Numerous leadership approaches can be implemented in the hospital reconstruction project to enhance successful project delivery. The first leadership approach is participatory leadership, which involves including all the project stakeholders in making vital decisions about the project. This leadership approach improves awareness of the project by the stakeholders and encourages them to offer their contributions (Deal and Kennedy). Again, this leadership approach increases their morale. Barnard can make sure that all stakeholders undergo counseling, training, and development to understand what needs to be done to complete the project successfully. Again, she can prioritize keeping them informed and developing them to contribute to the project’s decision-making. Listening to the contributions of every stakeholder boosts their morale, which facilitates a free flow of ideas and increased collaboration.
Another leadership approach Barnard can implement is value-based leadership to ensure all stakeholders understand a common set of values. Due to the prevalent corruption on the island, Barnard needs to enforce beliefs that every person in the project must follow. By having everyone involved in the project share a set of beliefs, they can work together, which improves productivity. In this instance, Barnard should set a direction for the project, create a proactive project culture and expand opportunities for all stakeholders. This is because Barnard can attract new stakeholders, as suggested by Fernandez. These stakeholders should have the same values and beliefs.
By implementing value-based leadership in this project, stakeholders will have stronger relationships as they trust each other. When people of the island see this trend of beliefs, they can trust the project to deliver results. Again, this leadership approach will improve communication between the leaders of the project and the agencies offering their help (Handy). Again, this form of leadership ensures that project stakeholders are satisfied with their roles, increasing their productivity. With an aligned set of beliefs, stakeholders work better together and achieve the project goals quickly.
A transformational leadership approach can also boost the success of the hospital reconstruction project. Transformational leadership creates stimulating goals for all the team players to accomplish challenging project purposes. In this leadership approach, the project’s overall goals and precise aims are set, leaving team participants subjected to a target setting. As a result, they will actively plan activities that can provide specific ways to achieve project objectives. Barnard, who is great at communication, can enforce this with other team members to ensure they understand their specific roles in the project. Communication can ensure that all stakeholders involved in implementing the project understand and agree on the project’s timetables, budgets, and output (Mankin). In the hospital reconstruction project, Barnard as a leader utilizing this approach, can promote positive working relationships, increased engagement, and solidarity to ensure the project’s success is guaranteed. This is because the team participants offer their maximal potential to ensure the project is completed.
Transactional leadership is another leadership approach that Barnard should implement during the hospital reconstruction project. This leadership approach is mainly used in managing international projects, which applies to this project, as it is getting support from international agencies and countries (Northolt). As a transactional leader, Barnard can implement rules and regulations to be followed during the project. Such rules include the deadline of the project and the delivery of supplies in an organized way. This is essential in the hospital reconstruction project as supplies come from different agencies and organizations.
For this leadership approach to work on this project, the working environment should be well structured and directed by the leader. Barnard can use rewards and penalties for everyone working on the project to ensure they meet the required deadlines. Project workers who do not perform well are penalized, showing other team members what will happen if they do the same (Handy). This leadership approach can work great for this project as it is urgent and is meant to manage a crisis. Barnard can use contingent rewards to inspire team members to offer optimal performance. Again, she can set clear goals and predefined workflows with strict guidelines and regulations. This leadership is highly convenient for the hospital reconstruction project as it needs to be completed as soon as possible to prevent the further spread of COVID-19.
Barnard should also implement varying human capital management tools to enhance successful project delivery. One of these tools is the Workday Human Capital Management Tool, which offers one set of international capabilities. When using the Workday HCM tool, Barnard should regularly allocate people to streamline the project objectives. This will ensure that the HCM tool will meet the project’s current needs. The backbone of Workday is project processes, and if these processes are aligned, the smooth functioning of this tool is enhanced (Northhouse). Barnard can also use the project management software in Workday to connect funds, expenses, human capital management, and time tracking. All these functions can be completed in one solution. As a result, it becomes easier for the project leader to plan, track and manage the project. The leader can also use this tool to allocate roles to team members effectively.
