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Levels of Prevention in Public Health Scenarios

Preclusion is serious in public health because it reduces illness burden and improves general well-being. There are three tiers of prevention policies: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Each level attention to a contrasting stage of illness beginning or development. In this manuscript, we will look at three examples for each level of anticipation to determine how they might be pragmatic in real-world circumstances.

Primary Prevention:

Crucial inhibition is concerned with averting a disease or destruction before it occurs. It stresses health advancement and risk reduction techniques to protect individuals and the public from impending health dangers.

Scenario 1 – Childhood Immunization

Consider the following scenario: a local health department is endeavoring to avoid an outbreak of infectious diseases, such as measles, in a community (McMahon et al., 2009). Primary prevention entails ensuring that all suitable children receive their injections according to the prescribed schedule. The health service hopes to develop herd immunity and reduce the likelihood of an outbreak by offering immunization clinics, informational campaigns, and vaccine obtainability.

Scenario 2 – Smoking Cessation Programs

In another instance, a global firm understands the detrimental significance of smoking on its employees’ health and wishes to promote a smoke-free workstation (Simmons et al., 2007). Fulfilling smoking cessation programs, providing extra nicotine medicines, and directing awareness campaigns to dissuade employee smoking initiation would be primary preventative tactics. The corporation hopes to prevent smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer and heart disease by addressing the root cause (smoking) and endorsing a healthy lifestyle.

Scenario 3 – Safe Sex Education in Schools

The primary goal in a high school setting is to avoid teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). In this case, primary prevention is applying comprehensive sexual education programs that teach students about safe sex practices, contraception practices, and the value of consent (Bleakley et al., 2006). The school hopes to reduce the number of unpremeditated pregnancies and STIs among its students by providing teenagers with the knowledge and skills they need to make educated verdicts about their sexual health. Early discovery and intervention are critical mechanisms of secondary prevention. It seeks to detect diseases or health disorders in their early stages in order to prevent their progress and complications.

Secondary Prevention:

Cancer Screening Programs (Scenario 1)

A communal hospital is addressing cancer. They begin secondary anticipation by providing high-risk groups with standard cancer screening programs, such as mammograms for women over 40 to detect breast cancer early or colonoscopies for people over 50 to detect colorectal cancer in its early stages. Early discovery of cancer, when it is more curable, enhances the chances of effective management and improves patient outcomes.

Scenario 2 – Routine Blood Pressure Monitoring

Healthcare workers in a primary care clinic want to prevent hypertension problems. Secondary pre-emptive procedures are used, such as commonly checking patients’ blood pressure during check-ups. When high blood pressure is discovered, patients can get prompt interpositions such as existence changes or capsules to help them avoid developing hazardous illnesses such as heart disease or stroke.

Scenario 3 – Mental Health Screening in Schools

A school region is concerned about its pupils’ mental health. To address this, they systematically use secondary prevention by gauging all students’ mental health. By recognizing early indicators of mental health complications such as depression or anxiety, the school may give suitable support, counseling, and involvement to prevent these issues from deteriorating into more serious mental diseases.

Tertiary Preventive Measures:

Tertiary prevention is concerned with handling and weakening the effects of pre-existing diseases or injuries to avoid problems, injuries, and further worsening of health.

Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

A patient in a hospital has had a heart attack and is delivery treatment. Enrolling the patient in a cardiac reintegration program serves as tertiary prevention. This program consists of exercise, dietary advice, and emotional support to assist the patient in maintaining physical strength, preventing future heart problems, and improving their overall quality of life.


Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2015). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community. Elsevier Health Sciences.

McMahon, B. J., Dentinger, C. M., Bruden, D., Zanis, C., Peters, H., Hurlburt, D., … & Hennessy, T. W. (2009). Antibody levels and protection after hepatitis B vaccine: results of a 22-year follow-up study and response to a booster dose. The Journal of Infectious Diseases200(9), 1390–1396.

Simmons, V. N., & Brandon, T. H. (2007). Secondary smoking prevention in a university setting: a randomized comparison of an experiential, theory-based intervention and a standard didactic intervention for increasing cessation motivation. Health Psychology26(3), 268.

Bleakley, A., Hennessy, M., & Fishbein, M. (2006). Public opinion on sex education in US schools. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine160(11), 1151–1156.


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