (2019) note that family history may suggest a genetic predisposition. These hereditary characteristics contribute to worldwide obesity, according to Brewis et al. (2018). Environmental factors worsen it, while weight issues rise in sitting-intensive societies (Chooi et al., 2019). Poor diets exacerbate the effect and cause obesity, according to Tappy (2018). Agovino et al. (2019) argue that socioeconomic status is a critical environmental component in resource- and opportunity-inequality-related obesity. We learn more about this challenging topic by considering psychology. Fatima et al. (2018) relate emotional eating to obesity and emotional coping. According to Cardel et al. (2020), stress is linked to psychological and physiological health. From causes to effects, obesity impairs mental and physical health. Worldwide, obesity raises the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and joint difficulties, according to Blüher (2019). Cardel et al. (2020) say obesity causes anxiety, depression, and body image difficulties.

The study by Brewis et al. (2018) explores obesity-related sociocultural stigma and discrimination. According to sociology, obesity affects relationships and promotes prejudices. Future obesity treatment must acknowledge its complexity. Thus, further research is needed to address the issue continuously. Upadhyay et al. (2018) advise eating and exercising well. Public health interventions like awareness and education are crucial to changing obesity stereotypes, according to the WHO (2022). Srivastava and Apovian (2018) recommend bariatric surgery and medication, but the effectiveness of these medications is still debated, highlighting the obesity pandemic’s hurdles. Genetic, environmental, and psychological factors are all causes of obesity. The obesity pandemic must be understood regarding human choices and social, economic, and cultural factors. Only global initiatives can enhance health and overcome the complex problem of obesity.

Health effects of obesity

Besides weight gain, which can result in other complications, obesity has significant physical and mental health consequences. Blüher (2019) revealed that obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, which is considered to be one of the worst physical impacts. The complex association between obesity and type 2 diabetes was highlighted by Chooi et al. (2019), emphasizing the systemic dangers of obesity. From mental to physical health, obesity strains joints, increasing the likelihood of joint disorders and deteriorating physical health, according to Fatima et al. (2018). The mental repercussions of obesity go beyond physical. Cardel et al. (2020) state that fat people develop anxiety and depression, and due to their complex relationship, mental health and obesity must be addressed holistically.

The psychological impact includes body image difficulties, according to Brewis et al. (2018). Media and culture promote obesity-related standards, which lower self-esteem and mental health. Social and personal repercussions of obesity are linked. Stigma and prejudice make obesity harder to treat, say Brewis et al. (2018). Fat stigma impacts personal and professional relationships. Obesity impacts mental, physical, and social health. To fight obesity, we must address its physical and emotional manifestations as well as its social norms, like prejudice and stigma. Such broad measures can only lower obesity’s health hazards and help obese people feel supported.

Prevention and Intervention:

Behavioral adjustments, public health activities, and medical treatments are needed to combat obesity. Fighting obesity requires lifestyle changes, starting with a healthy diet. Fructose-containing calorie sweeteners must be avoided for health, according to Tappy (2018). Upadhyay et al. (2018) recommend daily exercise to sustain weight loss. Public health interventions are essential for combating obesity systemically, shifting the focus from individuals to society. Public awareness and education programs aid health and wellness decisions, according to Vallianou et al. (2020). School nutrition initiatives and sugar levies go beyond personal choices to promote public health. World Health Organization (2022) recommends lifestyle changes to reduce obesogenic factors.

Many obese people receive medical care and lifestyle interventions. Bariatric surgery can help you lose weight when diet and exercise fail (Srivastava & Apovian, 2018). This medical technique helps start a weight loss program to prevent obesity-related health issues. Pharmaceutical obesity treatments are another option. Srivastava and Apovian (2018) evaluated these drugs for weight loss when lifestyle changes fail. Treatment efficacy varies by situation, even if each offers benefits because obesity is a complex biological and social issue. Lifestyle modifications, public health measures, and medical treatments are needed to end obesity. These many strategies can be combined to fight obesity as an individual and a society and improve health.