Since Barnard is facing an issue on whether to hire Fernandez’s team or follow the guidelines set in hiring people to work on the project, she can use Workday to find the right people to work on the project by choosing talent based on the skill set and competencies. Again, she can use this tool to manage the project resources by assessing staffing needs and comparing team members in one place. Again, she can use this tool to track every cost as the financials and expenses are in the same system as the hospital renovation project, making accounting and reporting easier and more direct. Therefore, using the Workday HCM tool can streamline processes and speed up the completion of the project.
Again, Barnard can use the Kronos Workforce Central tool, which focuses on large workforce management. The hospital renovation project is going to need a large workforce, meaning this tool will come in handy. The Kronos Workforce tool allows project leaders to successfully work with a team and deliver a unique and valuable project (Kotter). This tool will allow Barnard to focus on the scope of the project and determine the time needed to deliver the specific requirements of the project. Again, the tool can help the project leader effectively plan the cost of all the resources needed to successfully deliver the project. The Kronos tool describes all the project engagement parameters by creating a pact between the sponsors of the project and the project team.
Competing Stakeholder Agendas
There are competing stakeholder agendas highlighted in this case. For instance, Juliet Barnard, who has been appointed as the project manager for the hospital reconstruction project, is not in agreement with other stakeholders of the project. The United Nations Development Program, led by Sue Fernandez, is another stakeholder in the project seeking to work with civil society groups on the island and implement projects aimed at risk reduction. Another competing stakeholder in the project is the OCDDP, headed by the project coordinator Victor Ferreira. Ferreira, unlike Barnard, thinks that they should not wait for funding of the project from USAID. Ferreira also wants to personally recommend which builders and suppliers should be hired, which is something Barnard is against. Fernandez also believes that her team and effort are better than Barnard’s team. Fernandez also has access to sufficient funding that can be provided for the project within a few days. Fernandez also has access to the resources needed to speed up the vaccination program on the island. The island’s political opposition party leader is also a competing stakeholder. He believes the current governor is incompetent in delivering quality medical care to the island’s citizens.
If effective communication is not implemented during the project, all the above competing stakeholder agendas might lead to delays in the project. Barnard, who is a great communicator, must find a way to work with all these stakeholders to manage the crisis, manage the differences in their interests and obtain their dedication to work on the hospital reconstruction project. A great way effective communication can solve competing agendas is by leveraging expertise. Barnard, Fernandez, and Ferreira bring expertise, knowledge, and perspectives about the project. This is the major source of their conflict. Barnard can use effective communication to demonstrate how everyone’s contributions to the project are appreciated. She can also frequently encourage them to participate in contributing to the project further.
Effective communication can also ensure that everyone in this project makes the right decisions. During a COVID-19 outbreak that is causing confusion and frustration among team players, the problem-solving decisions made might only address the immediate problems, which in this case are caused by corruption and ignore the root cause of the problem. By including every stakeholder in the problem communication of the project, decisions that are made benefit the entire project. Again, effective communication among the stakeholders of the project can enhance the solving of complex project issues (Kotter). To achieve the project’s desired outcome, complex operational problems must be solved. Barnard must use communication to coordinate the activities of all the stakeholders involved and ensure that available resources are utilized efficiently.
Additionally, Barnard can prevent conflicts or the repetition of challenges by maintaining effective communication with the stakeholders. Through effective communication, every stakeholder understands what is going on and their specific responsibilities (Jabri). When working on the hospital reconstruction project, the stakeholders must analyze different scenarios, develop alternatives, make the right decisions, and institute actions that enhance successful project delivery. This is a process that provides a lot of knowledge and insight about the project. This knowledge can prevent the crisis that is happening on the island from ever happening again. The best way to achieve this is through effective communication among all stakeholders.
Since Fernandez and Ferreira believe they are better equipped to handle the situation, Barnard must use her communication skills to show them she is actually qualified to be the leader of the project. She can achieve this by ensuring that her communications towards the stakeholders are deliberate, timely, and thoughtful. She should also make sure that she frequently communicates different aspects of the project to the stakeholders. This can reduce the level of pressure put on Barnard. Barnard should develop communication goals that boost mutual understanding and collaboration. By setting team communication goals, the challenges of the team’s communication are clearly defined. As a result, the team leader can see which areas of the project need improvement and find effective solutions.
