Large-scale population migrations are as a direct result of civil wars, which escalated in the 1980s, strengthening inequitable circumstances that continue to operate as an indirect cause un expulsion. A significant surge in extra-regional migration, which is still occurring today, setting up a new pattern of movement to areas beyond the region is a distinctive aspect of the Central American predicament. Migration of people to the north, mostly to the United States and to a smaller extent to Canada and Mexico, has expanded to the point that it now accounts for more than one million people (Orozco, p. 67). The subject of migration in the Caribbean has clearly demonstrated that migration does not occur in isolation in this region. The Caribbean islands and states are geopolitically wedged between the North American continent and Latin America, a situation that facilitates movement within the American continent, combined with historic cross-border familial ties and, in many cases, a shared language.
Surprisingly, the pace of consecutive changes and modifications of migratory regulations and policies in the United States, which were targeted at curbing illegal movement and migrant smuggling, coincided with rising immigration patterns. Migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean are currently a major social phenomena in the United States. The discussion about its ramifications at many levels has elevated it to a top priority in that country’s relations with the rest of the region. Starting with the Immigration Act of 1924, legislative measures aimed at regulating permanent and temporary entries laid the groundwork for today’s migration from Latin America. Despite being widely ridiculed for instituting a prejudiced quota system to limit movement from Southern and Eastern Europe, the Act is still pertinent for modern Latin American immigration since it overtly excluded independent nations in Central and South America from the quotas (Pizarro& Villa p.56). Both nations are important sources of undocumented migration at the moment; yet, the conditions that encourage each of these unauthorized streams are different. The major driver of migration from Latin America and the Caribbean to the United States is asymmetries in development processes, as seen by significant variations in GDP per capita, pay levels, and labor possibilities. In the case of Mexico, historical ties to the southwest of the United States, as well as various hiring processes, resulted in a long-term system of contacts. Since the 1960s, a continuous influx of Mexican workers has formed a de facto job market between the two nations; this market has been exposed to the ups and downs of economic expansion and recession, resulting in changes in the regulations for job creation in various industries.
The group mentioned in Golash-Boza’s article is the Guatemalans. Large-scale international migration has served as an external escape valve for Guatemala in recent decades, a reaction to the nation’s numerous internal issues. This trend arose during one of the most vicious period of Guatemala’s 36-year civil war, which began in the late 1970s and resulted in massive refugee movements. in the postwar period, international migration persisted in response to Guatemala’s severe and persistent socioeconomic issues, repeated natural disasters, rising social violence—and a fragile state that lacked the capacity and resources to address these issues domestically. During the 1990s and the first decade of the twenty-first century, the informal economy flourished. Stusies show that creating decent domestic jobs was not a primary concern for subsequent postwar authorities, resulting in both wage stagnation and open joblessness (Golash-Boza, p.17). There was a lack of job training programs to improve the workforce skill level. Guatemala has been ranked among the countries with the greatest levels of socioeconomic inequality in the world, in addition to its unstable labor market. Furthermore, it has the lowest level of human progress in the entire Latin American region. Guatemala’s extreme poverty exist in both urban and rural areas. For Guatemalans with the financial means to travel to the United States, migration has been viewed as a survival mechanism a chance for above-subsistence occupations and possibly upward mobility Numerous environmental catastrophes impacting Guatemala such as Hurricane Mitch, Hurricane Stan, Hurricane Agatha and other environmental factors, and a powerful earthquake impacting the Pacific southern coast were among the factors driving increased migration.
Globalization, modern communication, and rapid transportation will drive even more individuals to relocate. Furthermore, disparities between the affluent and the poor will encourage cross-border migration, frequently against the wishes of the receiving nations. Sustainable collaborations among all players are required to discover feasible solutions to the issues that migrating communities confront in the 21st century in designed to safeguard all migrants and guarantee basic human rights of those impacted by migration. The democratic will of all those engaged will determine the legitimacy, strength, and inclusiveness of these relationships. Some of the key characteristics of immigration into the United States include the construction of transnational communities, the stream of remittances and its constant rise, the labor insertion of immigrants in strategic areas of the economy, and their contributions to the nation’s economy.
Kaenzig, R., & Piguet, E. (2014). Migration and climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. People on the move in a changing climate, 155-176.
Golash-Boza, T. M. Deported: Immigrant policing, disposable labor and global capitalism (Vol. 6). nyu Press. (2015).
Orozco, M. Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues and perspectives on development. Washington^ eD. CDC: Organization of American States. (2004).
Pizarro, J. M., & Villa, M. International migration in Latin America and the Caribbean: A summary view of trends and patterns. In UN Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, July. (2005).