Encephalopathy is a condition that results in damage to the brain. This can be caused by various things, including infection, radiation therapy, and drug intoxication. UTIs, or urinary tract infections, are a common cause of encephalopathy. Radiation therapy can also damage the brain, a common side effect of cancer treatment. Drug intoxication can also lead to encephalopathy, which can happen when someone takes too much medication or is exposed to a toxic substance. Encephalopathy can cause various symptoms, including changes in mental status, seizures, and problems with movement. Treatment for encephalopathy depends on the underlying cause. Treatment will focus on clearing the infection if the reason is a UTI. If the cause is radiation therapy, treatment will focus on managing the side effects of the radiation. If the cause is drug intoxication, treatment will focus on removing the offending substance and supporting the person through detoxification.
Encephalopathy is a broad term used to describe any deterioration in brain function. This can manifest as a change in mental status, cognitive function, or motor function. UTIs and radiation therapy are two possible causes of encephalopathy. UTIs are a common cause of encephalopathy, especially in the elderly. The most common symptom of a UTI is a change in mental status, which can include confusion, delirium, and dementia. Radiation therapy can also cause encephalopathy, typically as a result of damage to the blood vessels in the brain. This can lead to a stroke or other brain injury. Encephalopathy can be a severe condition with potentially devastating consequences. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcomes. Nutrition care is an integral part of treating encephalopathy and can help prevent or mitigate the condition.
The article by (Wand et al., 2021) is a review article that discusses the etiology, management, and prevention of radiation therapy-associated toxicity. The article by (Kato et al., 2021)is a case report of a patient with hyperammonemia encephalopathy associated with post-radiotherapy vesicointestinal fistula. Additionally, an article by (Kumar et al., 2021)is a case report of a patient with primary myelofibrosis who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) while on ruxolitinib. The article by (Mauerma et al., 2020) is a case report of a patient with a summertime stupor.
All the articles discuss the potential for radiation therapy to cause toxicity, including encephalopathy. They discuss specific cases of patients who developed encephalopathy after radiation therapy, while the (Kato et al., 2021) article discusses the potential etiology and consequences of radiation therapy-associated toxicity. There is a wide range of research methodologies used in these articles. The articles are a study that compares the dosimetric differences between two types of radiation therapy. Overall, these articles suggest that radiation therapy can cause a variety of toxicities, including encephalopathy. Radiation therapy-associated toxicity should be considered when patients develop encephalopathy after radiation therapy.
The literature reviewed demonstrates that UTIs and radiation therapy may help to cause acute encephalopathy. The significant contributions of the articles reviewed are that UTIs may lead to sepsis, which can then lead to encephalopathy, and that radiation therapy may also lead to encephalopathy. However, there are some flaws in the experimental design, including the lack of a control group, which makes it difficult to determine the true efficacy of the dietary intervention. In addition, there are some inconsistencies in the outcomes reported, which may be due to the small sample size of the studies. The overall strengths of the literature reviewed are that it provides a comprehensive overview of the potential causes of acute encephalopathy and the potential treatments for the condition.
Kato, K., Okumura, K., Suzuki, S., Matsuyama, A., Hirabayashi, H., & Hattori, R. (2021). Hyperammonemic encephalopathy associated with post‐radiotherapy vesicointestinal fistula following cervical cancer. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 47(8), 2790-2793. https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.14865
Kumar, S. S., Nagesh, V. K., Sivakolundu, K. P., Ali, B., & Sange, I. (2021). Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) in a Patient With Primary Myelofibrosis on Ruxolitinib. Cureus, 13(9). https://www.cureus.com/articles/69553-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-in-a-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis-on-ruxolitinib
Mauerman, K., Durojaye, S., & Sridharan, G. K. (2020). A Summertime Stupor. Cureus, 12(5). https://www.cureus.com/articles/31823-a-summertime-stupor
Wang, K., & Tepper, J. E. (2021). Radiation therapy‐associated toxicity: Etiology, management, and prevention. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 71(5), 437-454. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21689
Yondorf, M. Z., Faraz, S., Smith, A., Sabbas, A., Parashar, B., Schwartz, T., & Wernicke, A. G. (2020). Dosimetric differences between cesium-131 and iodine-125 brachytherapy for the treatment of resected brain metastases. Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy, 12(4), 311-316. https://www.termedia.pl/Dosimetric-differences-between-cesium-131-and-iodine-125-brachytherapy-for-the-treatment-of-resected-brain-metastases,54,41561,0,1.html
Zambrano, M. D., & Miller, E. C. (2019). Maternal stroke: an update. Current atherosclerosis reports, 21(9), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-019-0798-2