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Mental Disorders: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


A mental illness is characterized by abnormal patterns of behavior or thinking that result in considerable emotional suffering or impairment of daily life. Mental illness is on the rise, posing a serious threat to people’s health and having far-reaching social, human rights, and economic ramifications worldwide. The majority of young teens and adults have mental illnesses across the world. This disorder has prevented the affected individuals from pursuing their life goals and objectives. On the other hand, families have been drained financially when combating the treatment of this disorder. There are many mental illnesses, each with a unique set of symptoms. However, abnormal ideas, feelings, perceptions, and relationships with others are common characteristics of these individuals. Therefore, this study will explain mental disorders, their causes, signs, symptoms, and eventually their treatment and diagnosis.

Types of Mental Illness

According to American Psychiatric Association (2013), mental illness occurs in different forms in individuals. This illness includes the following; depression, Schizophrenia, other psychoses, and developmental disorders, including autism. Individuals who suffer from these types of illnesses depend on the family’s historical medical background, while others suffer due to being infected. In each mental illness type, a more illustration of the causes, prevention, and even treatment is well explained.


It can be linked with a low mood and a loss of interest in activities in the affected individuals. Sadness, lack of interest or pleasure in life, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, interrupted sleep or food, weariness, and poor concentration are all symptoms of depression. In the world, depression is the most frequent mental illness and a leading cause of physical and mental health problems. According to WHO (2019), depression affects 264 million individuals worldwide, where women are disproportionately affected. With depression, various bodily complaints may not make any sense and have no known medical reason. Depression can linger for a long time or frequently return, making it difficult for the sufferer to normally perform at work or school or deal with daily life stresses. Serious depression may lead to thoughts of self-harm or death by suicide.

Parents and medical doctors can prevent depression in children and adults through various methods, including education, counseling, and other forms of social support in the wake of physical and sexual abuse. In addition, there are successful treatments. Doctors can achieve treatment for mild to moderate depression through talking therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychotherapy. In the treatment of moderate to severe depression, antidepressants can be quite helpful. To effectively manage depression, psychosocial components must be addressed, including identifying stressors such as financial challenges and workplace difficulties, sources of support such as family members and friends, and detecting depressive symptoms. In addition, social networks and social activities must be maintained or re-activated to survive.

Developmental disorders, including autism

Mahajan (2021) explains that many different types of developmental disorders, including autism, fall under the umbrella term “developmental disorder.” Most developmental disorders begin in childhood, but they often last into adulthood, impairing or delaying the maturation of functions associated with the central nervous system. Many mental disorders have periods of remissions and relapses, but these tend to have a more consistent course. A person with an intellectual disability has a wide range of developmental disabilities, including problems with cognitive functioning and social skills. A lack of intelligence makes it more difficult to cope with the challenges of daily living.

It is common for people with pervasive developmental disorders like autism to have a limited range of hobbies and activities that are distinctive to them and done repeatedly. Infancy and the early years of life are common places for onset developmental problems. In addition, many people who suffer from these conditions have some degree of intellectual impairment.

For those with developmental disabilities, family participation is critical. To provide the best possible care, it’s crucial to know what causes people both misery and well-being and which circumstances are most favorable to learning. It helps avoid excessive stress by establishing regular hours for eating and sleeping and other activities such as learning and spending time with others. People with developmental disorders must have regular access to health care services regardless of age or stage in life.


Schizophrenia is a long-term neuropsychiatric disorder influenced by both a person’s underlying genetic makeup and their immediate surroundings. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2019), an estimated 20 million people worldwide have schizophrenia, a debilitating mental illness which has affected large group of people especially the young age. It is important to note that psychoses such as Schizophrenia can impact a person’s thoughts, perceptions of the world around them, feelings, language, and behavior. Symptoms of psychosis include hallucinations, delusions, and the inability to distinguish between what one perceives and is experiencing. People with this illness may have difficulty doing their daily tasks, including working or studying. Because of the stigma associated with mental illness, people may not get the care they need. Furthermore, those who have psychosis are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses such as long-term institutionalization.

Cockerham (2020) asserts that early adulthood is the most common period for Schizophrenia to develop. Medications and psychosocial support are effective in treating patients. People who have mental illness can reclaim their lives and become fully integrated members of society if they receive the proper care and assistance. Supported living, supported housing, and supported employment can help persons with serious mental disorders, including Schizophrenia, achieve various rehabilitation goals because they often struggle to find or keep a place to live and work.

Medication of Mental Illness

Since there is no specific medical treatment of mental illness, the administration of antidepressants by medical doctors are used to treat a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, and others. Depression and other mental health issues can be alleviated with the use of these medications. Antidepressants don’t have an addictive or habit-forming effect. Moreover, treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic diseases often involves the use of antipsychotic medications. Bipolar illnesses and depression can both be helped with antipsychotic drugs, which can be used alone or in combination with antidepressants. Other forms of medical treatments such as administration of dozes are specifically meant to reduce the impact of the illness for a short time. Therefore, a variety of psychotherapies exist, each with a unique strategy for enhancing an individual’s mental health. Long-term therapy may be necessary in some circumstances, although it is possible that a few months of therapy will be sufficient in most cases. It can be done one-on-one, in a small group, or even with close friends and family.


Mental illness has far reached consequences to the affected individuals. An example of mental illness such as depression can alter individuals’ normal activities and thoughts. Evidence from medical researchers states that depression is the most frequent mental illness and a leading cause of physical and mental health problems in the twenty-first century. Different scholars echo that depression can be prevented in children and adults through various methods, including education, counseling, and other forms of social support in the wake of physical and sexual abuse. In addition, there are successful treatments. On the same note, Schizophrenia is another serious mental illness that has affected the world, with the majority of the population being young children and adolescents. Treatment of this illness can be achieved through patients’ and family efforts in following the medical practitioners’ rules and guidelines. Lastly, according to medical doctors, developmental disorders have many negative effects on the individual’s brain operational activities. Therefore, many people who suffer from these conditions have some degree of intellectual impairment.


American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 101–05. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.

Cockerham, W. C. (2020). Types of mental disorders. Sociology of Mental Disorder, 30-54.

Mahajan, S. (2021). Mental disorders- Types of mental disorders- Guide to deal with a mental disorder.

World Health Organization (2019). Mental Disorders.


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