Challenges and Controversies:

Fighting and preventing obesity is challenging and controversial, and in this case, Brewis et al. (2018) say obesity stigma is a significant obstacle. Stigma threatens mental health and treatment adherence. Agovino et al. (2019) and Brewis et al. (2018) say obesity’s social impacts reinforce bias and misconceptions, hindering obesity prevention. Inaccessible food and exercise also hinder obesity prevention. Environmental and socioeconomic factors affect obesity rates, nutritious diet, and safe exercise, according to Choi et al. (2019). The health gap caused by unequal access makes it hard for some populations to adopt healthy habits. Literature disputes lifestyle and pharmaceutical therapy efficacy. Long-term effectiveness in obesity therapy for youth is challenging and uncertain, according to Cardel et al. (2020). Pharmaceutical obesity treatments are promising. However, Srivastava and Apovian (2018) warn of their safety and efficacy.

Diet and public health are affected by artificial sweeteners and metabolic disease debates. Upadhyay et al. (2018) examine obesity controversies and how the illness contradicts long-held ideas. Many fear this categorization will medicalize obesity and impact treatment. Probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, and postbiotics in obesity treatment are contested due to their rapid development (Vallianou et al., 2020). Despite their promise, differing opinions and current studies underline the necessity to grasp their benefits and cons. Complex biological, social, and environmental elements must be addressed to fight obesity. Comprehensive, evidence-based techniques are needed due to obesity stigma, poor surroundings, and intervention efficacy concerns. Overcoming these problems and fighting obesity requires cross-disciplinary collaboration to create a holistic plan that considers human needs, social norms, and new scientific information.

Future Directions:

Future obesity prevention requires collaboration across healthcare, policy, and research. Hereditary factors should drive obesity research. To understand obesity, Blüher (2019) advises studying the complicated genetic predisposition network. Chooi et al. (2019) state that future research should address gene-environment interactions. People’s DNA can help us create targeted drugs. Effective drugs are still needed. Cardel et al. (2020) advocate ongoing research into innovative adolescent obesity treatments and evidence-based treatments for this demographic. For obesity treatment, Galliano et al. (2020) suggest more significant research on probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics. Lau and Dunn (2018) suggest that therapeutic peptides could lead to new pharmacological therapies.

Socioeconomic gap eradication dominates research and policy. The policy should address obesity’s social and economic causes, according to Brewis et al. (2018). The World Health Organization’s European regional obesity report (2022) advocates healthy living strategies for all socioeconomic levels. The policy framework must include Upadhyay et al. (2018) ideas to improve healthcare access and assistance. To achieve this goal, healthcare systems must provide prevention, treatment, and long-term management, including obesity treatment. Future research and policy collaboration are crucial. Health-promoting policies should be based on research. How well these methods work together will determine long-term obesity reduction. Researchers, doctors, and lawmakers may collaborate to understand obesity’s causes, create treatments, and make them available to everyone.


The intricate interaction of genetic, environmental, and social factors makes obesity difficult. Obesity’s consequences on mental and physical health, discrimination and inequality, and treatment changes are examined in this study. Fighting obesity, a global health concern, requires research, policy, and healthcare. Urgent action is needed. It promotes obesity stigma reduction, wealth gap closure, and healthy communities. Policies should be research-based and give equal preventative and treatment alternatives. Obesity affects individuals physically and mentally. Thus, healthcare must change. Future optimism predicts better health and obesity reduction. Collaboration on healthcare research, evidence-based policy, and excellent care offers optimism. Obesity can be addressed, and everyone’s health can be improved as more individuals take responsibility.


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Upadhyay, J., Farr, O., Perakakis, N., Ghaly, W., & Mantzoros, C. (2018). Obesity as a disease. Medical Clinics, 102(1), 13–33.

Vallianou, N., Stratigou, T., Christodoulatos, G. S., Tsigalou, C., & Dalamaga, M. (2020). Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and obesity: current evidence, controversies, and perspectives. Current obesity reports, 9, 179-192.

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