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Journal Article Review: Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behavior, Organization’s Mission and Employees Job Performance by Aishahal Dhanhani and nor Abdullah

Type of Research and Study Variables

The journal article by Aishahal Dhanhani and Nor Abdullah is a case study that applies field research to understand an event, situation, people, or activity. A case study refers to in-depth and detailed research carried out in a specific context to gather information about people, activities, events, or situations (Cherry, 2022). Aisha, Dhanhani, and Nor Abdullah conducted an applied Abu Dhabi National Company as a case study for their study (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). Case studies are usually conducted on real-life experiences and help compare findings to a certain theory in the field. This case study aims to learn as much as possible about the relationship between transformational leadership behavior, the organization’s mission, and employees’ performance in Abu Dhabi National Company. In field research, onsite observation is required to support data collection.

The study applied both dependent, independent, and mediating variables. Employees’ job performance formed the dependent variables, while leadership behavior was used as the independent variable. The study focused on both the observed variables and latent variables. Observed variables can be measured and include people, departments, and technology. Latent variables cannot be observed, including attitudes, intentions, and beliefs. The study applied the Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) model to help researchers construct the relationships between observed and unobserved variables in the study (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). The organizational mission was applied as a mediating variable. The researchers understood that the connection between dependent and independent variables could not be sufficient to understand the relationships. The researchers used a variable mission to mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and the performance of the employees.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership style and the performance of employees (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). The study focused on Abu Dhabi National Company as the case study to understand the existing relationship between leadership style and employees’ job performance.

Significance of the Study

The study contributes to the literature on the relationship between the type of leadership style and employee performance. Transformational leadership is considered one of the most effective strategies to support individual outcomes in achieving superior results. According to Jatin Pandey, transformational leadership helps organizations achieve a competitive advantage against competitors, yet it is the least explored (Pandey, 2019). The study’s implication is to help organizations examine the role of transformational leadership in achieving their mission objectives. The research used a Partial least squares-structural equation modeling model to analyze the relationships. A PLS-SEM was suitable for this study because it supports multiple analyses of variables. It estimates the relationships and strengths of latent and observed variables (METHODSPACE, 2021). These relationships are useful in helping managers understand the forces that influence the performance of employees concerning a leadership style. The study provides leaders and managers with guidance on best practices for promoting employees’ performance. Not just for oil and gas managers, the study guides other managers on the best ways to build and develop the best traits proven to work in any industry.

However, the study is limited in terms of data collection methods. Specifically, the researchers relied on a cross-sectional study alone. The researchers carried out their observational activity at a single point in time to examine the between transformational leadership style and the performance of the employees (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). It is, therefore, difficult to determine whether the same results could be obtained in the future. There would be a possibility of different findings if the chosen design were longitudinal instead of cross-sectional. The researchers relied heavily on the survey technique and did not take an opportunity to triangulate the study’s outcome with other methods. However, the methodology applied was justified because additional methods could not have aligned with the study’s objectives.

Description of the Literature cited in the study

The researchers relied on secondary resource materials in their literature reviews. Most of the literature applied included journal articles and books. The study applied the works of Northouse 2012, Jiang et al. (2017), Kala’Lembang et al. (2015), Bass and Avolio (1999), Al-Tit (2017), and Kalaiarasi and Sethuram (2016) for the literature review. The researchers applied Northouse’s book, ‘Leadership’ to explain transformational leadership. According to Northouse, transformational leadership focuses on improving the values of employees (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). The study also examined the impact of transformational leadership on employees’ job performance through the works of Jiang et al. (2017). Jiang et al. (2017) studied how transformational leadership shapes the performance of employees using a sample of three hundred and eight-nine employees. In their findings, Jiang, Zhao, and Ni found that transformational leadership positively affects employees’ job performance.

