Need a perfect paper? Place your first order and save 5% with this code:   SAVE5NOW

Multicultural Empires and the New World

Section A: The role of religion in the crusades

A1: Origin of the Crusades

Religion was a significant motivation in all aspects of everyday life during the Middle Ages. From Judaism to Christianity, religion impacted and established civilizations in every way, from administration to education, and it was accountable for the Crusades, a chain of holy battles. The Crusades commenced in 1095 CE when the brave Muslim Turks assumed charge of Jerusalem’s Holy Land and outlawed Christianity. Byzantine Emperor Alexius predicted the Turks’ aggressive expansion and realized that the Byzantine Empire, in its weakened position, would be unable to defend itself. As a result, he appealed to the church for assistance, pleading with Pope Urban II to reclaim the Holy Land and end the Turks’ occupation in the context of Christianity. Although Emperor Alexius and Pope Urban II were not friends, the Pope revered the Holy Land and addressed a religious conference in France with a call to action. Many prominent members heard his petition of society, but it connected most strongly with many pastors who considered it was a spiritual call to defend the Holy Land. The Crusades were launched once an army was recruited (Acrobatiq, 2017).

A2: Methods used by Roman Emperors to Promote the Crusades

The reasons for entering the army of the Roman Catholic Church differed from team to team. The promise of admission to eternity by the Pope and the notion that they were battling for God at the end of times provided the impetus for the priests and their ordinary folk supporters. The Pope himself had hidden motivations, hoping to convert different Christians to Roman Catholicism and consolidate his control in the West and East (Angold, 2015). Nobles and princes sought to acquire their land and acquire more authority, but the Pope and preachers with the fervent following were the main rallying points. Commoners created the first army, unprepared for the brutal reality of travel and conflict. They failed miserably as the desert unleashed its fury, and many died due to the conditions and a lack of food. Those who managed to escape were killed or enslaved by the Turks. The second army, made up of trained military troops, was a collaborative effort between Germany, France, and Italy. The frightening army successfully brought down the Turks in Constantinople and then killed and tortured everyone in Jerusalem who stopped in their way, even Christians (Acrobatiq, 2017).

Section B: Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties

B1: Different Methods used for expansion

The Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties expanded their empires in quite different ways. The Umayyad dynasty expanded its kingdom quickly by combining diplomatic and political talents with a powerful military. Mu’awiya, the founding father of the Umayyad caliphate, preferred to build the empire through his diplomatic and political skills rather than through costly and intricate wars. When the political plan backfired, he was reinforced by a loyal Arab army, and the skilled army serviced him well in battle (Acrobatiq, 2017). The Abbasid dynasty, on the other hand, relied on robust trade lines, traders, and the intelligence that trade offered. After the headquarters was shifted to Bagdad, the powerful commerce system and channel control were solidified. The Abbasids were also adept at bringing disparate civilizations together, which bolstered their kingdom and enabled development, combined with an open interchange of information and cultural ideas.

B2: Religious policies and political administration

The Umayyad dynasty’s religious traditions were radically different from the Abbasids. In its rule, the Umayyad dynasty established a religious caste system. Only authentic Arabs were recognized or promoted to higher posts in the army or state, and this poorly disguised tolerance persisted throughout Umayyad culture. The mawali (non-Arab Muslims) were at the bottom of society, facing social injustice and prejudice daily. Even if the mawalis desired to switch, the Umayyads did not want followers who would have to split their grandeur and prosperity with them (Acrobatiq, 2017). Dhimmi, who were members of other acknowledged religions, were at the bottom of society, followed by enslaved people. This mindset pervaded the state’s structure, substantially fashioned after the Byzantines.

The Abbasid dynasty, in contrast to the Umayyad’s theological doctrines and bureaucracies, was one of tolerance and inclusion. Their theological policies governed their faith in the supernatural authority bestowed through their prophets and leaders. They established a government that emphasized social fairness and diversity of religion and culture. Non-Muslims were not discriminated against in their nominations to government posts, which reflected such policies. Unlike the Umayyads, they had a Persian-style administration with a prime minister who assisted in the appointment and oversight of other government leaders (Acrobatiq, 2017). The Abbasid administration was much more efficient than the Umayyads’, and the wealth gap between rich and poor was much narrower. Islam was enriched and grew due to its various cultures and religions.

Section C: Significance of the Silk Road

The Silk Road was a critical commerce route that passed through India, Eastern Europe, China and Persia. It was necessary to develop international commerce and exchange ideas and culture, but there were drawbacks to connecting many countries. China was isolated from the rest of the world before the Silk Road. It was a secret treasure tucked between the Himalayan Mountains, deserts, and the Pacific Ocean. The Silk Road exposed China’s magnificence to the rest of the world and produced prosperity, but it also transmitted illness from China to Europe (Acrobatiq, 2017). The bubonic plague, which wiped over half of Europe’s population by the time it was eradicated, is maybe the most precise illustration of pandemic disease spreading down the Silk Road. Although no definitive evidence exists as to where the disease originated, it is thought to have originated in China and spread westward along the Silk Road. It was spread by fleas that preyed on rats, which were plentiful. The Bubonic Plague hampered European trade and mobility while influencing the continent’s future. The aftermath of “The Black Death” necessitated reform in every European society and government sector. Although the famous Silk Road enables trade and disseminating knowledge, it was not without cost.

The Silk Road was notable for various products that benefited various civilizations. It allowed for increased trades and increased understanding of science, medicine, and geography in specific locations. The propagation of disease, on the other hand, was unknown. The bubonic plague was the most deadly, killing 35-40% of the European demographics (Andrea, 2014). Although the source of the disease is uncertain, it is thought to have originated in Southern Asia and is spread through flea bites. It then made it is way up to northern Asia, where it expanded thanks to the Silk Road and marine trade routes. Many Europeans abandoned their possessions and attempted to leave to safety, while others attempted to prevent it by locking themselves in their homes. Schools and churches were shut down, and all construction stopped (Acrobatiq, 2017). People attempted to relocate and abandoned their businesses. Others placed notices on doors informing passers-by that those afflicted inhabited the area. The bodies of the deceased were frequently dumped on the streets and subsequently buried in mass graves with no absolute rights granted to them. It barely lasted a few years, but it occasionally reappeared in urban centers.


Acrobatiq. (2017). Survey of world history. Retrieved from

Andrea, A. J. (2014). The silk road in world history: a review essay. Asian Review of World Histories2(1), 105-127.

Angold, M. J. (2015). The Fourth Crusade: event and context. Routledge.


Don't have time to write this essay on your own?
Use our essay writing service and save your time. We guarantee high quality, on-time delivery and 100% confidentiality. All our papers are written from scratch according to your instructions and are plagiarism free.
Place an order

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Need a plagiarism free essay written by an educator?
Order it today

Popular Essay Topics