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Insanity Flaws in the Legal System

This paper discusses the flaws in the Texas death penalty statute that allow a person as mentally ill as Andre Thomas to be sentenced to death. Andre Thomas was a teenage father with a history of multigenerational mental illness, poverty, and abuse. When the mother of his child left him, he became suicidal and was committed to a mental hospital (Bookman, 2013). Psychiatrists determined he was severely mentally ill. When no one was watching, he walked off.

The insanity defense is common in instances like this. It acts as a shielding mechanism when a person’s mental illness prevents them from expertise in the character or outcomes of their movements (Dewi, 2020). The madness defense, utilized in the diffusion of historical contexts, is based totally on the perception of a lack of duty. The M’Naghten rule is the maximum widely well-known definition of insanity and is used in many jurisdictions nowadays. Segment 8.01 of the Texas Penal Code describes the regulations governing madness (DeMatteo et al., 2022). An extreme mental illness or defect, in line with this clause, is an affirmative protection to prosecution if the defendant was unaware that their conduct became wrong at the time of the act.

However, being insane is a tough fashionable to prove. The offender has to demonstrate that they had a severe mental disease or disability that prevented them from understanding their wrong moves (Dewi, 2020). As a result, the defendant suffers if they act or say something that suggests they had been aware that what they had been doing turned into the wrong (Bookman, 2013). In Texas, voluntary drunkenness is also not a defense; therefore, a person who committed a crime while high or intoxicated cannot use insanity as a defense. This is a serious problem in the system since drugs greatly impact how people think.

Doctor specialists for the prosecution contended throughout the trial that Thomas’s personality problem rather than a serious mental condition was to blame for his acts. While the prosecution contended that Thomas knew the gravity of his actions and their repercussions, the defense maintained that a profound mental disorder rendered him incapable of comprehending their significance (Bookman, 2013). Unfortunately, the final decision rested with the jury, who lacked the expertise to navigate complex mental health issues and render a sound judgment. This highlights a critical flaw in the system, making it challenging for jurors to grasp intricate mental health matters and arrive at informed decisions. It is unreasonable to assume that judges lacking mental health expertise comprehend the intricacies of such instances (DeMatteo et al., 2022). Figuring out and treating intellectual illnesses fall within the domain of intellectual health professionals who have passed through years of human conduct and psychology schooling. Unfortunately, jurors typically lack such knowledge and are often more prone to rendering decisions based on their emotions (Dewi, 2020). The verdict in a case can be skewed if the jury’s man or woman viewpoints and subjective reviews are given extra weight than the relevant, genuine evidence.

Following a verdict, a jury must decide whether to impose a life sentence or the demise penalty. Knowing the nuances of the defendant’s mental illness and how it may have affected their behavior throughout the crime is important for the jury to have (Dewi, 2020). A decision primarily based on misconceptions or stereotypes instead of real case information may result from a lack of understanding regarding the defendant’s intellectual state. Examining the current device that places choices approximately mental health within the arms of the jury is vital to make certain impartiality and sound judgment for all events worried. Andre’s defense relied on an insanity plea, arguing that he was not responsible for his actions due to his mental illness (DeMatteo et al., 2022). However, in Texas, voluntary intoxication is not an insanity defense, and the prosecution argued that Andre was well aware he was behaving wrongly, pointing to his history of mental illness apart from any substance abuse.

Despite the protection’s arguments, the jury rejected Andre’s madness plea, and he was discovered guilty and sentenced to loss of life. This judgment shows a flaw since no direct interpretation of insanity (Dewi, 2020). The law describes the conditions of Texas’s death penalty, which is not designed for rehabilitation and in which inmates spend maximum in their time in solitary confinement. Notwithstanding being recognized with paranoid schizophrenia on the loss of life row, Andre was still dealt with as a risky crook, and skeptics showed that he faked his mental illness (Bookman, 2013). The textual content indicates that while the prosecution argued that Andre’s crimes resulted from voluntary intoxication, his intellectual illness became a great element in his moves.

Many legal systems worldwide rely on a jury of ordinary citizens to determine a case’s outcome. This approach aims to uphold equity and neutrality. However, there are concerns that jurors without sufficient knowledge of the case’s facts or legal framework might jeopardize the process’s legitimacy (Dewi, 2020). A potential risk of uninformed jurors is that they may arrive at a verdict based on incomplete information, which could have significant and unfair consequences, particularly in cases that involve individuals with mental illness. Jurors may also lack expertise in insanity for an expansion of reasons. First, the majority has a confined understanding of mental illness’s complexity and multifaceted nature. It is feasible that the jury may have preconceived notions or stereotypes about mental illness, including the notion that people suffering from it are violent or unpredictable (DeMatteo et al., 2022). These prejudices may also impact their judgment, causing them to attain conclusions unsupported by the evidence provided in the court docket.

The jury frequently does not have enough information concerning the defendant’s mental capacity. There can be a call for expert testimony on mental health, but their testimony may be convoluted and hard for the jury to realize (Dewi, 2020). Moreover, there is a threat that jurors might not have enough time to method this data thoroughly and use it in their decision-making. The defendant’s mental illness might not have been disclosed to the jury or will not be properly recognized in a few situations. Decisions made by uninformed jurors in cases concerning mental illness can have dire repercussions. In some circumstances, if the jury feels the defendant is mentally sick, they will be more inclined to convict them or propose a harsher punishment (DeMatteo et al., 2022). This will bring about false convictions, unfair punishments, and the death penalty.

To forestall the unjustified execution of humans with intellectual ailments, it is imperative to deal with those issues. Enhancing juror training and training regarding mental health is one potential answer (Dewi, 2020). This could entail informing jurors of the truth and the full recent information regarding the superiority of mental illness and its outcomes on cognition and behavior. Additionally, jurors could obtain guidance on examining the testimony of intellectual health professionals and follow this understanding to their deliberations. Another alternative is to ensure mental health professionals have sufficient time and resources to testify and explain their conclusions to jurors (DeMatteo et al., 2022). This could entail making the manner for getting mental health assessments more efficient and giving professionals the time and equipment they want to prepare their testimony in a manner this is understandable and available to jurors.

In conclusion, The Andre Thomas case, in particular, highlights the flaws in Texas’s death penalty system that allow mentally ill defendants to receive a death sentence. The insanity defense has a very strict legal definition and is challenging to prove. The fact that uninformed jurors render the final decision is a significant flaw in the system. Addressing these issues is essential to preventing the execution of individuals with mental illnesses without justification. Thomas, who had a history of abuse, poverty, and mental illness, performed a heinous crime, and his excessive mental illness was discovered at some point in the trial. While the insanity defense is common protection in such instances, it is difficult to show. The defendant must demonstrate that they had an extreme mental condition or incapacity that prevented them from knowing their moves were wrong. Sadly, the final verdict rests with the jury, who lack the knowledge to navigate complex mental health problems and arrive at informed selections. It is critical to look at the modern-day system that locations decisions about intellectual health in the arms of the jury to make certain impartiality and sound judgment for all events concerned.


Bookman, M. (2013, February 12). How crazy is too crazy to be executed? Mother Jones. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from

DeMatteo, D., Krauss, D. A., Fishel, S., & Wiltsie, K. (2022). The United States Supreme Court’s enduring misunderstanding of insanity. NML Rev., 52, 34.

Dewi, P. A. P. (2020). Proving The Insanity Defense in The Enforcement of Criminal Law in Indonesia. Jurnal Dinamika Hukum, 19(3), 670-690.


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