The study applied the transformational leadership theory from the works of Bass and Avolio (1999). According to Bass and Avolio (1999), transformational leadership is a leadership approach that positively influences an individual and society through change. The researchers wanted to understand the effect of organizational culture on organizational performance. The article by Al-Tit (2017) and Kalaiarasi and Sethuram (2016) was selected to provide insight into the role of organizational culture on employee performance. Kala’Lembang et al. (2015) investigation on the effect of transformational leadership and organization helped the researchers to demystify the indirect and direct role of transformational leadership. Dhanhani and Abdullah were also interested in understanding the indirect role of transformational leadership when organizational culture is used as the mediating variable. The researchers used a sample of three hundred respondents to show that an indirect relationship existed between transformational leadership and performance, with organizational culture as the mediating variable.

Data Collection Method

A survey method was used as the data collection method. The survey method focused on collecting primary data from four hundred and fifty pre-selected respondents from Abu Dhabi National Company. As proposed by the research, a research design implies a set of procedures to develop and establish knowledge in a particular field. For this reason, the researchers disseminated survey questionnaires to selected respondents using the mail. The questionnaires were prepared in a close-ended format to support data analysis. A five-point Likert scale was applied to support respondents in selecting the response that best matches their options. Specifically, respondents were required to give feedback based on their agreement level with a statement. The scale was designed to give quantitative value to qualitative data when measuring the degree of agreement with a statement. The study’s data were ordinal and therefore relied on descriptive statistics to arrive at the findings. The analysis categorized the relationships into strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022).

Findings and Conclusion

Findings from the study indicate a positive relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ job performance. The researchers cited improved job performance when the transformational leader applied intrinsic motivation toward employees’ performance. The results show a mediating role of the organizational mission in the relationship between leadership behavior and job performance (Dhanhani & Abdullah, 2022). An organization’s mission played as a significant variable in determining whether or not employees are achieving the organization’s goals. A leader who leads his subjects with a transformational mindset that aligns with the organizational goals is more likely to make employees more engaged, committed, and loyal to the organization. The findings are consistent with the findings of Jiang et al., who proposed a positive effect of transformational leadership on employees’ job performance.

In conclusion, the article provides useful information for understanding the relationship between leadership style and the performance of employees. The study applies the works of Northouse 2012, Jiang et al. (2017), Kala’Lembang et al. (2015), Bass and Avolio (1999), Al-Tit (2017), and Kalaiarasi and Sethuram (2016), who covered related work. The study applies empirical methods, where the researchers collect and measures data before comparing it with the existing theory. The researchers used survey methods to collect data to understand the transformational leadership theory. A Likert model was best suited for the study and helped the research measures the level of agreement among respondents to the statements. Although the study applies a cross-sectional research technique, there may be different findings if the design was longitudinal. Findings from this study provided empirical evidence that contributes useful information to existing literature. The study results would benefit organizations in their choice of leadership styles to support their missions and objectives.


Dhanhani, A. & Abdullah, N. (2022).”The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Behavior, Organization’s Mission and Employees Job Performance of Abu Dhabi National Company,” Journal of Human Resources Management Research, Vol. 2022 (2022), Article ID 952320, DOI: 10.5171/2022.952320

Cherry, K. (2022). What is a case study? Verywellmind.

Pandey, J. (2019). Factors Affecting Job Performance: An Integrative Review of Literature. Management Research Review, 42(2), 263-289

METHODSPACE. (2021). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: An Emerging Tool in Research. Sage.,and%20its%20relaxed%20data%20requirements.

Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage Publications

Jiang, W., Zhao, X., & Ni, J. (2017). The impact of transformational leadership on employee sustainable performance: The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(9),

Kala’Lembang, A & Soetjipto, Budi Eko & , Sutrisno. (2015). Transformational leadership and organizational culture affects employees’ working performance through organizational commitment. 13. 5305-5322

Bass and Avolio (1999). Two decades of research and transformational journal of development leadership. European work and organizational psychology, 8(1), 9- 32.

Al-Tit, A. A. (2017). Factors Affecting the Organizational Performance of Manufacturing Firms. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, p. 9, 1847979017712628.

Kalaiarasi, M. V., & Sethuram (2016). Literature Review on Organization Culture and Its Influence. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Management, 9-14.


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