Vakili, Lida, and Ghulam Sarwar Yousof. “The concepts of isolation, loneliness, and otherness in selected adaptations of Frankenstein.” The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art, and Communication–TOJDAC. ISSN (2018): 2146-5193.
The article explores the effects that loneliness can have on the escalation of the character of a monster. In the book Frankenstein by Mary Shelly, the monster lives in isolation since it has a grotesque appearance that drives human beings away. The authors argue that this brings the impression of the “other,” which makes the monsters lose a place in society as everyone is against them. This is why the monster begs Victor to make him a companion, which he reluctantly agrees to. The article will be useful in developing the argument on the effects of loneliness on monsters.
Tung, Elizabeth L., et al. “Social isolation, loneliness, and violence exposure in urban adults.” Health Affairs 38.10 (2019): 1670-1678.
The study shows that there is a close relationship between isolation and the development of aggressive behaviors. The authors argue that urban places have high crime rates, and this increases the high rates of isolation among the perpetrators. In the book, it is the loneliness that hovered over the life of the monster that led him to develop aggressive behaviors that drove him to go and kill William and all the subsequent murders as well. The monster gave Victor a solution that would have prevented the death of Elizabeth and, effectively, his father. The decision to stop the creation of a female monster meant that the monster was doomed to loneliness which made him very frustrated hence the violent behavior. The article will be useful in supporting the relationship between loneliness and violence.
Vitale, Erika M., and Adam S. Smith. “Neurobiology of Loneliness, Isolation, and Loss: Integrating Human and Animal Perspectives.” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2022): 85.
The article shows why loneliness leads to effects that are associated with aggression. The authors state that chronic loneliness leads the brain to release high levels of the stress hormone; cortisol. Another study shows that when mice are kept in isolation for a long time, their brains produce more of the Tac2/NkB – which is a protein linked to fear. The monster was chronically lonely, and this means that it had high levels of cortisol and the fear chemical in its body. The monster explained that he only wanted to scare William before the situation escalated. The article shows that the monster was not at fault for the murders because he was not in charge of his body, given the high chemicals in his body that sparked erratic reactions. The article will be useful in developing an argument that loneliness was the root cause of the murders.
Juvonen, Jaana, and Elisheva F. Gross. “The Rejected and the Bullied: Lessons About Social Misfits from Developmental Psychology.” 7th Annual Sydney Symposium of Social Psychology:” The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying.”, 7, Sydney, Australia; A draft of this presentation was presented at the aforementioned conference. Psychology Press, 2005.
The article seeks to determine the relationship between rejection and bullying on the development of an individual. The findings show that when a person faces rejection or bullying, they are seen as misfits in society: this further leads to poor development of social skills. Every person handles rejection differently, and, in most cases, it may trigger aggressive behavior. The monster would not have been violent had society accepted him and created a place for him; however, he faced rejection and ridicule, which deteriorated his humanity. The actions that followed are the results of what society developed. Therefore, loneliness is not entirely to blame for the murders but society and its inflexibility to accept another slightly different being. This will offer a counter-argument to defend the monster and show that society played a role in the murders.