Another way Barnard can use her communication skills to solve the competing agendas is by seeking professional help. Since the funding is coming from international organizations, Barnard can explain the issues she is facing with other stakeholders and seek the help of a professional that has dealt with the same issue before. Such a professional can inspire all the stakeholders to be involved in the project. Again, this is a great way for Barnard to avoid spending too much time figuring out solutions to every new issue she encounters. Effective communication also portrays respect to every stakeholder in the project (Mello). Effective communication keeps communication productive and streamlined. It respectfully uses constructive criticism when opinions are different. Effective communication during the project will help all stakeholders build a common purpose, which will help them achieve the intended goal. Frequent communication will also help the stakeholders strengthen their relationships.
The quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic on the island has posed questions about the current informed consent standards, which is an ethical implication. It is hard for patients to understand certain issues in a clinical setting. Such issues may include postponing the handling of people with disorders that are not COVID-19 and obtaining of vaccines, devices, and investigational treatments by patients (Jabri). The treatment of COVID-19 requires the quick making of decisions, and some of the temporary hospitals set up on the island are overwhelmed with patients in need of urgent care. This has limited the time needed to communicate valuable information. As a result, patients may not be able to discuss consent forms with their loved ones. Most hospitals also prevent visitors, and patients who cannot consent may face certain challenges. Wider public health benefits, protecting healthcare providers from risks, and the competing of other patients to limited resources may outweigh patients’ or family’s wishes to obtain informed consent.
Another ethical implication of this project is outsourcing. USAID-funded projects have clear commissioning procedures that must be followed to promote transparency. However, the island’s governor intends to bring his own builders and suppliers. Therefore, outsourcing is an ethical implication that puts pressure on Barnard to monitor and maintain high-quality standards during the entire project. A great way to prevent the stigma against outsourcing is utilizing ethical sourcing. Barnard should ensure that the supplies needed for the project are obtained in a sustainable and responsible manner. Through ethical sourcing, she can mitigate risks and save the island’s reputation, which is already tarnished by the constant corruption.
Corruption is another ethical implication of the hospital renovation project. Despite getting help from international institutions, the governor and stakeholders assigned to work on this project still want to fulfill their personal agendas. Years of corruption on the island have led to the lack of emergency response to the floods and the quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. A great way for Barnard to ensure corruption does not continue during the project is by working with all the stakeholders involved. By working together, she can easily initiate a change in behavior and monitor the project’s progress.
Allocating scarce resources is another ethical implication of this project. The main hospital on the island is being reconstructed, and there have been temporary hospitals set up to take care of COVID-19 patients. However, these hospitals are scarce, and only a few patients can access quality healthcare. The ethical guidance that governs the allocation of scarce resources focuses on determining who has higher chances of benefiting (Hayes). Defining benefit, in this case, is condemned on the grounds of disability discrimination. The system on the island disadvantages patients based on age, underlying health issues, and disabilities that may contribute to a shorter life. A great way to address the allocating of limited resources is by encouraging community engagement. Community engagement enhances respect for people in the community, encouraging reciprocated trust and shared responsibility between the hospitals, the people they treat, and communities.
Barnard must utilize diplomacy during the project. It may be tempting for her to take the easy route and bow to the pressure of the most influential stakeholders, in this case, the governor, Fernandez, and Ferreira. However, she should maintain openness and righteousness when determining the impact of major decisions on all stakeholders. She should also utilize conflict resolution techniques to reach the optimal decision involving all shareholders. Again, Barnard must establish and document the interest of every stakeholder and set boundary conditions in advance. Barnard must find a way to get the support of every stakeholder in the project because none of them want to cooperate with her. Barnard must also use her communication skills to promote a culture of openness as this will prevent corruption and other ethical issues and enhance the successful delivery of the project.
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